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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(9): 935-937, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for a patient with autism. METHODS: High-throughput sequencing was carried out to detect copy number variations in the patient. RESULTS: DNA sequencing found that the patient has carried a 0.11 Mb deletion in distal 2p16.3 spanning from genomic position 50 820 001 to 50 922 000, which resulted removal of exon 6 and part of intron 7 of the NRXN1 gene. The same deletion was not found his parents and brother. CONCLUSION: Partial deletion of the NRXN1 gene may underlie the disease in this patient.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 817-820, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical and genetic features of a pedigree affected with autosomal recessive neuromyotonia and axonal neuropathy (NMAN). METHODS: For the proband and her parents, clinical data was collected, genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. Triplet primed-PCR was carried out to detect dynamic mutation of DMPK and ZNF9 genes, which are responsible for myotonic dystrophy, by capillary electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to screen variants of candidate genes for Mendelian disorders involving the nervous system. Candidate variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The genotype of the variant was determined in the parents and 100 healthy controls. Pathogenicity of the variant was assessed by ACMG criterion. RESULTS: Mutation of DMPK and ZNF9 genes was excluded. DNA sequencing has identified a homozygous missense variant (c.335C>T, p.R119W) in the HINT1 gene. Both parents were found to carry the variant. The same variant was not found among the healthy controls. According to the ACMG criterion, the missense variant was classified as a pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: The c.335C>T (p.R119W) of the HINT1 gene probably underlie the disease in this pedigree. Above finding provided further evidence for the connection between HINT1 and NMAN and enriched the mutation spectrum of HINT1 gene.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Isaacs/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 313: 188-195, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284022

RESUMO

Brucine is one of the main bioactive and toxic constituents of the herb drug Semen Strychni. Here we aimed to determine dosing time-dependent hepatotoxicity of brucine, and to investigate the role of metabolism in generation of brucine chronotoxicity. Brucine was administered to wild-type or Npas2-/- (a clock disrupted model) mice at different circadian time points for toxicity and pharmacokinetic characterization. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase measurements and histopathological analysis. The role of Cyp3a11 in brucine metabolism was determined by chemical inhibition assays and Cyp3a11-overexpressing HEK293 cells. Hepatic circadian Cyp3a11 mRNA and protein levels were determined by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. The toxicity of brucine was more severe in the light phase [Zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 and ZT8] than in the dark phase (ZT14 and ZT20). Chemical inhibition and substrate metabolism assays suggested Cyp3a11 as a significant contributor to brucine metabolism. The Cyp3a11 mRNA, protein and activity in the livers of wild-type mice displayed significant circadian fluctuations. Npas2 ablation markedly down-regulated Cyp3a11 mRNA, protein and activity, and abrogated their circadian rhythms. The circadian time differences in brucine pharmacokinetics and liver distribution were lost in Npas2-/- mice, so were the time differences in brucine hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, chronotoxicity of brucine was determined by circadian variations in Cyp3a11 metabolism. The findings have implications in improving brucine (and possibly Semen Strychni) efficacy via dosing time optimization.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Cronoterapia Farmacológica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Estricnina/administração & dosagem , Estricnina/metabolismo , Estricnina/farmacocinética , Estricnina/toxicidade
4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2973-2981, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293054

RESUMO

Every year, approximately 1.2 million cases of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are newly diagnosed worldwide. Although metastases to distant organs are often fatal complications of CRC, little information is known as to how such metastatic lesions are formed. To reveal the genetic profiles for CRC metastasis, we conducted whole-exome RNA sequencing on CRC tumors with liver metastasis (LM) (group A, n = 12) and clinical stage-matched larger tumors without LM (group B, n = 16). While the somatic mutation profiles were similar among the primary tumors and LM lesions in group A and the tumors in group B, the A-to-C nucleotide change in the context of "AAG" was only enriched in the LM regions in group A, suggesting the presence of a DNA damage process specific to metastasis. Genes already known to be associated with CRC were mutated in all groups at a similar frequency, but we detected somatic nonsynonymous mutations in a total of 707 genes in the LM regions, but not in the tumors without LM. Signaling pathways linked to such "LM-associated" genes were overrepresented for extracellular matrix-receptor interaction or focal adhesion. Further, fusions of the ADAP1 (ArfGAP with dual PH domain 1) were newly identified in our cohort (3 out of 28 patients), which activated ARF6, an ADAP1-substrate. Infrequently, mutated genes may play an important role in metastasis formation of CRC. Additionally, recurrent ADAP1 fusion genes were unexpectedly discovered. As these fusions activate small GTPase, further experiments are warranted to examine their contribution to CRC carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação Puntual , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Life Sci ; 232: 116630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279783

RESUMO

AIMS: Lung adenocarcinoma consists of multiple therapeutic targets, however, patients will inevitably progress to later stage diagnosis with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor treatment resistance. We aim to investigate the roles of non-coding TUSC7 in ordering the cell division tendency, helping to sensitize the resistance in a miRNA incorporating way. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online study of bioinformatics analysis, molecular experiments of luciferase test, immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR were applied to dig out the mechanistic regulations. KEY FINDINGS: TUSC-7 inhibited the renewal ability of adenocarcinoma stem cells, yielding to asymmetric cell splitting. Informatics analysis and the luciferase testing confirmed the 3'UTR binding site, and revealed the post-transcriptional regulation of NUMB referring to miR-146. TUSC-7 sponged miR-146 and abolished its degradation toward to NUMB, and this integrated cascade made several genes become tangled to full functionality. SIGNIFICANCE: TUSC-7 was proved to be one strong suppressive lnc-RNA in lung adenocarcinoma stem cells, functioning through inactivating NOTCH signaling, and the turbulence on division modes precisely pointed to the key mechanisms of stem cells' renewal. The decreasing of tumor suppressive miR-146 was necessary in TUSC-7 conducted renewal repression, despite it alone could also reduce the renewal efficiency, indicating that more complicated non-coding genes may be involved in its regulation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/genética , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
6.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 688-699, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188028

RESUMO

This study was aimed to identify hub genes associated with the development of glioblastoma (GBM) by conducting a bioinformatic analysis. The raw gene expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and The Cancer Genome Atlas project. After the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, the functional enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted. Subsequently, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, molecular complex detection clusters, and transcriptional factor (TF)-miRNA-target regulatory network were constructed, respectively. Furthermore, the survival analysis of prognostic outcomes and genes was analyzed. In addition, the expression of key genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. A total of 884 DEGs, including 418 upregulated and downregulated genes, were identified between GBM and normal samples. The PPI network comprised a set of 3418 pairs involving 751 nodes, and AKT1 and CDK2 were the critical genes in the network. A total of seven clusters were identified, the genes in which were intensively associated with cell cycle, cholinergic synapse, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that AKT1 and CDK2 were significantly upregulated, and NRXN3 and NPTX2 were significantly downregulated in GBM samples. The TF-miRNA-target regulatory networks were built, in which CCNB1, RFC5, microRNA524, and microRNA34b were key regulators. There were 43 genes, including NPTX2 and NRXN3, significantly related to the prognostic outcomes of GBM patients. These crucial genes might be promising options for GBM treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ciclina B1/genética , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína de Replicação C/genética , Proteína de Replicação C/metabolismo
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
8.
Nat Methods ; 16(7): 633-639, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235883

RESUMO

Mammalian genomes are folded into tens of thousands of long-range looping interactions. The cause-and-effect relationship between looping and genome function is poorly understood, and the extent to which loops are dynamic on short time scales remains an unanswered question. Here, we engineer a new class of synthetic architectural proteins for directed rearrangement of the three-dimensional genome using blue light. We target our light-activated-dynamic-looping (LADL) system to two genomic anchors with CRISPR guide RNAs and induce their spatial colocalization via light-induced heterodimerization of cryptochrome 2 and a dCas9-CIBN fusion protein. We apply LADL to redirect a stretch enhancer (SE) away from its endogenous Klf4 target gene and to the Zfp462 promoter. Using single-molecule RNA-FISH, we demonstrate that de novo formation of the Zfp462-SE loop correlates with a modest increase in Zfp462 expression. LADL facilitates colocalization of genomic loci without exogenous chemical cofactors and will enable future efforts to engineer reversible and oscillatory loops on short time scales.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Guia/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2612, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197141

RESUMO

Primary microcephaly is caused by mutations in genes encoding centrosomal proteins including WDR62 and KIF2A. However, mechanisms underlying human microcephaly remain elusive. By creating mutant mice and human cerebral organoids, here we found that WDR62 deletion resulted in a reduction in the size of mouse brains and organoids due to the disruption of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), including outer radial glia (oRG). WDR62 ablation led to retarded cilium disassembly, long cilium, and delayed cell cycle progression leading to decreased proliferation and premature differentiation of NPCs. Mechanistically, WDR62 interacts with and promotes CEP170's localization to the basal body of primary cilium, where CEP170 recruits microtubule-depolymerizing factor KIF2A to disassemble cilium. WDR62 depletion reduced KIF2A's basal body localization, and enhanced KIF2A expression partially rescued deficits in cilium length and NPC proliferation. Thus, modeling microcephaly with cerebral organoids and mice reveals a WDR62-CEP170-KIF2A pathway promoting cilium disassembly, disruption of which contributes to microcephaly.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cílios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 838-850.e6, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about mechanisms of perineural invasion (PNI) by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs) or other tumors. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) regulates secretion of SEMA3D, an axon guidance molecule, which binds and activates the receptor PLXND1 to promote PDA invasion and metastasis. We investigated whether axon guidance molecules promote PNI and metastasis by PDA cells in mice. METHODS: We performed studies in a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) invasion system, wild-type C57BL/6 mice (controls), mice with peripheral sensory neuron-specific disruption of PlxnD1 (PLAC mice), LSL-KRASG12D/+;LSL-TP53R172H/+;PDX-1-CRE+/+ (KPC) mice, and KPC mice crossed with ANXA2-knockout mice (KPCA mice). PDA cells were isolated from KPC mice and DRG cells were isolated from control mice. Levels of SEMA3D or ANXA2 were knocked down in PDA cells with small hairpin and interfering RNAs and cells were analyzed by immunoblots in migration assays, with DRGs and with or without antibodies against PLXND1. PDA cells were injected into the pancreas of control and PLAC mice, growth of tumors was assessed, and tumor samples were analyzed by histology. DRG cells were incubated with SEMA3D and analyzed by live imaging. We measured levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in PDA specimens from patients with PNI and calculated distances between tumor cells and nerves. RESULTS: DRG cells increase the migration of PDC cells in invasion assays; knockdown of SEMA3D in PDA cells or antibody blockade of PLXND1 on DRG cells reduced this invasive activity. In mice, orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells with knockdown of SEMA3D, and in PLAC mice, orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells, had reduced innervation and formed fewer metastases than orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells in control mice. Increased levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in human PDA specimens associated with PNI. CONCLUSIONS: DRG cells increase the migratory and invasive activities of pancreatic cancer cells, via secretion of SEMA3D by pancreatic cells and activation of PLXND1 on DRGs. Knockdown of SEMA3D and loss of neural PLXND1 reduces innervation of orthotopic PDAs and metastasis in mice. Increased levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in human PDA specimens associated with PNI. Strategies to disrupt the axon guidance pathway mediated by SEMA3D and PLXND1 might be developed to slow progression of PDA.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/metabolismo , Orientação de Axônios , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Semaforinas/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A2/deficiência , Anexina A2/genética , Orientação de Axônios/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Comunicação Celular , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes p53 , Genes ras , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Crescimento Neuronal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Semaforinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 6171782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061682

RESUMO

Renal cancer is one of the most common malignant urological tumors; however, its diagnosis and treatment are not well established. In the present study, we identified that CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 3 (CDK5RAP3), a putative tumor suppressor in many cancers, was downregulated in renal cancer tissues. Through loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we observed that the action of CDK5RAP3 in renal cancer cells was different in Caki-1 and 769-P cell lines. Knockdown of endogenous CDK5RAP3 in Caki-1 slightly increased cell viability, whereas overexpression of CDK5RAP3 in 769-P cells inhibited cell viability. In addition, we observed that CDK5RAP3 participated in the regulation of autophagy in renal cancer. Knockdown of CDK5RAP3 induced significant inhibition of autophagy in Caki-1 cells but not in 769-P cells. In contrast, overexpression of CDK5RAP3 significantly activated autophagy in 769-P cells, as evidenced by increased LC3-II levels. However, the LC3-II could not be altered by CDK5RAP3 overexpression in Caki-1 cells. These findings demonstrated that CDK5RAP3 is downregulated in renal cancer and may be associated with autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5321-5334, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059045

RESUMO

High pressure is the most important factor inducing retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigated the effects of different levels of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on RGCs and the potential mechanisms involved. Primary cultured rat RGCs were exposed to five levels of HP (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg) for 24 h. Morphological changes in RGCs were observed. The viability and apoptosis rate of RGCs were detected using a Cell Counting Kit­8 assay and Annexin V­fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting, reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression and mRNA levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), protein kinase B (AKT), apoptosis signal­regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). In the 0­ and 20­mmHg groups, there were no apoptotic morphological changes. In the 40 mmHg group, parts of the cell were shrunken or disrupted. In the 60 mmHg group, neurite extension was weakened and parts of the cells were disintegrating or dying. In the 80 mmHg group, the internal structures of the cells were not visible at all. The apoptosis rates of RGCs were significantly higher and the viability rates significantly lower under 40, 60 and 80 mmHg compared with under 0 or 20 mmHg (all P<0.01). The expression and mRNA levels of NGF, AKT and CREB decreased in a dose­dependent manner in the 40­, 60­ and 80­mmHg groups (all P<0.05), but those of ASK1 and FoxO1 increased in a dose­dependent manner (all P<0.05). Interestingly, the alterations to the expression and mRNA levels of CREB were significantly larger compared with the changes in ASK1 or FoxO1 in the 40­, 60­ and 80­mmHg groups (all P<0.01). The results of the present study demonstrate that elevated HP of 40, 60 or 80 mmHg reduces viability and induces apoptosis in RGCs, which may occur through effects on the NGF/ASK1/FoxO1 and NGF/AKT/CREB pathways, of which the latter is more strongly affected.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Pressão Hidrostática , Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Ganglionares da Retina/citologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(7): 103665, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071487

RESUMO

Triple A syndrome, a multisystemic autosomal recessive disease, is characterized by the clinical triad of adrenal insufficiency, alacrima and achalasia in combination with progressive neurological impairments. The disorder is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the AAAS gene. Here we present the clinical and molecular data of a ten year old patient with triple A syndrome. Array CGH analysis confirmed the PCR-based assumption of a homozygous deletion of the entire AAAS gene in the patient and a heterozygous deletion in both parents. We demonstrate that the patient carries a 15 kb deletion and identified the 5' and 3' breakpoints outside the AAAS gene. This is the first report of a triple A syndrome patient with a homozygous deletion of the entire AAAS gene.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Acalasia Esofágica/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Acalasia Esofágica/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(3): 921-933, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104250

RESUMO

In fish, as in mammals, several studies have demonstrated that the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) plays an important role in feeding. However, thus far, the function of CART in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) feeding regulation has not been reported. In our study, we first identified three forms of CART peptide precursors from gibel carp brain and named these CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3. The full-length cDNA sequences of CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 were 616 bp, 705 bp, and 760 bp, respectively, encoding peptides of 118, 120, and 104 amino acid residues. We detected mRNA expression of CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 in a wide range of peripheral and central tissues, with the highest expression detected in the brain. After a meal, mRNA expression of CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 was significantly elevated, suggesting that CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 may act as postprandial satiety signals. Moreover, mRNA expression of all three CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 was significantly reduced during fasting and significantly elevated with refeeding. Our findings indicate that CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 might function as a satiety factor in the gibel carp.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Filogenia , Isoformas de Proteínas
15.
Gene ; 710: 145-147, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141720

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship between c-reactive protein (CRP) gene +1444C/T, 3407T/C (rs2808630) polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility. METHODS: A total of 142 colorectal cancer patients and 127 healthy controls were recruited into this case-control study. The genotypes of CRP gene +1444C/T, rs2808630 polymorphisms were tested by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the genotypes distributions of polymorphisms in controls was assessed whether conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The calculation of odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) is used for evaluating the association strength of gene polymorphism and disease. RESULTS: Through the testing of χ2, the genotypes distributions were consistent with HWE in the control group. We identified that only CC genotype frequency in CRP rs2808630 had a significant difference in cases and controls (P = 0.03) and people who carried CC genotype had a low risk suffering from colorectal cancer, compared with TT genotype carriers (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14-0.90). However, the other genotypes in rs2808630 and even the genotypes CRP +1444C/T polymorphism were all not associated with the generation of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: CRP rs2808630 polymorphism was related to the decreased risk of colorectal cancer, but not +1444C/T polymorphism.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 8282414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089399

RESUMO

Objective: The synaptic adhesion-like molecule (SALM) family is largely restricted to neural tissues and is involved in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. However, the expression of SALM3 in gastric cancer (GC) and its clinical significance remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of SALM3 in patients with GC. Patients and Methods: Expression of SALM3 was validated by tissue microarrays from 730 GC patients and statistically assessed for correlations with the clinical parameters and the prognosis of the patients. The transcriptional and survival data of SALM3 in GC patients were also mined through the Oncomine and Kaplan-Meier Plotter databases. Results: SALM3 is overexpressed in the tumor cells and fibroblasts of clinical GC tissues, and a high level of SALM3 was significantly associated with tumor invasive characteristics. Cox proportional hazards univariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed SALM3 expression in tumor cells or stroma as an independent prognostic factor in the overall survival rate of GC patients. Furthermore, the survival of GC patients with high SALM3 expression in both tumor cells and fibroblasts was significantly poorer than that of the other groups. Oncomine and Kaplan-Meier Plotter analyses further confirmed high levels of SALM3 expression in GC, and high levels of SALM3 expression were associated with shorter survival in patients. Conclusion: SALM3 may be a prognostic factor for GC and may potentially be a high-priority therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musashi-1 (MSI1) is a negative regulator of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation which in turn favors cell proliferation. However, little is known about its expression by MSC from the oral cavity and in the context of osteogenic differentiation. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of MSI1 in the context of osteogenic differentiation of MSC derived from the oral cavity. MATERIAL/METHODS: For this in vitro study, MSC were isolated from six different origins of the oral cavity. They were extensively characterized in terms of proliferative and clonogenicity potential, expression of stemness genes (MYC, NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2), expression of surface markers (CD73, CD90, CD105, CD14, CD31, CD34, and CD45) and adipo-, chondro- and osteogenic differentiation potential. Then, osteogenic differentiation was induced and the expression of MSI1 mRNA and other relevant markers of osteogenic differentiation, including RUNX2 and Periostin, were also evaluated. RESULTS: Cell populations from the alveolar bone (pristine or previously grafted with xenograft), dental follicle, dental germ, dental pulp, and periodontal ligament were obtained. The analysis of proliferative and clonogenicity potential, expression of the stemness genes, expression of surface markers, and differentiation potential showed similar characteristics to those of previously published MSC from the umbilical cord. Under osteogenic differentiation conditions, all MSC populations formed calcium deposits and expressed higher SPARC. Over time, the expression of MSI1 followed different patterns for the different MSC populations. It was not significantly different than the expression of RUNX2. In contrast, the expression of MSI1 and POSTN and RUNX2 were statistically different in most MSC populations. CONCLUSION: In the current study, a similar expression pattern of MSI1 and RUNX2 during in vitro osteogenic differentiation was identified.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Boca/citologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Osteogênese , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Células Cultivadas , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Boca/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 52(6): 1361-1380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) are one of the most promising types of cells to regenerate nerve tissues. Standard DMEM+10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) culture medium allows a fast expansion of hDPSC as a surface-adherent cell monolayer. However, the use of FBS also compromises the clinical use of these protocols, and its longterm presence favors hDPSCs differentiation toward mesenchymal cell-derived lineages, at the expense of a reduced capability to generate neural cells. The objective of this work was to characterize the role of neurotrophin signaling on hDPSCs using a serum-free culture protocol, and to assess the neurogenic and gliogenic capacity of hDPSCs for future nerve tissue bioengineering and regeneration. METHODS: We compared the different expression of neurotrophin receptors by RT-PCR, Q-PCR, and IF of hDPSCs cultured with different growth media in the presence or absence of serum. Moreover, we assessed the response of hDPSCs to stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors by live cell calcium imaging under these different media. Finally, we compared the osteogenic potential of hDPSCs by Alizarin red staining, and the differentiation to gliogenic/neurogenic fates by immunostaining for Schwann lineage and neuronal lineage markers. We tested a commercial serum-free medium designed for the growth of mesenchymal stem cells: StemPro MSCTM (STP). RESULTS: hDPSCs cultured in STP generated small non-adherent floating dentospheres that showed very low proliferation rates, in contrast to standard FBS-containing medium. We found that hDPSCs grown in STP conditions overexpressed neurotrophin receptor genes NTRK2 (TrkB) and NTRK3 (TrkC). Interestingly, the stimulation of these receptors by adding their respective ligands BDNF and NT-3 to STP medium enhanced the neural crest (NC) progenitor features of cultured hDPSCs. We observed a 10 to 100-fold increase of migratory NC cell markers HNK1 and P75NTR, and a significant overexpression of pluripotency core factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG. Moreover, hDPSCs cultured in BDNF/NT-3 supplemented STP showed a largely increased potential to differentiate towards neuronal and Schwann glial lineage cells, assessed by positive immunostaining for DCX, NeuN and S100ß, p75NTR markers, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the use of BDNF and NT-3 combined with STP induced the partial reprogramming of ectomesenchymal hDPSCs to generate early NC progenitor cells, which are far more competent for neuronal and glial differentiation than hDPSCs grown in the presence of FBS.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/farmacologia , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro/farmacologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD57/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Crista Neural/citologia , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkA/metabolismo , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052177

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and repetitive behaviors. In addition, co-morbidities such as gastro-intestinal problems have frequently been reported. Mutations and deletion of proteins of the SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains (SHANK) gene-family were identified in patients with ASD, and Shank knock-out mouse models display autism-like phenotypes. SHANK3 proteins are not only expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show expression in gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium and report a significantly different GI morphology in Shank3 knock-out (KO) mice. Further, we detected a significantly altered microbiota composition measured in feces of Shank3 KO mice that may contribute to inflammatory responses affecting brain development. In line with this, we found higher E. coli lipopolysaccharide levels in liver samples of Shank3 KO mice, and detected an increase in Interleukin-6 and activated astrocytes in Shank3 KO mice. We conclude that apart from its well-known role in the CNS, SHANK3 plays a specific role in the GI tract that may contribute to the ASD phenotype by extracerebral mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 700-707, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090452

RESUMO

Substantial research has revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and recent studies have shown different effects in the progression of different tumors. However, the role of PPARG and its target gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are incompletely understood. Clinical data revealed abnormal glucolipid metabolism in primary ccRCC samples. In addition, transcriptional profiling indicated that PPARG expression was positively correlated, whereas Six2 expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival of ccRCC patients. Staining showed that PPARG was mainly expressed in tumor cell cytoplasm, and Six2 was localized to the nuclei. In a ccRCC cell line, PPARG activation promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited cell migration and proliferation, and reduced Six2 expression. Mechanistically, overexpressing Six2 downregulated E-cadherin expression and cell apoptosis, but PPARG activation reversed those effects. Taken together, PPARG promotes apoptosis and suppresses the migration and proliferation of ccRCC cells by inhibiting Six2. These findings reveal that the PPARG/Six2 axis acts as a central pathobiological mediator of ccRCC formation and as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with ccRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Apoptose , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
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