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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4913, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004813

RESUMO

Reprograming of proline metabolism is critical for tumor growth. Here we show that PINCH-1 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma and promotes proline synthesis through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Knockout (KO) of PINCH-1 increases dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, which suppresses kindlin-2 mitochondrial translocation and interaction with pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), resulting in inhibition of proline synthesis and cell proliferation. Depletion of DRP1 reverses PINCH-1 deficiency-induced defects on mitochondrial dynamics, proline synthesis and cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of PYCR1 in PINCH-1 KO cells restores proline synthesis and cell proliferation, and suppresses DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation. Finally, ablation of PINCH-1 from lung adenocarcinoma in mouse increases DRP1 expression and inhibits PYCR1 expression, proline synthesis, fibrosis and tumor growth. Our results identify a signaling axis consisting of PINCH-1, DRP1 and PYCR1 that regulates mitochondrial dynamics and proline synthesis, and suggest an attractive strategy for alleviation of tumor growth.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prolina/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Pirrolina Carboxilato Redutases/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4666, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938943

RESUMO

Intercalated discs (ICD), specific cell-to-cell contacts that connect adjacent cardiomyocytes, ensure mechanical and electrochemical coupling during contraction of the heart. Mutations in genes encoding ICD components are linked to cardiovascular diseases. Here, we show that loss of Xinß, a newly-identified component of ICDs, results in cardiomyocyte proliferation defects and cardiomyopathy. We uncovered a role for Xinß in signaling via the Hippo-YAP pathway by recruiting NF2 to the ICD to modulate cardiac function. In Xinß mutant hearts levels of phosphorylated NF2 are substantially reduced, suggesting an impairment of Hippo-YAP signaling. Cardiac-specific overexpression of YAP rescues cardiac defects in Xinß knock-out mice-indicating a functional and genetic interaction between Xinß and YAP. Our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which cardiac-expressed intercalated disc protein Xinß modulates Hippo-YAP signaling to control heart development and cardiac function in a tissue specific manner. Consequently, this pathway may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Comunicação Celular , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ventrículos do Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Neurofibromina 2/genética , Neurofibromina 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000848, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898131

RESUMO

Improper lengths of actin-thin filaments are associated with altered contractile activity and lethal myopathies. Leiomodin, a member of the tropomodulin family of proteins, is critical in thin filament assembly and maintenance; however, its role is under dispute. Using nuclear magnetic resonance data and molecular dynamics simulations, we generated the first atomic structural model of the binding interface between the tropomyosin-binding site of cardiac leiomodin and the N-terminus of striated muscle tropomyosin. Our structural data indicate that the leiomodin/tropomyosin complex only forms at the pointed end of thin filaments, where the tropomyosin N-terminus is not blocked by an adjacent tropomyosin protomer. This discovery provides evidence supporting the debated mechanism where leiomodin and tropomodulin regulate thin filament lengths by competing for thin filament binding. Data from experiments performed in cardiomyocytes provide additional support for the competition model; specifically, expression of a leiomodin mutant that is unable to interact with tropomyosin fails to displace tropomodulin at thin filament pointed ends and fails to elongate thin filaments. Together with previous structural and biochemical data, we now propose a molecular mechanism of actin polymerization at the pointed end in the presence of bound leiomodin. In the proposed model, the N-terminal actin-binding site of leiomodin can act as a "swinging gate" allowing limited actin polymerization, thus making leiomodin a leaky pointed-end cap. Results presented in this work answer long-standing questions about the role of leiomodin in thin filament length regulation and maintenance.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/química , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/química , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Capeamento de Actina/química , Proteínas de Capeamento de Actina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/química , Actinas/química , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/química , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Ratos , Sarcômeros/metabolismo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19376-19387, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719140

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Emerging evidence suggests that small-molecule metabolites derived from bacterial breakdown of a variety of dietary nutrients confer a wide array of host benefits, including amelioration of inflammation in IBDs. Yet, in many cases, the molecular pathways targeted by these molecules remain unknown. Here, we describe roles for three metabolites-indole-3-ethanol, indole-3-pyruvate, and indole-3-aldehyde-which are derived from gut bacterial metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan, in regulating intestinal barrier function. We determined that these metabolites protect against increased gut permeability associated with a mouse model of colitis by maintaining the integrity of the apical junctional complex and its associated actin regulatory proteins, including myosin IIA and ezrin, and that these effects are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Our studies provide a deeper understanding of how gut microbial metabolites affect host defense mechanisms and identify candidate pathways for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for IBDs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Células CACO-2 , Colite Ulcerativa/dietoterapia , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miosina não Muscular Tipo IIA/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Triptofano/administração & dosagem
5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F284-F291, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686524

RESUMO

Podocyte dysfunction contributes to proteinuric chronic kidney disease. A number of key proteins are essential for podocyte function, including nephrin, podocin, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), synaptopodin, and α-actinin-4 (ACTN4). Although most of these proteins were first identified through genetic studies associated with human kidney disease, subsequent studies have identified phosphorylation of these proteins as an important posttranslational event that regulates their function. In this review, a brief overview of the function of these key podocyte proteins is provided. Second, the role of phosphorylation in regulating the function of these proteins is described. Third, the association between these phosphorylation pathways and kidney disease is reviewed. Finally, challenges and future directions in studying phosphorylation are discussed. Better characterization of these phosphorylation pathways and others yet to be discovered holds promise for translating this knowledge into new therapies for patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Podócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Humanos , Nefropatias/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716971

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a tumor included oral cavity, lips, larynx, oropharynx, and the nasopharynx et al. The cell division cycle-associated (CDCA) protein family (CDCA1-8) critical for normal cell function and cancer cell proliferation. We explored the mutation signatures and expression levels of various CDCAs in detail in HNSCC. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis pipeline based on copy number and gene expressions data from patients with HNSCC in order to given new insights into the possible functions and distinct prognostics that underlie CDCAs regulation. We compared the transcriptional expression of CDCAs in HNSCC and found significantly elevated mRNA expression of CDCA1-8 in HNSCC tissues across multiple datasets. We also found CDCA5/6/8 are over-expressed both transcriptionally and translationally in patients with HNSCC. Our results suggested that that mRNA levels of CDCA1/2/4/7 related to the prognosis and can be used as a new useful biomarker for predicting the survival of HNSCC patients. The top 5 CDCAs neighboring gene alterations in HNSCCs were found in MYC, STAG1, RAD21, KLHL9 and NDC80. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model also showed that CD8+ T cells were higher (P<0.05) in HNSCC-HPV-pos patients and that this was related to CDCA1/2/3/4/5/7. This study utilizes online tools to conduct specific gene analyses from free open databases, but our study requires more large-scale genomics research and basic research.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584865

RESUMO

Programmed axonal degeneration, also known as Wallerian degeneration, occurs in immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis and the animal model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Sterile alpha and TIR domain containing protein 1 (SARM1) functions to promote programmed axonal degeneration. To test the hypothesis that loss of SARM1 will reduce axonal degeneration in immune-mediated CNS inflammatory disorders, the course and pathology of EAE was compared in Sarm1 knockout mice and wild type littermates. The clinical course of EAE was similar in Sarm1 knockout and wild type. Analysis of EAE in mice expressing neuronal yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) showed significantly less axonal degeneration in Sarm1 knockout mice compared to wild type littermates at 14 days post-induction of EAE. At 21 days post-induction, however, difference in axonal degeneration was not significant. At 42 days post-induction, Sarm1 knockout mice were indistinguishable from wild type with respect to markers of axonal injury, and were similar with respect to axonal density in the lumbar cords. There was no significant change in peripheral immune activation or CNS inflammatory cell infiltration associated with EAE in Sarm1 knockout mice. In conclusion, Sarm1 deletion delayed axonal degeneration early in the course of CNS inflammation, but did not confer long-term protection from axonal degeneration in an animal model of immune-mediated CNS inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo , Axônios , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Medula Espinal , Animais , Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo/genética , Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo , Axônios/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579557

RESUMO

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of glaucoma, is often associated with elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to the dysfunction of trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. Currently, an ex vivo human anterior segment perfusion cultured system is widely used to study the effects of glaucoma factors and disease modifying drugs on physiological parameters like aqueous humor (AH) dynamics and IOP homeostasis. This system requires the use of freshly enucleated intact human eyes, which are sparsely available at very high cost. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using human donor corneoscleral segments for modeling morphological and biochemical changes associated with POAG. Among the number of corneas donated each year, many are deemed ineligible for transplantation due to stringent acceptance criteria. These ineligible corneoscleral segments were obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, Florida. Each human donor anterior corneoscleral segment was dissected into four equal quadrants and cultured for 7 days by treating with the glaucoma factors dexamethasone (Dex) or recombinant transforming growth factor (TGF) ß2 or transduced with lentiviral expression vectors containing wild type (WT) and mutant myocilin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining analysis revealed that the TM structural integrity is maintained after 7 days in culture. Increased TUNEL positive TM cells were observed in corneoscleral quadrants treated with glaucoma factors compared to their respective controls. However, these TUNEL positive cells were mainly confined to the scleral region adjacent to the TM. Treatment of corneoscleral quadrants with Dex or TGFß2 resulted in glaucomatous changes at the TM, which included increased extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Western blot analysis of the conditioned medium showed an increase in ECM (fibronectin and collagen IV) levels in Dex- or TGFß2-treated samples compared to control. Lentiviral transduction of quadrants resulted in expression of WT and mutant myocilin in TM tissues. Western blot analysis of conditioned medium revealed decreased secretion of mutant myocilin compared to WT myocilin. Moreover, increased ECM deposition and ER stress induction was observed in the TM of mutant myocilin transduced quadrants. Our findings suggest that the ex-vivo cultured human corneoscleral segment model is cost-effective and can be used as a pre-screening tool to study the effects of glaucoma factors and anti-glaucoma therapeutics on the TM.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Limbo da Córnea/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Limbo da Córnea/citologia , Limbo da Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/patologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Gene ; 754: 144856, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512160

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates the antitumor and antiangiogenesis activities of testis-specific gene antigen 10 (TSGA10). However, the underlying mechanisms and precise role of TSGA10 in angiogenesis are still elusive. In this study, we isolated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 carrying TSGA10 coding sequence. We demonstrated that TSGA10 over-expression significantly decreases HUVEC tubulogenesis and interconnected capillary network formation. HUVECs over-expressing TSGA10 exhibited a significant decrease in migration and proliferation rates. TSGA10 over-expression markedly decreased expression of angiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF-A, VEGFR-2, Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2. Our ELISA results showed the decrease in VEGF-A mRNA expression level is associated with a significant decrease in its protein secretion. Additionally, over-expressing TSGA10 decreased expression levels of marker genes of cell migration (MMP-2, MMP-9, and SDF-1a) and proliferation (PCNA and Ki-67. Furthermore, ERK-1 and AKT phosphorylation significantly reduced in HUVECs over-expressing TSGA10. Our findings suggest a potent anti-angiogenesis activity of TSGA10 in HUVECs through down-regulation of ERK and AKT signalling pathways, and may provide therapeutic benefits for the management of different pathological angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Inibidores da Angiogênese/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578338

RESUMO

We examined the allelic expression and positioning of two pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4 and SOX2, and two housekeeping genes, ACTB and TUBA, in 4- and 8-cell porcine embryos utilizing RNA and DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single blastomeres. The proportion of blastomeres expressing SOX2 bi-allelically increased from 45% at the 4-cell stage to 60% at the 8-cell stage. Moreover, in 8-cell embryos, SOX2 was expressed bi-allelically in significantly more blastomeres than was the case for OCT4, and this was associated with a tendency for SOX2 alleles to move toward the nuclear interior during 4- to 8-cell transition. However, the radial location of OCT4 alleles did not change significantly during this transition. The locations of active and inactive alleles based on DNA and RNA FISH signals were also calculated. Inactive OCT4 alleles were located in very close proximity to the nuclear membrane, whereas active OCT4 alleles were more centrally disposed in the nucleus. Nevertheless, the nuclear location of active and inactive SOX2 alleles did not change in either 4- or 8-cell blastomeres. Our RNA and DNA FISH data provide novel information on the allelic expression patterns and positioning of pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4 and SOX2, during embryonic genome activation in pigs.


Assuntos
Blastômeros/citologia , Blastômeros/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/genética , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Fertilização In Vitro , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Técnicas In Vitro , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2066, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350269

RESUMO

Mutations in myosin-VIIa (MYO7A) cause Usher syndrome type 1, characterized by combined deafness and blindness. MYO7A is proposed to function as a motor that tensions the hair cell mechanotransduction (MET) complex, but conclusive evidence is lacking. Here we report that multiple MYO7A isoforms are expressed in the mouse cochlea. In mice with a specific deletion of the canonical isoform (Myo7a-ΔC mouse), MYO7A is severely diminished in inner hair cells (IHCs), while expression in outer hair cells is affected tonotopically. IHCs of Myo7a-ΔC mice undergo normal development, but exhibit reduced resting open probability and slowed onset of MET currents, consistent with MYO7A's proposed role in tensioning the tip link. Mature IHCs of Myo7a-ΔC mice degenerate over time, giving rise to progressive hearing loss. Taken together, our study reveals an unexpected isoform diversity of MYO7A expression in the cochlea and highlights MYO7A's essential role in tensioning the hair cell MET complex.


Assuntos
Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Miosina VIIa/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/ultraestrutura , Perda Auditiva/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miosina VIIa/química , Miosina VIIa/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Estereocílios/metabolismo , Estereocílios/ultraestrutura
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(5): 41, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446246

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the pathogenic gene of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) in three Chinese families and explore the potential pathogenic mechanism of FERM domain-containing 7 (FRMD7) mutations. Methods: Genetic testing was performed via Sanger sequencing. Western blotting was used to analyze protein expression of FRMD7. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and immunoprecipitation were conducted to investigate the proteins interacting with FRMD7. Rescue assays were performed in Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the potential role of FRMD7 in vivo. Results: We recruited three Chinese families with X-linked INS and identified a duplication and two missense mutations in FRMD7: c.998dupA/p.His333Glnfs*2, c.580G>A/p.Ala194Thr, and c.973A>G/p.Arg325Gly (one in each family). Expression levels of three mutants were similar to that of wild-type FRMD7 in vitro. Interestingly, the mutant p.His333Glnfs*2 exhibited a predominantly nuclear location, whereas wild-type FRMD7 localized to the cytoplasm. In addition, we found FRMD7 to directly interact with the loop between transmembrane domains 3 and 4 of GABRA2, a type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABAARs) subunit critical for receptor transport and localization, whereas the mutants p.Ala194Thr and p.Arg325Gly exhibited decreased binding to GABRA2. In frm-3 (a nematode homologue of FRMD7) null C. elegans, we found that FRMD7 mutants exhibited a poor rescue effect on the defects of locomotion and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of GABAARs. Conclusions: Our findings identified three FRMD7 mutants in three Chinese families with X-linked INS and confirmed GABRA2 as a novel binding partner of FRMD7. These findings suggest that FRMD7 plays an important role by targeting GABAARs.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Nistagmo Congênito/genética , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Western Blotting , Células COS , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Células Cultivadas , China/epidemiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nistagmo Congênito/metabolismo , Linhagem , Plasmídeos/genética
13.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 54(2): 285-292, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392198

RESUMO

The actin-binding proteins profilin, fascin, and ezrin were tested for involvement in metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The levels of the PFN1, FSCN1, and EZR mRNAs and respective proteins were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting; tumor and adjacent normal lung tissue samples were obtained from 46 NSCLC patients. Patients with lymphatic metastasis had higher expression levels of the profilin, fascin, and ezrin mRNAs and the profilin and fascin proteins. Both mRNA and protein expression levels increased in patients with distant metastasis. The molecules may serve as predictors to evaluate the prognosis in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Profilinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , RNA Mensageiro
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2674, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471987

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that guidance molecules used during development for cellular and axonal navigation also play roles in synapse maturation and homeostasis. In C. elegans the netrin receptor UNC-40/DCC controls the growth of dendritic-like muscle cell extensions towards motoneurons and is required to recruit type A GABA receptors (GABAARs) at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. Here we show that activation of UNC-40 assembles an intracellular synaptic scaffold by physically interacting with FRM-3, a FERM protein orthologous to FARP1/2. FRM-3 then recruits LIN-2, the ortholog of CASK, that binds the synaptic adhesion molecule NLG-1/Neuroligin and physically connects GABAARs to prepositioned NLG-1 clusters. These processes are orchestrated by the synaptic organizer CePunctin/MADD-4, which controls the localization of GABAARs by positioning NLG-1/neuroligin at synapses and regulates the synaptic content of GABAARs through the UNC-40-dependent intracellular scaffold. Since DCC is detected at GABA synapses in mammals, DCC might also tune inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Orientação de Axônios/fisiologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10547-10553, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350140

RESUMO

The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) gene is a neural immediate early gene that is involved in synaptic downscaling and is robustly induced by prolonged wakefulness in rodent brains. Converging evidence has led to the hypothesis that wakefulness potentiates, and sleep reduces, synaptic strengthening. This suggests a potential role for Arc in these and other sleep-related processes. However, the role of Arc in sleep remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Arc is important for the induction of multiple behavioral and molecular responses associated with sleep homeostasis. Arc knockout (KO) mice displayed increased time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep under baseline conditions and marked attenuation of sleep rebound to both 4 h of total sleep deprivation (SD) and selective REM deprivation. At the molecular level, the following homeostatic sleep responses to 4-h SD were all blunted in Arc KO mice: increase of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluA1 and its phosphorylation in synaptoneurosomes; induction of a subset of SD-response genes; and suppression of the GluA1 messenger RNA in the cortex. In wild-type brains, SD increased Arc protein expression in multiple subcellular locations, including the nucleus, cytoplasm, and synapse, which is reversed in part by recovery sleep. Arc is critical for these behavioral and multiple molecular responses to SD, thus providing a multifunctional role for Arc in the maintenance of sleep homeostasis, which may be attributed by the sleep/wake-associated changes in subcellular location of Arc.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Vigília/genética , Vigília/fisiologia
16.
Life Sci ; 254: 117681, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380081

RESUMO

AIMS: The enhanced ability of endometrial cell migration and invasion is the foundation for formation of ectopic lesions in endometriosis. Ezrin has been reported to regulate cell motility by remodeling the cytoskeleton. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which ezrin remodels the cytoskeleton and cell structure to promote cell motility in endometriosis. METHODS: In our study, expression and distribution of ezrin, and Rho pathway were detected through immunohistochemical analysis. The effects of inhibiting ezrin T567 phosphorylation on Rho signaling pathway and cytoskeleton were investigated through western blot, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis. KEY FINDINGS: We found that the expression of ezrin and Rho pathway was higher in ectopic endometrium. NSC305787 inhibited the phosphorylation of ezrin T567, resulting in decreased expression of Rho pathway and reduced filopodia formation in ectopic endometrial stromal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study suggested that ezrin T567 phosphorylation modulated migration and invasion of ectopic ESCs through actin reconstructions, which may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ovarian endometriosis.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Endométrio/citologia , Células Estromais/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fosforilação
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2652, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461611

RESUMO

Acentrosomal meiosis in oocytes represents a gametogenic challenge, requiring spindle bipolarization without predefined bipolar cues. While much is known about the structures that promote acentrosomal microtubule nucleation, less is known about the structures that mediate spindle bipolarization in mammalian oocytes. Here, we show that in mouse oocytes, kinetochores are required for spindle bipolarization in meiosis I. This process is promoted by oocyte-specific, microtubule-independent enrichment of the antiparallel microtubule crosslinker Prc1 at kinetochores via the Ndc80 complex. In contrast, in meiosis II, cytoplasm that contains upregulated factors including Prc1 supports kinetochore-independent pathways for spindle bipolarization. The kinetochore-dependent mode of spindle bipolarization is required for meiosis I to prevent chromosome segregation errors. Human oocytes, where spindle bipolarization is reportedly error prone, exhibit no detectable kinetochore enrichment of Prc1. This study reveals an oocyte-specific function of kinetochores in acentrosomal spindle bipolarization in mice, and provides insights into the error-prone nature of human oocytes.


Assuntos
Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Segregação de Cromossomos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Gametogênese/fisiologia , Meiose/fisiologia , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2592, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444642

RESUMO

Mitochondrial aging, which results in mitochondrial dysfunction, is strongly linked to many age-related diseases. Aging is associated with mitochondrial enlargement and transport of cytosolic proteins into mitochondria. The underlying homeostatic mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial morphology and function, and their breakdown during aging, remain unclear. Here, we identify a mitochondrial protein trafficking pathway in Drosophila melanogaster involving the mitochondria-associated protein Dosmit. Dosmit induces mitochondrial enlargement and the formation of double-membraned vesicles containing cytosolic protein within mitochondria. The rate of vesicle formation increases with age. Vesicles originate from the outer mitochondrial membrane as observed by tracking Tom20 localization, and the process is mediated by the mitochondria-associated Rab32 protein. Dosmit expression level is closely linked to the rate of ubiquitinated protein aggregation, which are themselves associated with age-related diseases. The mitochondrial protein trafficking route mediated by Dosmit offers a promising target for future age-related mitochondrial disease therapies.


Assuntos
Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Longevidade , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Vesículas Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Ubiquitinadas/metabolismo
19.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H183-H191, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469637

RESUMO

In pulmonary hypertension (PH) a proinflammatory milieu drives pulmonary vascular remodeling, maladaptive right ventricular (RV) remodeling, and right-sided heart failure. There is an unmet need for RV-targeted pharmaco-therapies to improve mortality. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) reduces pulmonary pressures; however, its effects on the RV are presently unknown. We investigated the effect of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) inhibition on the pulmonary vasculature and RV remodeling using the novel P2X7R antagonist PKT100. C57BL/6 mice were administered intratracheal bleomycin or saline and treated with PKT100 (0.2 mg·kg-1·day-1) or DMSO vehicle. RV was assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography, 21 days posttreatment. Cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry. Lungs and hearts were analyzed histologically for pulmonary vascular and RV remodeling. Focused-PCR using genes involved in RV remodeling was performed. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was elevated in bleomycin-treated mice (30.2 ± 1.1; n = 7) compared with control mice (23.5 ± 1.0; n = 10; P = 0.008). PKT100 treatment did not alter RVSP (32.4 ± 1.8; n = 9), but it substantially improved survival (93% vs. 57% DMSO). There were no differences between DMSO and PKT100 bleomycin mice in pulmonary inflammation or remodeling. However, RV hypertrophy was reduced in PKT100 mice. Bleomycin decreased echocardiographic surrogates of RV systolic performance, which were significantly improved with PKT100. Four genes involved in RV remodeling (RPSA, Rplp0, Add2, and Scn7a) were differentially expressed between DMSO and PKT100-treated groups. The novel P2X7R inhibitor, PKT100, attenuates RV hypertrophy and improves RV contractile function and survival in a mouse model of PH independently of effects on the pulmonary vasculature. PKT100 may improve ventricular response to increased afterload and merits further investigation into the potential role of P2X7R antagonists as direct RV-focused therapies in PH.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential for right-sided heart failure of a novel inhibitor of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Inflammatory signaling and right ventricular function were improved in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis with secondary pulmonary hypertension when treated with this inhibitor. Importantly, survival was also improved, suggesting that this inhibitor, and other P2X7R antagonists, could be uniquely effective in right ventricle (RV)-targeted therapy in pulmonary hypertension. This addresses a major limitation of current treatment options, where the significant improvements in pulmonary pressures ultimately do not prevent mortality due to RV failure.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Citocinas/sangue , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Receptores de Laminina/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/metabolismo
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1246: 83-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399827

RESUMO

During phagocytosis, there is an apparent expansion of the plasma membrane to accommodate the target within a phagosome. This is accompanied (or driven by) a change in membrane tension. It is proposed that the wrinkled topography of the phagocyte surface, by un-wrinkling, provides the additional available membrane and that this explains the changes in membrane tension. There is no agreement as to the mechanism by which unfolding of cell surface wrinkles occurs during phagocytosis, but there is a good case building for the involvement of the actin-plasma membrane crosslinking protein ezrin. Not only have direct measurements of membrane tension strongly implicated ezrin as the key component in establishing membrane tension, but the cortical location of ezrin changes at the phagocytic cup, suggesting that it is locally signalled. This chapter therefore attempts to synthesise our current state of knowledge about ezrin and membrane tension with phagocytosis to provide a coherent hypothesis.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Humanos
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