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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11009-11015, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587902

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) as a dietary supplement on milk yield and composition as well as iron status and immune response in lactating dairy cows. In this study 13 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to either a control group or a treatment group supplemented with 10 mg of 5-ALA per kilogram of dry matter. During feeding, 5-ALA was mixed with a small amount of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. The experiments followed a crossover design with 2 periods. Each period consisted of an adaptation period of 12 d and a test period of 2 d. Dairy cows fed the diet supplemented with 5-ALA exhibited increased counts of white blood cells and granulocytes compared with the control group. The rate of phagocytosis and mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cows fed 5-ALA were higher than in cows fed a basal diet. However, 5-ALA did not affect iron status or plasma biochemical composition. Supplementation with 5-ALA improved milk protein and milk casein contents; however, it had no effect on milk production, milk fat, lactose, total solids, or solids-not-fat, compared with the control. We conclude that dietary supplementation of 5-ALA to lactating dairy cows may have a positive effect on milk protein synthesis and the immune response.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/imunologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/sangue , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11180-11192, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587908

RESUMO

Enhancing micronutrient (i.e., mineral and vitamin) concentrations within milk and serum from dairy cows is important for both the health of the cow and the nutritive value of the milk for human consumption. However, a good understanding of the genetics underlying the micronutrient content in dairy cattle is needed to facilitate such enhancements through feeding or breeding practices. In this study, milk (n = 950) and serum (n = 766) samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 479) on 19 occasions over a 59-mo period and analyzed for concentrations of important elements. Additionally, a subset of 256 milk samples was analyzed for concentrations of vitamin B12. Cows belonged to 2 genetic lines (average and highest genetic merit for milk fat plus protein yield) and were assigned to 1 of 2 diets based on either a by-product or homegrown ration. Univariate models accounting for repeated records were used to analyze element and vitamin B12 data and investigate the effect of genotype and feeding system as well as derive estimates of variance components and genetic parameters. Bivariate models were used to study correlations both within and between milk and serum. Only concentrations of Hg in milk were seen to be affected by genotype, with higher concentrations in cows with high genetic merit. In contrast, element concentrations were influenced by feeding system such that cows fed the homegrown diet had increased milk concentrations of Ca, Cu, I, Mn, Mo, P, and K and increased serum concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, and V. Cows on the by-product diet had increased milk concentrations of Mg, Se, and Na and increased serum concentrations of P and Se. Heritability (h2) estimates were obtained for 6 milk and 4 serum elements, including Mg (h2milk = 0.30), K (h2serum = 0.18), Ca (h2milk = 0.20; h2serum = 0.12), Mn (h2milk = 0.14), Cu (h2serum = 0.22), Zn (h2milk = 0.24), Se (h2milk = 0.15; h2serum = 0.10), and Mo (h2milk = 0.19). Significant estimates of repeatability were observed in all milk and serum quantity elements (Na, Mg, P, K, and Ca) as well as 5 milk and 7 serum trace elements. Only K in milk and serum was found to have a significant positive genetic and phenotypic correlation (0.52 and 0.22, respectively). Significant phenotypic associations were noted between milk and serum Ca (0.17), Mo (0.19), and Na (-0.79). Additional multivariate analyses between measures within sample type (i.e., milk or serum) revealed significant positive associations, both phenotypic and genetic, between some of the elements. In milk, Se was genetically correlated with Ca (0.63), Mg (0.59), Mn (0.40), P (0.53), and Zn (0.52), whereas in serum, V showed strong genetic associations with Cd (0.71), Ca (0.53), Mn (0.63), Mo (0.57), P (0.42), K (0.45), and Hg (-0.44). These results provide evidence that element concentrations in milk and blood of dairy cows are significantly influenced by both diet and genetics and demonstrate the potential for genetic selection and dietary manipulation to alter nutrient concentration to improve both cow health and the healthfulness of milk for human consumption.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Leite/química , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Lactação , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/análise
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9883-9901, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477306

RESUMO

Variations of mammary gland (MG) metabolism were studied in dairy cows in response to diets containing 2 levels of net energy of lactation [NEL; 25.0 and 32.5 Mcal/d for low (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively], combined with 2 levels of metabolizable protein [MP, 1,266 and 2,254 g/d of protein digestible in the intestine for low (LP) and high protein (HP), respectively] in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four cows received 4 diets (LELP, HELP, LEHP, and HEHP) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Milk production and feed intake were measured on the last 5 d of each period, whereas MG net uptake of AA was determined on d 13. Efficiencies were estimated as the sum of measured milk true protein yield (MPY) and of estimations of metabolic fecal and scurf proteins multiplied by their respective AA profile and divided by the estimated AA supply minus the AA endogenous urinary loss. The increased MPY in the HE compared with the LE diets (higher by 123 g/d) was accompanied by increased mammary plasma flow and MG uptake of the nonessential AA (NEAA) and the essential AA (EAA), except for branched-chain AA. In contrast, the increase in MPY (higher by 104 g/d) observed in the HP compared with the LP diets was linked to increased MG uptake of EAA without a change in mammary plasma flow and a decreased NEAA uptake. Because MG uptake of total AA-N was almost equal to cows' milk output on a nitrogen basis, these different mechanisms involve a large MG flexibility, with variable synthesis of NEAA. In addition, MP efficiency did not increase only through increased MPY in the HE compared with the LE diets but also through metabolic fecal protein, estimated to increase (by 65 g/d) with dry matter intake. The MPY increased in the HP compared with the LP diets, but the increase was smaller than the calculated increase (greater by 993 g/d) in MP supply. The highest MG clearance rates of individual EAA could suggest that Met, His, and Lys were limiting in LP, and Met was the most limiting AA in HP. Interestingly, a similar hypothesis could be stated by analyzing estimated AA efficiencies. The highest efficiencies among EAA, observed for His in HELP and for Met with the other diets, could indicate that they were the most limiting AA in these respective diets, whereas other EAA (including Lys) efficiencies varied with MP efficiency. The MG metabolic flexibility with regard to individual AA utilization partially contributes to the anabolic fate of AA through MPY; however, other export proteins also contribute to variations in MP and AA efficiencies.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo
4.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480373

RESUMO

Human milk composition is variable. The identification of influencing factors and interdependencies of components may help to understand the physiology of lactation. In this study, we analyzed linear trends in human milk composition over time, the variation across different European countries and the influence of maternal celiac disease. Within a multicenter European study exploring potential prevention of celiac disease in a high-risk population (PreventCD), 569 human milk samples were donated by women from five European countries between 16 and 163 days postpartum. Some 202 mothers provided two samples at different time points. Protein, carbohydrates, fat and fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) were analyzed. Milk protein and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased during the first three months of lactation. Fatty acid composition was significantly influenced by the country of residence. IGF-II and adiponectin concentrations correlated with protein content (r = 0.24 and r = 0.35), and IGF-II also correlated with fat content (r = 0.36), suggesting a possible regulatory role of IGF in milk macronutrient synthesis. Regarding the impact of celiac disease, only the level in palmitic acid was influenced by this disease, suggesting that breastfeeding by celiac disease mothers should not be discouraged.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Insulina/análise , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Período Pós-Parto , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10460-10470, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495611

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, MIR-derived traits including milk composition, milk fatty acids, and blood metabolic profiles (fatty acids, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and urea), and other on-farm data for discriminating cows of good versus poor likelihood of conception to first insemination (i.e., pregnant vs. open). A total of 6,488 spectral and milk production records of 2,987 cows from 19 commercial dairy herds across 3 Australian states were used. Seven models, comprising different explanatory variables, were examined. Model 1 included milk production; concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose; somatic cell count; age at calving; days in milk at herd test; and days from calving to insemination. Model 2 included, in addition to the variables in model 1, milk fatty acids and blood metabolic profiles. The MIR spectrum collected before first insemination was added to model 2 to form model 3. Fat, protein, and lactose percentages, milk fatty acids, and blood metabolic profiles were removed from model 3 to create model 4. Model 5 and model 6 comprised model 4 and either fertility genomic estimated breeding value or principal components obtained from a genomic relationship matrix derived using animal genotypes, respectively. In model 7, all previously described sources of information, but not MIR-derived traits, were used. The models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis. The performance of each model was evaluated in 2 ways: 10-fold random cross-validation and herd-by-herd external validation. The accuracy measures were sensitivity (i.e., the proportion of pregnant cows that were correctly classified), specificity (i.e., the proportion of open cows that were correctly classified), and area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve. The results showed that in all models, prediction accuracy obtained through 10-fold random cross-validation was higher than that of herd-by-herd external validation, with the difference in AUC ranging between 0.01 and 0.09. In the herd-by-herd external validation, using basic on-farm information (model 1) was not sufficient to classify good- and poor-fertility cows; the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were around 0.66. Compared with model 1, adding milk fatty acids and blood metabolic profiles (model 2) increased the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC by 0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 unit, respectively (i.e., 0.65, 0.63, and 0.678). Incorporating MIR spectra into model 2 resulted in sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values of 0.73, 0.63, and 0.72, respectively (model 3). The comparable prediction accuracies observed for models 3 and 4 mean that useful information from MIR-derived traits is already included in the spectra. Adding the fertility genomic estimated breeding value and animal genotypes (model 7) produced the highest prediction accuracy, with sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values of 0.75, 0.66, and 0.75, respectively. However, removing either the fertility estimated breeding value or animal genotype from model 7 resulted in a reduction of the prediction accuracy of only 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates that MIR and other on-farm data could be used to classify cows of good and poor likelihood of conception with promising accuracy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Leite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Austrália , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Inseminação , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Ureia/sangue
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9791-9813, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495616

RESUMO

The objectives were to review the published literature and use meta-analytic methods to determine the effects of dietary protein fed prepartum on productive performance of dairy cows. The hypothesis was that responses to dietary protein prepartum would differ between nulliparous and parous cows, and performance would be maximized at a greater protein supply in nulliparous than in parous cows. The literature was systematically reviewed, searching randomized experiments in which the prepartum dietary content or degradability of protein was manipulated. Twenty-seven experiments including 125 treatment means and 1,801 cows were included in the meta-analysis. Of those, 8 experiments with 27 treatment means reported responses for 510 nulliparous cows. Data collected included the ingredient composition and chemical analyses of prepartum diets, parity group, and means and respective measures of variance for productive responses. Mixed model meta-analysis was conducted and statistical models investigated the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) or supply of metabolizable protein (MP) prepartum on performance. Supply of MP was predicted using the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (2001) model. The mean ± standard deviation and median (range) concentrations of dietary CP fed to cows prepartum were 14.4 ± 2.2 and 14.4% (8.9 to 20.9%), resulting in mean and median (range) intakes of CP prepartum of 1,720 ± 432 and 1,734 g/d (745 to 2,482 g/d). Predicted prepartum supply of MP averaged 822 ± 157 in nulliparous cows, ranging from 517 to 1,094 g/d, and 1,146 ± 316 in parous cows, ranging from 463 to 1,733 g/d. Increasing prepartum CP content or predicted supply of MP improved postpartum dry matter intake in nulliparous cows, but increasing prepartum CP content reduced prepartum dry matter intake in parous cows. Yields of milk and fat-corrected milk increased with increasing prepartum supply of MP in nulliparous but not in parous cows. Yields of fat and protein increased in nulliparous cows with increased CP content or supply of MP. Alternatively, in parous cows, yield of milk fat was not influenced by supply of MP but responded quadratically to dietary CP content and was maximized at approximately 14% CP. Dietary CP had no effect on protein yield in parous cows, but increasing the supply of MP improved protein yield only in cows from experiments with >36 kg/d of milk production, whereas MP supply had no effect on protein yield of parous cows from experiments with <28 kg/d of milk production. Performance of dairy cows was responsive to prepartum supply of MP and nulliparous benefited from diets with increased MP intake. Based on current results, production responses for nulliparous cows increased linearly up to the maximum MP intake of 1,100 g/d observed in the study, whereas for parous cows, only yield of milk protein in cows producing more than 36 kg of milk/d was influenced by supplying more than 800 g/d of MP.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9842-9856, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495626

RESUMO

The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of altering the dietary ratio of palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (cis-9 C18:1) acids on nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production responses of lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to 3 groups (12 cows per group) in a main plot: low (45.2 ± 1.7 kg/d), medium (53.0 ± 1.6 kg/d), and high (60.0 ± 1.9 kg/d). Within each production group, a truncated Latin square arrangement of fatty acid (FA) treatments was used in 2 consecutive 35-d periods. The FA treatments supplemented at 1.5% of diet dry matter were (1) 80:10 (80% C16:0 + 10% cis-9 C18:1), (2) 73:17 (73% C16:0 + 17% cis-9 C18:1), (3) 66:24 (66% C16:0 + 24% cis-9 C18:1), and (4) 60:30 (60% C16:0 + 30% cis-9 C18:1). Treatment × production group interactions were observed for yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose and energy partitioned to milk. Increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments reduced fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and milk energy output in low-producing cows but increased these in high-producing cows. Increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments did not affect milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk lactose yield in low- and medium-producing cows but increased these in high-producing cows. Regardless of production level, there was no effect of treatments on dry matter intake; however, increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments increased body weight change and body condition score change. Increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments increased total FA digestibility due to a linear increase in 16- and 18-carbon FA digestibilities. Interactions between FA treatments and production level were observed for the yield of milk fat and milk FA sources. In low-producing cows, increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments decreased milk fat yield due to a decrease in de novo and mixed milk FA without changes in preformed milk FA. In contrast, in high-producing cows, increasing cis-9 C18:1 in FA treatments increased milk fat yield due to an increase in de novo and preformed milk FA. Our results indicate that high-producing dairy cows (averaging 60 kg/d) responded better to a fat supplement containing more cis-9 C18:1, whereas low-producing cows (averaging 45 kg/d) responded better to a supplement containing more C16:0.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10903-10915, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548057

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of feeding diets that were formulated to contain similar proportions of undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) from forage, with wheat straw (WS) substituted for corn silage (CS), alfalfa hay (AH), or both. The diets were fed to lactating dairy cows and intake, digestibility, blood metabolites, and milk production were examined. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (body weight = 642 ± 50 kg; days in milk = 78 ± 11 d; milk production = 56 ± 6 kg/d; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a randomized block design with 6-wk periods after a 10-d covariate period. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation followed by 28 d of data collection. The control diet contained CS and AH as forage sources (CSAH) with 17% of dietary dry matter as uNDF after 30 h of incubation (uNDF30). Wheat straw was substituted for AH (WSCS), CS (WSAH), or both (WSCSAH) on an uNDF30 basis, and beet pulp was used to obtain similar concentrations of NDF digestibility after 30 h of incubation (NDFD30 = 44.5% of NDF) across all diets. The 4 diets also contained similar concentrations of net energy for lactation and metabolizable protein. Dry matter intake was greatest for WSCS (27.8 kg/d), followed by CSAH (25.7 kg/d), WSCSAH (25.2 kg/d), and WSAH (24.2 kg/d). However, yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM), and energy-corrected milk did not differ, resulting in higher FCM efficiency (kg of FCM yield/kg of dry matter intake) for WSAH (1.83) and WSCSAH (1.79), followed by CSAH (1.69) and WSCS (1.64). Milk protein percentage was greater for CSAH (2.84%) and WSCS (2.83%) than for WSAH (2.78%), and WSCSAH (2.81%) was intermediate. The opposite trend was observed for milk urea nitrogen, which was lower for CSAH (15.8 mg/dL), WSCS (15.8 mg/dL), and WSCSAH (17.0 mg/dL) than for WSAH (20 mg/dL). Total-tract NDF digestibility and ruminal pH were greater for diets containing WS than the diet without WS (CSAH), but digestibility of other nutrients was not affected by dietary treatments. Cows fed WSAH had less body reserves (body weight change = -13.5 kg/period) than the cows fed the other diets, whereas energy balance was greatest for those fed WSCS. The results showed that feeding high-producing dairy cows diets containing different forage sources but formulated to supply similar concentrations of uNDF30 while maintaining NDFD30, net energy for lactation, and metabolizable protein constant did not influence milk production. However, a combination of WS and CS (WSCS diet) compared with a diet with CS and AH improved feed intake, ruminal pH, total-tract NDF digestibility, and energy balance of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta , Medicago sativa , Silagem , Triticum , Zea mays , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
Analyst ; 144(18): 5571-5579, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417992

RESUMO

Analysis of bovine milk proteins is crucial in many food and non-food industrial applications, nevertheless labour-intensive wet-chemical, low-throughput methods are still routinely used. In this work, external cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) mid-infrared spectroscopy is employed as a rapid method for protein analysis of commercial bovine milk. Combined analysis of the amide I and II bands enabled quantitation of individual proteins (casein, ß-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin) and total protein content. IR spectra of spiked and diluted milk samples were employed for calibration of the target analytes in the presence of a complex matrix by partial least squares (PLS) regression modelling. A sample set of different milk types (pasteurized; differently processed extended shelf life, ESL; ultra-high temperature, UHT) was analysed, and results agreed well with reference methods. Quantitation of temperature sensitive proteins enables detailed distinction between milk types experiencing different heat loads during processing, and discrimination between diverse bovine milk types is successfully demonstrated.


Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Proteínas do Leite/química , Análise Espectral , Animais , Calibragem , Bovinos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8756-8767, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421884

RESUMO

Proteinaceous matter can leak into the permeate stream during ultrafiltration (UF) of milk and whey and lead to financial losses. Although manufacturers can measure protein content in the finished permeate powders, there is currently no rapid monitoring tool during UF to identify protein leak. This study applied front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) and chemometrics to identify the fluorophore of interest associated with the protein leak, develop predictive models to quantify true protein content, and classify the types of protein leak in permeate streams. Crude protein (CP), nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), true protein (TP), tryptone-equivalent peptide (TEP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), and ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG) contents were measured for 37 lots of whey permeate and 29 lots of milk permeate from commercial manufacturers. Whey permeate contained more TEP than did milk permeate, whereas milk permeate contained more α-LA and ß-LG than did whey permeate. The types of protein leak were thus identified for predictive model development. Based on excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of high- and low-TP permeates, tryptophan excitation spectra were collected for predictive model development, measuring TP content in permeate. With external validation, a useful model for quality control purposes was developed, with a root mean square error of prediction of 0.22% (dry basis) and a residual prediction deviation of 2.8. Moreover, classification models were developed using partial least square discriminant analysis. These classification methods can detect high TP level, high TEP level, and presence of α-LA or ß-LG with 83.3%, 84.8%, and 98.5% cross-validated accuracy, respectively. This method showed that FFFS and chemometrics can rapidly detect protein leaks and identify the types of protein leak in UF permeate. Implementation of this method in UF processing plants can reduce financial loss from protein leaks and maintain high-quality permeate production.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/análise , Soro do Leite/química , Animais , Lactalbumina/análise , Lactoglobulinas/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Pós/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Ultrafiltração/métodos
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8999-9016, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421886

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate productive and reproductive effects of replacing solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM) with extruded soybean meal (ESBM) in a total mixed ration for early-lactation dairy cows. Thirty-four Holstein cows (12 primiparous and 22 multiparous) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with 17 cows per treatment. Feeding was ad libitum for 5 to 10% refusals. A fresh-cow diet was fed the first 21 d in milk followed by a lactation diet from 22 to 60 d in milk. Milk and dry matter intake data were collected throughout the experiment, and samples were collected for blood chemistry and amino acid profile, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and enteric methane emission using the GreenFeed system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). Dry matter intake, milk yield, and feed efficiency were not different between SSBM and ESBM. Energy-corrected milk yield and efficiency were also not different between diets. Diet had no effect on milk composition, except that milk true protein yield was decreased by ESBM. Enteric methane emission, yield, and intensity were not different between SSBM and ESBM. Because of its greater fat content, ESBM triggered expected changes in milk fatty acid (FA) profile: decreased sum of C16, saturated, and odd- and branched-chain FA and increased sum of preformed FA, polyunsaturated, and trans FA. The ESBM diet increased or tended to increase some essential amino acids in plasma. In this study, ESBM did not affect dry matter intake and did not improve lactational performance or onset of ovarian function in early-lactation dairy cows, and it decreased milk protein yield, possibly due to greater unsaturated FA intake compared with SSBM.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Reprodução , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Lactação , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8537-8545, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255266

RESUMO

Heat stress is known to affect performance of dairy cows experiencing prolonged periods of high temperature and relative humidity. Less is known about its effects in cooler climates. The goals of the present study were to determine the prevalence of days susceptible to cause mild heat stress in dairy cows living in a humid continental climate and to investigate the relationship between the number of consecutive days of mild heat stress and milk, fat, protein, and lactose production. A 6-yr data set (2010-2015) containing 606,031 milk analysis records for 34,360 Holstein dairy cows at different parities was matched with the corresponding daily maximum temperature-humidity index. Exposure to heat stress conditions was divided into 5 categories corresponding to 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, and 7 to 8 consecutive days before milk test date. On average, cows were exposed to heat stress conditions for 135.8 ± 5.9 d/yr in Southwest Quebec and 95.3 ± 10.2 d/yr in Eastern Quebec. Cows experiencing heat stress conditions produced on average less fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk and lower fat and protein concentrations. The decrease in milk fat reached 6% for category 7 to 8 exposure of cows in parity 3 or more. The association between exposure category and milk yield and lactose yield and concentration was weak. Heat stress lowered milk fat and protein production but had little effect on milk volume output. Further research is necessary to better understand the mechanism underlying the effects of sporadic low- to medium-intensity heat stress on dairy productivity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Clima , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Umidade , Lactação/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Gravidez , Quebeque , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7936-7947, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255267

RESUMO

Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of supplementing rumen-protected methionine (RP-Met), threonine (RP-Thr), isoleucine (RP-Ile), and leucine (RP-Leu) individually or jointly to a low-protein diet, on the performance of lactating dairy cows, as well as to determine the effects of these amino acids (AA) on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vivo. Ten lactating Holstein cows were randomly allocated to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square experiment with five 19-d periods. Treatments were high-protein diet (16% crude protein, positive control; HP), low-protein diet (12% crude protein, negative control; LP), LP plus RP-Met (LPM), LP plus RP-Met and RP-Thr (LPMT), and LP plus RP-Met, RP-Thr, RP-Ile, and RP-Leu (LPMTIL). The dry matter intakes (DMI) of the LP, LPM, and LPMT diets were lower than that of the HP diet, whereas the DMI of the LPMTIL diet was intermediate between the HP diet and the other LP diets. Supplementing RP-Met to the LP diet increased the yields of milk and milk protein, increased the content of milk urea N, and tended to increase milk N efficiency. Co-supplementation of RP-Thr with RP-Met resulted in no further milk production increase. Co-supplementation of all 4 rumen-protected amino acids (RP-AA) increased milk and lactose yields to the level of the HP diet and tended to increase milk protein yield compared with the LPMT diet. We found no significant differences in the contents and yields of milk components between the LPMTIL and HP diets except for a lower milk urea N content in the LPMTIL diet. Venous concentrations of the measured AA were similar across the LP and LP diets supplemented with RP-AA. Relative to levels of the HP diet, LP diets had higher venous concentrations of Met and Gly and tended to have higher Phe concentration and lower concentrations of Val and BCAA. The LPMTIL diet had higher venous concentrations of Arg, Lys, Met, Phe, and Glu, and a lower Val concentration. Phosphorylation status of the measured mTOR components in LPM and LPMT treatments were similar to those in the LP treatment but phosphorylation status of mTOR and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4eBP1) in LPMTIL treatment were higher. The phosphorylation rates of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the 4 LP and LP plus RP-AA diets were higher than that of the HP diet. Overall, results of the present study supported the concept that under the relatively short time of this experiment, supplementing RP-AA, which are believed to stimulate the mTOR signal pathway, can lead to increased milk protein yield. This increase appears to be due to increased DMI, greater mTOR signaling, and greater eEF2 activity.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/análise , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactose/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ureia/análise
14.
J Dairy Res ; 86(3): 303-306, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328715

RESUMO

This research communication addresses the hypothesis that in dual-purpose goats, exposure to 1 h of extra-light given from 16 to 17 h after dawn (pulse of light) in winter stimulates milk yield. One group of goats was maintained under natural short photoperiod (natural day; ND (n = 7)). Another group of lactating females was submitted to an artificial long-day photoperiod consisting of 16 h light and 8 h darkness (long days; LD (n = 7)). A third group of females received one single hour of extra-light 16 h after the fixed dawn (pulse of light; PL (n = 6)). Goats from LD and PL yielded 30% more milk than goats from ND. Mean percentages of fat, protein and lactose contents in milk did not differ between the 3 groups at any stage of lactation, but these components in grams/day were higher in goats from PL than in the others two groups within the first 45 d of lactation. In conclusion, dual-purpose lactating goats that started their lactation during natural short days, the daily exposition to a 1-h pulse of light is sufficient to stimulate milk yield compared to females maintained under natural short photoperiod.


Assuntos
Cabras/fisiologia , Lactação/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Clima , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Lactose/análise , México , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Estações do Ano
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7904-7916, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301831

RESUMO

The inclusion of feed intake and efficiency traits in dairy cow breeding goals can lead to increased risk of metabolic stress. An easy and inexpensive way to monitor postpartum energy status (ES) of cows is therefore needed. Cows' ES can be estimated by calculating the energy balance from energy intake and output and predicted by indicator traits such as change in body weight (ΔBW), change in body condition score (ΔBCS), milk fat:protein ratio (FPR), or milk fatty acid (FA) composition. In this study, we used blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration as a biomarker for ES. We determined associations between NEFA concentration and ES indicators and evaluated the usefulness of body and milk traits alone, or together, in predicting ES of the cow. Data were collected from 2 research herds during 2013 to 2016 and included 137 Nordic Red dairy cows, all of which had a first lactation and 59 of which also had a second lactation. The data included daily body weight, milk yield, and feed intake and monthly BCS. Plasma samples for NEFA were collected twice in lactation wk 2 and 3 and once in wk 20. Milk samples for analysis of fat, protein, lactose, and FA concentrations were taken on the blood sampling days. Plasma NEFA concentration was higher in lactation wk 2 and 3 than in wk 20 (0.56 ± 0.30, 0.43 ± 0.22, and 0.13 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively; all means ± standard deviation). Among individual indicators, C18:1 cis-9 and the sum of C18:1 in milk had the highest correlations (r = 0.73) with NEFA. Seven multiple linear regression models for NEFA prediction were developed using stepwise selection. Of the models that included milk traits (other than milk FA) as well as body traits, the best fit was achieved by a model with milk yield, FPR, ΔBW, ΔBCS, FPR × ΔBW, and days in milk. The model resulted in a cross-validation coefficient of determination (R2cv) of 0.51 and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.196 mmol/L. When only milk FA concentrations were considered in the model, NEFA prediction was more accurate using measurements from evening milk than from morning milk (R2cv = 0.61 vs. 0.53). The best model with milk traits contained FPR, C10:0, C14:0, C18:1 cis-9, C18:1 cis-9 × C14:0, and days in milk (R2cv = 0.62; RMSE = 0.177 mmol/L). The most advanced model using both milk and body traits gave a slightly better fit than the model with only milk traits (R2cv = 0.63; RMSE = 0.176 mmol/L). Our findings indicate that ES of cows in early lactation can be monitored with moderately high accuracy by routine milk measurements.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Período Pós-Parto
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8011-8026, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279550

RESUMO

Our objectives were to characterize responses in the field to a mix of fibrolytic enzymes using large commercial dairy herds and sufficient study power to evaluate milk production and reproductive responses to an enzyme treatment started during the precalving period. We hypothesized that the use of the enzyme treatment would increase milk production when provided to dairy cows precalving and for approximately 200 d of lactation. The study was conducted on 7,507 cows, in 8 replicates and 16 pens, at 3 dairies in the United States. Eight pens were randomly allocated as control pens and received no enzyme, and another 8 pens received enzyme treatment at a dose of 750 mL/t of dry matter feed. Milk production and energy-corrected milk yield were increased with the enzyme treatment by 0.70 and 0.80 kg/d, respectively, across a 5-month period. Milk fat percentage was not significantly increased by enzyme treatment, but milk fat yield was significantly increased by 0.040 kg/d, compared with controls. Milk protein yield increased 0.010 kg/d with enzyme treatment despite a small reduction of 0.020 percentage units in milk protein percentage. We found no evidence of an increase in the ln somatic cell count for the enzyme-treated cows. Body weight overall was not increased for enzyme-treated cows, but we did observe a numerical increase in dry matter intake (0.20 kg/head per day) for enzyme-treated cows. Most production responses to the enzyme treatment were influenced by dairy. Compared with controls, milk yield in enzyme-treated cows was significantly higher by 3.6 kg/d in dairy 2 and numerically higher by 0.60 and 0.20 kg/d in dairies 1 and 3, respectively. Reproduction, health, and risk of removal or death were not significantly influenced by treatment, apart from a reduced time to first breeding. Production responses to the enzyme treatment varied by dairy from substantial to minor increases, but variation among dairies was not evident in differences in dry matter intake or in partitioning of body weight among enzyme-treated and control pens and cows. It appears likely that the increase in production reflected increased digestibility of feed; however, further work is needed to identify factors influencing the variation in production responses to enzymes.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Contagem de Células , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9200-9212, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351709

RESUMO

Mastitis is responsible for substantial economic loss and significant animal welfare concerns for the dairy industry. Sensors that measure electrical conductivity (EC) and enzyme concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are presently used for automatic detection of mastitis. However, EC is not sensitive enough to detect mastitis, and the ability of LDH activity to identify mastitis caused by different pathogens is a potential option that needs to be investigated. This study was conducted to test the following hypotheses: (a) strict foremilk before milk ejection is more informative in detecting mastitis, in general, than foremilk removed after cows were stimulated for milk ejection; and (b) the value of LDH activity as a mastitis indicator depends on the type of pathogen associated with the infection. Milk samples (before afternoon milking) from 48 Holstein-Friesian cows at the University of Sydney's dairy farm (Camden, New South Wales, Australia) with EC > 7.5 mS/cm in any of the 4 quarters were collected over a period of 2 mo. Quarter milk samples (n = 343) from 48 cows were collected manually in the automatic milking rotary in 3 steps: foremilk before (strict foremilk) and after milk ejection, followed by an aseptic sample for bacteriological culture. The EC (mS), LDH (U/L), SCC (cells/mL), and milk protein and fat content (%) of foremilk in both sampling times were compared and used as predictors for gram-positive and gram-negative mastitis. Quarter (n = 515) observations from 44 cows were analyzed using a logistic mixed or linear mixed model, with cow and quarter nested within cow as random effects. Milk from both sampling times was also assessed by producing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC) to determine ability to detect mastitis. Overall, EC and LDH were greater and milk protein (%) was lower in strict foremilk than in milk fractions obtained after milk ejection. Data from strict foremilk samples had slightly higher AUC values (0.98 to 0.99 vs. 0.97 to 0.98, respectively) than did the after-ejection milk samples. Although gram-negative coliform mastitis had significantly higher LDH activity than did gram-positive mastitis (6.19 vs. 5.34 log10 U/L), the robustness of this result is questionable due to limited sample size. We concluded that milk samples taken before ejection can influence major mastitis indicators, suggesting that automatic milking system sensors could be modified to monitor milk before ejection for more efficient mastitis detection.


Assuntos
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Ejeção Láctea , Leite/enzimologia , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Condutividade Elétrica , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Leite/citologia , Leite/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Gravidez , Curva ROC
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8658-8669, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351718

RESUMO

Volatile sulfur compounds in ultra-pasteurized (UP) milk are the major contributors to sulfur/burnt and eggy flavors, and these flavors are disliked by consumers. Previous research has established distinct differences in flavor profiles of fluid milk processed by high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) and UP by direct steam injection (DSI-UP) or indirect heat (IND-UP). An understanding of the contribution of the individual milk proteins to sulfur off-flavors would clarify the source of sulfur flavors in UP milks. The objective of this study was to determine the source of volatile sulfur compounds in fluid milk with a specific focus on the comparison of heat treatment effects on milks by HTST and UP. Formulated skim milks (FSM) were manufactured by blending micellar casein concentrate and serum protein isolate (SPI). Three different caseins as a percentage of true protein (FSM95, FSM80, and FSM60) were formulated to determine the source of sulfur/burnt and eggy flavors. Freshly processed micellar casein concentrate or SPI were blended to achieve a true protein content of about 3.2%. Raw skim milk served as a control. Skim milk and FSM were pasteurized at 78°C for 15 s (HTST) or 140°C for 2.3 s by IND-UP or DSI-UP. The experiment was replicated twice. Sensory properties of milks and FSM were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile sulfur compounds in milks and FSM were evaluated using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry combined with a sulfur selective flame photometric detector. The FSM with higher SPI as a percent of true protein had higher sensory sulfur/burnt and eggy flavors along with elevated concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide compared with skim milk or FSM with lower proportions of SPI. Sulfur compounds including dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methional were not associated with sulfur/burnt and eggy flavors, which suggests that these compounds may not specifically contribute to the sulfur/burnt and eggy off-flavors of UP milks. Sensory panelists found higher overall aroma impact, and cooked, sulfur/burnt, and eggy flavors for DSI-UP, followed by IND-UP and HTST. The combination of sensory and instrumental methods used in the current study effectively identified that milk serum proteins are the source of sulfur compounds in milk, and further confirmed the contribution of hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide to eggy and sulfur/burnt flavors, respectively.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Pasteurização , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Animais , Caseínas/análise , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Odorantes/análise , Pasteurização/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Vapor , Sulfetos , Paladar
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8768-8784, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351721

RESUMO

Acid whey resulting from the production of soft cheeses is a disposal problem for the dairy industry. Few uses have been found for acid whey because of its high ash content, low pH, and high organic acid content. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of recovery of whey protein from cottage cheese acid whey for use in yogurt. Cottage cheese acid whey and Cheddar cheese whey were produced from standard cottage cheese and Cheddar cheese-making procedures, respectively. The whey was separated and pasteurized by high temperature, short time pasteurization and stored at 4°C. Food-grade ammonium hydroxide was used to neutralize the acid whey to a pH of 6.4. The whey was heated to 50°C and concentrated using ultrafiltration and diafiltration with 11 polyethersulfone cartridge membrane filters (10,000-kDa cutoff) to 25% total solids and 80% protein. Skim milk was concentrated to 6% total protein. Nonfat, unflavored set-style yogurts (6.0 ± 0.1% protein, 15 ± 1.0% solids) were made from skim milk with added acid whey protein concentrate, skim milk with added sweet whey protein concentrate, or skim milk concentrate. Yogurt mixes were standardized to lactose and fat of 6.50% and 0.10%, respectively. Yogurt was fermented at 43°C to pH 4.6 and stored at 4°C. The experiment was replicated in triplicate. Titratable acidity, pH, whey separation, color, and gel strength were measured weekly in yogurts through 8 wk. Trained panel profiling was conducted on 0, 14, 28, and 56 d. Fat-free yogurts produced with added neutralized fresh liquid acid whey protein concentrate had flavor attributes similar those with added fresh liquid sweet whey protein but had lower gel strength attributes, which translated to differences in trained panel texture attributes and lower consumer liking scores for fat-free yogurt made with added acid whey protein ingredient. Difference in pH was the main contributor to texture differences, as higher pH in acid whey protein yogurts changed gel structure formation and water-holding capacity of the yogurt gel. In a second part of the study, the yogurt mix was reformulated to address texture differences. The reformulated yogurt mix at 2% milkfat and using a lower level of sweet and acid whey ingredient performed at parity with control yogurts in consumer sensory trials. Fresh liquid acid whey protein concentrates from cottage cheese manufacture can be used as a liquid protein ingredient source for manufacture of yogurt in the same factory.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos , Proteínas do Leite , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Iogurte , Animais , Queijo/análise , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Pasteurização , Paladar , Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Iogurte/análise
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9017-9027, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351725

RESUMO

The supply and profile of absorbed AA may affect milk protein synthesis through hormonal changes and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways; and Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr (ILMT) are the 4 AA that have been reported to have the greatest effect on mammary mTOR signaling. The extent to which ILMT and the other remaining AA (RAA) differ in their effects on milk protein synthesis needs to be systematically investigated. In this study, 5 lactating goats, averaging 120 ± 10 d in milk, fitted with jugular vein and carotid artery catheters, were fasted for 24 h, followed by intravenous infusions of a mixture containing AA and glucose for 8 h in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The AA mixtures were formulated according to the profile of casein. The amounts of AA infused were calculated based on supplies of AA when metabolizable protein (MP) was at requirement (MR). Treatments were an infusate containing glucose without AA (NTAA); an infusate containing 3 × the MR of Ile, Leu, Met and Thr (3F0R); and infusates containing 3F0R plus 1, 2, or 3 × MR of RAA (3F1R, 3F2R, and 3F3R, respectively) according to amounts provided when fed to meet MP requirements for maintenance and lactation for each goat. Milk, arterial blood, and mammary tissue samples were collected immediately after halting the infusion. Relative to NTAA, supplementation of ILMT tended to increase milk protein production and plasma glucose concentrations, and increased milk and lactose production, but had no effects on production or content of milk fat. Graded supplementation of RAA tended to quadratically affect production of milk and lactose. Arterial glucose and glucagon concentrations decreased linearly, and plasma insulin concentrations decreased quadratically with increased RAA. Mammary p70-S6K1 phosphorylation was decreased by addition of ILMT compared with NTAA but increased linearly with increased RAA infusion. Furthermore, EIF4EBP1 gene expression was much lower for 3F-treated goats than for the NTAA treatment. Both MTOR and RPS6KB1 gene expressions were decreased quadratically with increased RAA supply. These results suggested that short-term milk protein yield tended to be increased by elevated ILMT availability, and this trend was not explained by variations in mammary mTOR signaling or pancreatic hormone secretions, whereas graded increase of RAA in combination with ILMT appeared to regulate the efficiency of conversion of glucose to lactose in a manner not involving milk protein production.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Cabras/fisiologia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caseínas/análise , Feminino , Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Isoleucina/administração & dosagem , Lactação , Lactose/análise , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Treonina/administração & dosagem
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