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1.
Gene ; 806: 145920, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455026

RESUMO

Depression is deemed a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Therefore, overcoming of the recurrent depression is globally expecting. Kososan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been clinically used for mild depressive mood, and our previous studies have shown some evidence for its antidepressive-like efficacy in experimental animal models of depression. However, it remains unclear whether kososan has beneficial effects on recurrent depression. Here, we examined its effect using a mouse model of modified repeated social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to a 5-min SDS from unfamiliar aggressive CD-1 mice for 5 days. Kososan extract (1.0 kg/kg/day) or an antidepressant milnacipran (60 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 26 days (days 7-32) to depression-like mice with social avoidant behaviors on day 6. Single 5 min of SDS was subjected to mice recovered from the social avoidance on day 31, and then the recurrence of depression-like behaviors was evaluated on day 32. Hippocampal gene expression patterns were also assayed by DNA microarray analysis. Water- or milnacipran-administered mice resulted in a recurrence of depression-like behaviors by re-exposure of single SDS, whereas kososan-administered mice did not recur depression-like behaviors. Distinct gene expression patterns were also found for treating kososan and milnacipran. Collectively, this finding suggests that kososan exerts a preventive effect on recurrent depression-like behaviors in mice. Pretreatment of kososan is more useful for recurrent depression than that of milnacipran.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Milnaciprano/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Recidiva , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(9): 917-920, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487544

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS)(OMIM#606232) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22q13 involving a variety of clinical features with considerably heterogeneous degrees of severity. This syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, absent or severely delayed speech, minor dysmorphic features and autism spectrum disorder. PMS is easy to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical candidate gene for the neurological features of this syndrome. However, some studies have shown that other genes located in the 22q13 region may have a role in the formation of symptoms in individuals with PMS. This article provides a review for recent progress made in research on PMS including etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment, with a particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4087, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471112

RESUMO

We utilized forebrain organoids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells of patients with a syndromic form of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with a homozygous protein-truncating mutation in CNTNAP2, to study its effects on embryonic cortical development. Patients with this mutation present with clinical characteristics of brain overgrowth. Patient-derived forebrain organoids displayed an increase in volume and total cell number that is driven by increased neural progenitor proliferation. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed PFC-excitatory neurons to be the key cell types expressing CNTNAP2. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEgenes) corroborates aberrant cellular proliferation. Moreover, the DEgenes are enriched for ASD-associated genes. The cell-type-specific signature genes of the CNTNAP2-expressing neurons are associated with clinical phenotypes previously described in patients. The organoid overgrowth phenotypes were largely rescued after correction of the mutation using CRISPR-Cas9. This CNTNAP2-organoid model provides opportunity for further mechanistic inquiry and development of new therapeutic strategies for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Gene ; 803: 145898, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391864

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is a key factor in symptomology and comorbidities of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Levels of a proinflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP) are increased in individuals with PTSD but it is not clear if this is due to trauma exposure or PTSD. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between serum CRP levels, CRP SNPs, methylation, mRNA expression and PTSD in a homogenous trauma exposed Australian Vietnam veteran cohort. We hypothesized that decreased DNA methylation would be associated with increased gene expression and increased peripheral CRP levels in PTSD patients and that this would be independent of trauma. Participants were 299 Vietnam veterans who had all been exposed to trauma and approximately half were diagnosed with PTSD. We observed higher levels of serum CRP in the PTSD group compared to the non-PTSD group but after controlling for BMI and triglycerides the association did not remain significant. No association was found between CRP SNPs and PTSD or CRP levels. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) which is a mediator of inflammatory response and a determinant of CRP levels was analysed for DNA methylation and mRNA expression. We observed a trend level association between PTSD and AIM2 methylation after controlling for age, smoking, triglycerides, BMI and cell types. There was no significant interaction between PTSD and CRP levels on AIM2 methylation after controlling for covariates. We observed that as AIM2 methylation levels decreased, AIM2 mRNA expression increased. Elevated CRP levels were associated with AIM2 mRNA in the trauma exposed cohort but there was no significant interaction effect with PTSD. Our results could not confirm that CRP is a marker of PTSD independent of trauma in this group of older veterans. CRP may be a broad marker of disease risk, or a marker of PTSD in younger cohorts than those in this study.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Veteranos/psicologia , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Regulação para Cima , Guerra do Vietnã
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360710

RESUMO

A presynaptic active zone organizer protein Bassoon orchestrates numerous important functions at the presynaptic active zone. We previously showed that the absence of Bassoon exclusively in forebrain glutamatergic presynapses (BsnEmx1cKO) in mice leads to developmental disturbances in dentate gyrus (DG) affecting synaptic excitability, morphology, neurogenesis and related behaviour during adulthood. Here, we demonstrate that hyperexcitability of the medial perforant path-to-DG (MPP-DG) pathway in BsnEmx1cKO mice emerges during adolescence and is sustained during adulthood. We further provide evidence for a potential involvement of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), the high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), mediated signalling. We detect elevated TrkB protein levels in the dorsal DG of adult mice (~3-5 months-old) but not in adolescent (~4-5 weeks-old) mice. Electrophysiological analysis reveals increased field-excitatory-postsynaptic-potentials (fEPSPs) in the DG of the adult, but not in adolescent BsnEmx1cKO mice. In line with an increased TrkB expression during adulthood in BsnEmx1cKO, blockade of TrkB normalizes the increased synaptic excitability in the DG during adulthood, while no such effect was observed in adolescence. Accordingly, neurogenesis, which has previously been found to be increased in adult BsnEmx1cKO mice, was unaffected at adolescent age. Our results suggest that Bassoon plays a crucial role in the TrkB-dependent postnatal maturation of the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transmissão Sináptica , Animais , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361042

RESUMO

Various neurodegenerative disorders are associated with human NTE/PNPLA6 dysfunction. Mechanisms of neuropathogenesis in these diseases are far from clearly elucidated. Hereditary spastic paraplegia belongs to a type of neurodegeneration associated with NTE/PNLPLA6 and is implicated in neuron death. In this study, we used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the consequences of neuronal knockdown of swiss cheese (sws)-the evolutionarily conserved ortholog of human NTE/PNPLA6-in vivo. Adult flies with the knockdown show longevity decline, locomotor and memory deficits, severe neurodegeneration progression in the brain, reactive oxygen species level acceleration, mitochondria abnormalities and lipid droplet accumulation. Our results suggest that SWS/NTE/PNPLA6 dysfunction in neurons induces oxidative stress and lipid metabolism alterations, involving mitochondria dynamics and lipid droplet turnover in neurodegeneration pathogenesis. We propose that there is a complex mechanism in neurological diseases such as hereditary spastic paraplegia, which includes a stress reaction, engaging mitochondria, lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum interplay.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(606)2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380770

RESUMO

Liver transplantation patients are at increased risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We found that genetic predisposition to low pannexin 1 (PANX1) expression in donor livers was associated with MRSA infection in human liver transplantation recipients. Using Panx1 and Il-33-knockout mice for liver transplantation models with MRSA tail vein injection, we demonstrated that Panx1 deficiency increased MRSA-induced liver injury and animal death. We found that decreased PANX1 expression in the liver led to reduced release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from hepatocytes, which further reduced the activation of P2X2, an ATP-activating P2X receptor. Reduced P2X2 function further decreased the NLRP3-mediated release of interleukin-33 (IL-33), reducing hepatic recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. Administration of mouse IL-33 to Panx1-/- mice significantly (P = 0.011) ameliorated MRSA infection and animal death. Reduced human hepatic IL-33 protein abundance also associated with increased predisposition to MRSA infection. Our findings reveal that genetic predisposition to reduced PANX1 function increases risk for MRSA infection after liver transplantation by decreasing hepatic host innate immune defense, which can be attenuated by IL-33 treatment.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Conexinas , Humanos , Interleucina-33 , Doadores Vivos , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
8.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3368-3385.e9, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375583

RESUMO

The mechanistic understanding of nascent RNAs in transcriptional control remains limited. Here, by a high sensitivity method methylation-inscribed nascent transcripts sequencing (MINT-seq), we characterized the landscapes of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) on nascent RNAs. We uncover heavy but selective m6A deposition on nascent RNAs produced by transcription regulatory elements, including promoter upstream antisense RNAs and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), which positively correlates with their length, inclusion of m6A motif, and RNA abundances. m6A-eRNAs mark highly active enhancers, where they recruit nuclear m6A reader YTHDC1 to phase separate into liquid-like condensates, in a manner dependent on its C terminus intrinsically disordered region and arginine residues. The m6A-eRNA/YTHDC1 condensate co-mixes with and facilitates the formation of BRD4 coactivator condensate. Consequently, YTHDC1 depletion diminished BRD4 condensate and its recruitment to enhancers, resulting in inhibited enhancer and gene activation. We propose that chemical modifications of eRNAs together with reader proteins play broad roles in enhancer activation and gene transcriptional control.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adenosina/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360929

RESUMO

Complexins (Cplxs) 1 to 4 are components of the presynaptic compartment of chemical synapses where they regulate important steps in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. In the retina, all four Cplxs are present, and while we know a lot about Cplxs 3 and 4, little is known about Cplxs 1 and 2. Here, we performed in situ hybridization experiments and bioinformatics and exploited Cplx 1 and Cplx 2 single-knockout mice combined with immunocytochemistry and light microscopy to characterize in detail the cell type and synapse-specific distribution of Cplx 1 and Cplx 2. We found that Cplx 2 and not Cplx 1 is the main isoform expressed in normal and displaced amacrine cells and ganglion cells in mouse retinae and that amacrine cells seem to operate with a single Cplx isoform at their conventional chemical synapses. Surprising was the finding that retinal function, determined with electroretinographic recordings, was altered in Cplx 1 but not Cplx 2 single-knockout mice. In summary, the results provide an important basis for future studies on the function of Cplxs 1 and 2 in the processing of visual signals in the mammalian retina.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Células Bipolares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Horizontais da Retina/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Hibridização In Situ/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445257

RESUMO

The production of pancreatic ß cells is the most challenging step for curing diabetes using next-generation treatments. Adult pancreatic endocrine cells are thought to be maintained by the self-duplication of differentiated cells, and pancreatic endocrine neogenesis can only be observed when the tissue is severely damaged. Experimentally, this can be performed using a method named partial duct ligation (PDL). As the success rate of PDL surgery is low because of difficulties in identifying the pancreatic duct, we previously proposed a method for fluorescently labeling the duct in live animals. Using this method, we performed PDL on neurogenin3 (Ngn3)-GFP transgenic mice to determine the origin of endocrine precursor cells and evaluate their potential to differentiate into multiple cell types. Ngn3-activated cells, which were marked with GFP, appeared after PDL operation. Because some GFP-positive cells were aligned proximally to the duct, we hypothesized that Ngn3-positive cells arise from the pancreatic duct. Therefore, we next developed an in vitro pancreatic duct culture system using Ngn3-GFP mice and examined whether Ngn3-positive cells emerge from this duct. We observed GFP expressions in ductal organoid cultures. GFP expressions were correlated with Ngn3 expressions and endocrine cell lineage markers. Interestingly, tuft cell markers were also correlated with GFP expressions. Our results demonstrate that in adult mice, Ngn3-positive endocrine precursor cells arise from the pancreatic ducts both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicating that the pancreatic duct could be a potential donor for therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ductos Pancreáticos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Ductos Pancreáticos/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445283

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances in nature. Currently, the only therapy for botulism is antitoxin. This therapy suffers from several limitations and hence new therapeutic strategies are desired. One of the limitations in discovering BoNT inhibitors is the absence of an in vitro assay that correlates with toxin neutralization in vivo. In this work, a high-throughput screening assay for receptor-binding inhibitors against BoNT/A was developed. The assay is composed of two chimeric proteins: a receptor-simulating protein, consisting of the fourth luminal loop of synaptic vesicle protein 2C fused to glutathione-S-transferase, and a toxin-simulating protein, consisting of the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/A fused to beta-galactosidase. The assay was applied to screen the LOPAC1280 compound library. Seven selected compounds were evaluated in mice exposed to a lethal dose of BoNT/A. The compound aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) conferred 92% protection, whereas significant delayed time to death (p < 0.005) was observed for three additional compounds. Remarkably, ATA was also fully protective in mice challenged with a lethal dose of BoNT/E, which also uses the SV2 receptor. This study demonstrates that receptor-binding inhibitors have the potential to serve as next generation therapeutics for botulism, and therefore the assay developed may facilitate discovery of new anti-BoNT countermeasures.


Assuntos
Ácido Aurintricarboxílico/farmacologia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/toxicidade , Toxinas Botulínicas/toxicidade , Botulismo/tratamento farmacológico , Botulismo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Animais , Botulismo/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induced tooth movement during orthodontic therapy requires mechano-induced bone remodeling. Besides various cytokines and growth-factors, neuronal guidance molecules gained attention for their roles in bone homeostasis and thus, potential roles during tooth movement. Several neuronal guidance molecules have been implicated in the regulation of bone remodeling. Amongst them, Semaphorin 3A is particular interesting as it concurrently induces osteoblast differentiation and disturbs osteoclast differentiation. METHODS: Mechano-regulation of Sema3A and its receptors PlexinA1 and Neuropilin (RT-qPCR, WB) was evaluated by applying compressive and tension forces to primary human periodontal fibroblasts (hPDLF) and alveolar bone osteoblasts (hOB). The association of the transcription factor Osterix (SP7) and SEMA3A was studied by RT-qPCR. Mechanisms involved in SEMA3A-mediated osteoblast differentiation were assessed by Rac1GTPase pull-downs, ß-catenin expression analyses (RT-qPCR) and nuclear translocation assays (IF). Osteogenic markers were analyzed by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: SEMA3A, PLXNA1 and NRP1 were differentially regulated by tension or compressive forces in hPDLF. Osterix (SP7) displayed the same pattern of regulation. Recombinant Sema3A induced the activation of Rac1GTPase, the nuclear translocation of ß-catenin and the expression of osteogenic marker genes. CONCLUSION: Sema3A, its receptors and Osterix are regulated by mechanical forces in hPDLF. SEMA3A upregulation was associated with Osterix (SP7) modulation. Sema3A-enhanced osteogenic marker gene expression in hOB might be dependent on a pathway involving Rac1GTPase and ß-catenin. Thus, Semaphorin 3A might contribute to bone remodeling during induced tooth movement.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuropilinas/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Ligamento Periodontal/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Semaforina-3A/metabolismo , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Remodelação Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neuropilinas/genética , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Semaforina-3A/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378666

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be "disease causing," with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Consanguinidade , Humanos , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Paquistão
14.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(29)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356019

RESUMO

This is a case report of a patient, who was diagnosed with epilepsy (atypical infantile convulsions) at the age of one year and unspecific myopathy at the age of three years. At the age of 25 years, the patient was referred to a neuromuscular clinic due to myopathy, but the diagnose was changed to atypical infantile convulsions with seizures in adulthood and paroxysmal choreoathetosis due to a pathogenic variant c.970G>A, p. (Gly324Arg) in the PRRT2 gene.


Assuntos
Discinesias , Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna , Adulto , Discinesias/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Linhagem
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4872, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381052

RESUMO

The Netrin-1 receptor UNC5B is an axon guidance regulator that is also expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), where it finely controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis. In the absence of Netrin-1, UNC5B induces apoptosis that is blocked upon Netrin-1 binding. Here, we identify an UNC5B splicing isoform (called UNC5B-Δ8) expressed exclusively by ECs and generated through exon skipping by NOVA2, an alternative splicing factor regulating vascular development. We show that UNC5B-Δ8 is a constitutively pro-apoptotic splicing isoform insensitive to Netrin-1 and required for specific blood vessel development in an apoptosis-dependent manner. Like NOVA2, UNC5B-Δ8 is aberrantly expressed in colon cancer vasculature where its expression correlates with tumor angiogenesis and poor patient outcome. Collectively, our data identify a mechanism controlling UNC5B's necessary apoptotic function in ECs and suggest that the NOVA2/UNC5B circuit represents a post-transcriptional pathway regulating angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Vasos Sanguíneos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Isoformas de RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Morfogênese , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Isoformas de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4056, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210967

RESUMO

Maternally inherited duplication of chromosome 15q11-q13 (Dup15q) is a pathogenic copy number variation (CNV) associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, paternally derived duplication has also been shown to contribute to the development of ASD. The molecular mechanism underlying paternal Dup15q remains unclear. Here, we conduct genetic and overexpression-based screening and identify Necdin (Ndn) as a driver gene for paternal Dup15q resulting in the development of ASD-like phenotypes in mice. An excess amount of Ndn results in enhanced spine formation and density as well as hyperexcitability of cortical pyramidal neurons. We generate 15q dupΔNdn mice with a normalized copy number of Ndn by excising its one copy from Dup15q mice using a CRISPR-Cas9 system. 15q dupΔNdn mice do not show ASD-like phenotypes and show dendritic spine dynamics and cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance similar to wild type animals. Our study provides an insight into the role of Ndn in paternal 15q duplication and a mouse model of paternal Dup15q syndrome.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Trissomia/genética , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo
17.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21791, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320240

RESUMO

Chemical neurotransmission typically occurs through synapses. Previous ultrastructural examinations of monoamine neuron axon terminals often failed to identify a pre- and postsynaptic coupling, leading to the concept of "volume" transmission. Whether this results from intrinsic properties of these neurons remains undefined. We find that dopaminergic neurons in vitro establish a distinctive axonal arbor compared to glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons in both size and propensity of terminals to avoid direct contact with target neurons. While most dopaminergic varicosities are active and contain exocytosis proteins like synaptotagmin 1, only ~20% of these are synaptic. The active zone protein bassoon was found to be enriched in dopaminergic terminals that are in proximity to a target cell. Finally, we found that the proteins neurexin-1αSS4- and neuroligin-1A+B play a critical role in the formation of synapses by dopamine (DA) neurons. Our findings suggest that DA neurons are endowed with a distinctive developmental connectivity program.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/citologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Dopamina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
18.
Behav Neurol ; 2021: 4150926, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257739

RESUMO

Objective: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This case-control study was to determine the association between childhood ASD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3746599 in the DUSP15 gene, rs7794745 in the CNTNAP2 gene, and rs251379 in the PCDHA gene in a Chinese Han population. Methods: Genotypes of SNPs were examined in DNA extracted from blood cells from 201 children with ASD and 200 healthy controls. The Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was applied to evaluate the severity of the disease and language impairment. The relationship between SNPs and the risk of ASD or the severity of the disease was determined by logistic regression and one-way ANOVA. Results: The genotype G/G of rs3746599 in the DUSP15 gene was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ASD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.99, P = 0.0449). The T allele of rs7794745 in the CNTNAP2 gene was associated with an increased risk of ASD (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.77, P = 0.0435). The SNP rs251379 was not associated with ASD. Though none of the SNPs examined were associated with ASD severity, rs7794745 was associated with severity of language impairment. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both rs3746599 in the DUSP15 gene and rs7794745 in the CNTNAP2 gene are associated with risk of childhood ASD, and rs7794745 is also related to the severity of language impairment in autistic children from a Chinese Han population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
19.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271514

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Although evidence suggests that the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex involves social cognition, there are inconsistent findings regarding the aberrant cingulate gray matter (GM) and scanty evidence about altered cortical thickness and white matter (WM) of cingulate in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Evidence supports the association between the genetic variants of CNTNAP2 and altered brain connectivity. This study investigated the cingulate substructure and its association with social awareness deficits and the CNTNAP2 variants in individuals with ASD and typically-developing controls (TDC). METHODS: We assessed 118 individuals with ASD and 122 TDC with MRI and clinical evaluation. The GM, WM volumes and cortical thickness of the cingulate gyrus were compared between ASD and TDC based on fine parcellation. Five SNPs of the CNTNAP2 linked to ASD and brain structural abnormality were genotyped, and rs2710102, rs2538991, rs2710126 passed quality control filters. RESULTS: ASD individuals showed thinner cortical thickness in bilateral cingulate subregions than TDC without significant group differences in GM and WM volumes. The WM volume of the right anterior cingulate gyrus was correlated with social awareness deficits in ASD. The CNTNAP2 variant demonstrated a main effect on the WM volumes of the right middle cingulate gyrus. Besides, the CNTNAP2 variants interacted with ASD diagnosis and age on the cortical thickness of the left anterior middle cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that aberrant cingulate structure in ASD might be associated with the social awareness deficits and genetic variants of the CNTNAP2. These novel findings need validation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Substância Branca , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Encéfalo , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Seizure ; 91: 360-368, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298454

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Self-limited familial infantile epilepsy (SFIE) is largely associated with variants in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2). However, the detailed phenotype-genotype correlations are unclear, along with the efficacy of various antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of this epilepsy syndrome. In this study, we analysed the PRRT2 variants associated with SFIE in Chinese patients, and the efficacy of different antiepileptic drugs prescribed during follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively included 20 patients diagnosed with SFIE and reviewed their clinical characteristics, genetic variants, and treatment responses. RESULTS: Eighteen of the 20 (90%) patients harboured the common heterozygous variant of PRRT2 c.649dupC p.(Arg217fs). One patient had two heterozygous variants of PRRT2, c.640G>C p.(Ala214Pro) and c.955G>T p.(Val319Leu), and the other patient harboured a novel c.606delA (p.Pro203Hisfs) variant. Nine patients who had first-line treatment of oxcarbazepine (OXC) became seizure-free. However, initial treatment with levetiracetam (LEV) or sodium valproate (VPA) in eight and three patients, respectively, was not effective even after increasing the dosage, and seizure-free status was only achieved after changing the treatment to OXC. The treatment responses suggested a significant difference (P < 0.001) between OXC and other anti-epileptic drugs. CONCLUSION: OXC as a sodium channel blocker may have a better effect than LEV and VPA in the treatment of PRRT2-associated SFIE. PRRT2 variants may be used as a biomarker to help select antiepileptic drugs for SFIE.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Síndromes Epilépticas , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Oxcarbazepina , Estudos Retrospectivos
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