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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24539, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578547

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a screening method using salivary tests to screen for periodontal disease.In total, 1888 individuals older than 30 years in 2017 and 2296 in 2018 who underwent medical check-ups for metabolic syndrome agreed to participate and simultaneously underwent a dental examination by dentists and salivary tests. Salivary occult blood, protein, and ammonia levels and white blood cell counts were evaluated in salivary tests using commercially available kits. The relationship between the results of the salivary tests and dental examination was examined and classification performance was analyzed.The prevalence of periodontal disease was 69.9% in 2017 and 66.8% in 2018. Salivary ammonia showed the highest classification performance in both years (sensitivity 83.5 and 83.1%, precision 73.0 and 69.3%, F-measure 0.779 and 0.756). Occult blood, which was assessed using a monoclonal antibody to human hemoglobin, also showed good performance (sensitivity 69.5%, precision 70.6%, F-measure 0.701). Questions regarding self-reported gingival bleeding were not sufficient to screen for periodontitis. The present results suggest that screening tests using salivary samples may detect periodontal disease in approximately 70% to 80% of subjects in a large population.Conclusion: Salivary ammonia and hemoglobin have potential as salivary markers in the screening of periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Saliva/química , Idoso , Amônia/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Exame Físico/métodos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110124, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721813

RESUMO

Utilising biomarkers for COVID-19 diagnosis, prediction of treatment response and overall prognostication have been investigated recently. However, these ventures have only considered the use of blood-based molecular markers. Saliva is another biofluid that warrants being applied in similar fashion with major advantages that centres on its non-invasive and repeatable collection as well as cost-efficiency. To this end, this article presents a hypothesis for the sources of biomarkers useful clinically for COVID-19 disease outcome estimation and identify the likely implications of their detection in saliva.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/análise , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Vesículas Extracelulares , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , Doenças da Boca/complicações , Doenças da Boca/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saliva/imunologia , Saliva/virologia , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise
3.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(2): 395-405, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614365

RESUMO

Proteins in saliva are needed for preprocessing food in the mouth, maintenance of tooth mineralization, and protection from microbial pathogens. Novel insights into human lineage-specific functions of salivary proteins and clues to their involvement in human disease can be gained through evolutionary studies, as recently shown for salivary amylase AMY1 and salivary agglutinin DMBT1/gp340. However, the entirety of proteins in saliva, the salivary proteome, has not yet been investigated from an evolutionary perspective. Here, we compared the proteomes of human saliva and the saliva of our closest extant evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, using macaques as an outgroup, with the aim to uncover features in saliva protein composition that are unique to each species. We found that humans produce a waterier saliva, containing less than half total protein than great apes and Old World monkeys. For all major salivary proteins in humans, we could identify counterparts in chimpanzee and gorilla saliva. However, we discovered unique protein profiles in saliva of humans that were distinct from those of nonhuman primates. These findings open up the possibility that dietary differences and pathogenic pressures may have shaped a distinct salivary proteome in the human lineage.


Assuntos
Primatas/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Gorilla gorilla/genética , Gorilla gorilla/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca/genética , Macaca/metabolismo , Pan troglodytes/genética , Pan troglodytes/metabolismo
4.
Biomolecules ; 9(12)2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766659

RESUMO

Screening for systolic heart failure (SHF) has been problematic. Heart failure management guidelines suggest screening for structural heart disease and SHF prevention strategies should be a top priority. We developed a multi-protein biomarker panel using saliva as a diagnostic medium to discriminate SHF patients and healthy controls. We collected saliva samples from healthy controls (n = 88) and from SHF patients (n = 100). We developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays to quantify three specific proteins/peptide (Kallikrein-1, Protein S100-A7, and Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide) in saliva samples. The analytical and clinical performances and predictive value of the proteins were evaluated. The analytical performances of the immunoassays were all within acceptable analytical ranges. The multi-protein panel was able to significantly (p < 0.001) discriminate saliva samples collected from patients with SHF from controls. The multi-protein panel demonstrated good performance with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 81.6% (sensitivity of 79.2% and specificity of 85.7%) when distinguishing SHF patients from healthy individuals. In conclusion, we have developed immunoassays to measure the salivary concentrations of three proteins combined as a panel to accurately distinguish SHF patients from healthy controls. While this requires confirmation in larger cohorts, our findings suggest that this three-protein panel has the potential to be used as a biomarker for early detection of SHF.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
5.
Microsc Microanal ; 25(6): 1482-1490, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571553

RESUMO

The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Glândulas Salivares/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Salivares/ultraestrutura , Animais , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Histocitoquímica , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Saliva/química , Glândulas Salivares/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 204: 107510, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and substances found in tobacco may alter salivary flow and amount of saliva proteins. This study aimed to compare salivary proteins between alcohol dependent smokers and controls. METHODS: This is a case-control study with men older than 18 years of age, matched by age. The alcohol-dependent group was composed by heavy smokers and alcohol consumers. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all subjects. Analysis of digested peptides was performed in mass spectrometer. Data were processed using ProteinLynx GlobalServer software. Results were obtained by searching theHomo sapiens database from the UniProt catalog. The search tool IBI-IMIM was used to identify candidate proteins for biomarkers. RESULTS: Alcohol-dependent and control groups were composed of nine participants each, with mean age of 36.89 ±â€¯2.57 and 35.78 ±â€¯1.64 years, respectively. 404 salivary proteins were found in both groups; 282 in the alcohol-dependent. Among the 96 proteins presented in both groups, 32 were up-regulated in the alcohol dependents (i.e. "Hemoglobin subunit beta" and "Forkhead box protein P2" were up-regulated at least 10-fold), 23 were down-regulated (i.e. "Statherin" and "RNA-binding protein 25" were down-regulated at least 10-fold), and 41 presented similar expression in both groups. 71 proteins were candidates for biomarkers of disorders 58 presented in alcohol dependents' saliva. The most common disorders were neoplasms, genetic, cardiovascular, metabolic and glandular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary protein profile undergoes strong changes in alcohol and tobacco dependents. 34% of salivary proteins present in alcohol and tobacco dependents were present in controls; 14.5% of them were expressed in similar quantity.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Tabagismo/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
7.
Proteomics ; 19(20): e1900023, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476108

RESUMO

Dried saliva spot sampling is a minimally invasive technique for the spatial mapping of salivary protein distribution in the oral cavity. In conjunction with untargeted nano-flow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) analysis, DSS is used to compare the proteomes secreted by unstimulated parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary glands. Two hundred and twenty proteins show a statistically significant association with parotid gland secretion, while 30 proteins are at least tenfold more abundant in the submandibular/sublingual glands. Protein identifications and label-free quantifications are highly reproducible across the paired glands on three consecutive days, enabling to establish the core proteome of glandular secretions categorized into eight salivary protein groups according to their biological functions. The data suggest that the relative contributions of the salivary glands fine-tune the biological activity of human saliva via medium-abundant proteins. A number of biomarker candidates for Sjögren's syndrome are observed among the gland-specifically expressed proteins, which indicates that glandular origin is an important factor to consider in salivary biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Humanos , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Glândulas Salivares/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 187, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biochemical components of saliva can change in certain pathologies in horses, for example in acute abdominal disease. The aim of this study was (1) to evaluate if a panel of biochemical analytes usually used in serum can be measured in saliva of horses and (2) to study the possible changes of these biochemical analytes in saliva of horses affected by acute abdominal disease. A panel of 23 analytes was analytically validated in saliva of horses and possible changes in these analytes in a pilot study with six healthy horses and six horses with acute abdominal disease were evaluated. The analytes with significant changes were then evaluated in a larger population of 20 healthy and 37 diseased horses. RESULTS: Seven analytes showed significant increases in the pilot study which were confirmed in the larger population. The analytes which showed significant changes, and their median fold increase and significance shown in the larger population were salivary γ-glutamyl transferase (gGT, 2.3 fold, P = 0.001), creatine kinase (CK, 6.2 fold, P < 0.001), urea (2.3 fold, P = 0.001), total bilirubin (2.6 fold, P < 0.001), total proteins (3.2 fold, P < 0.001), phosphorus (P, 4.5 fold, P < 0.001) and alpha-amylase (sAA, 8.5 fold, P < 0.001). Total proteins, P and sAA showed sensitivities higher than 70% at their optimal cut-off points and a specificity of 100% in differentiating between healthy horses and those with acute abdominal disease. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of 23 biochemical analytes can be measured in saliva of horses, where gGT, CK, urea, total bilirubin, total protein, P and sAA levels are raised in horses with acute abdominal disease.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Saliva/química , Abdome Agudo/diagnóstico , Animais , Bilirrubina/análise , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Masculino , Fósforo/análise , Saliva/enzimologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ureia/análise
9.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(3): 443-460, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175473

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus salivary gland secretes a number of complex bioactive proteins during feeding. These components are important in feeding and affect anti-coagulation, anti-inflammation and also have anti-microbial effects. In this study, tick saliva was collected from partially engorged female (PEF) and fully engorged female (FEF) ticks. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) were used to identify and quantify R. microplus salivary proteins. A total of 322 unique peptides were detected and 151 proteins were characterized in both PEF and FEF. Of these, 41 proteins are considered as high-confidence proteins. Fifteen high-confidence proteins were upregulated and six high-confidence proteins were downregulated (p < 0.05; PEF:FEF ratio ≥ 1.2 or PEF:FEF ratio ≤ 0.83); 17 high-confidence proteins are slightly changed (PEF:FEF ratio > 0.83 and < 1.2). These high-confidence proteins are involved in several physiological roles, including egg development, transportation of proteins, immunity and anti-microorganism, anti-coagulant, and adhesion. In comparison with PEF, the number of upregulated proteins exceeded the number of proteins downregulated. Salivary protein may be induced by the blood-meal and these proteins contribute to successful feeding.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Proteoma/análise , Rhipicephalus/genética , Saliva/química , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise
10.
Chem Senses ; 44(6): 379-388, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053859

RESUMO

Exposures to dietary tannic acid (TA, 3%) and quinine (0.375%) upregulate partially overlapping sets of salivary proteins which are concurrent with changes in taste-driven behaviors, such as rate of feeding and brief access licking to quinine. In addition, the presence of salivary proteins reduces chorda tympani responding to quinine. Together these data suggest that salivary proteins play a role in bitter taste. We hypothesized that salivary proteins altered orosensory feedback to bitter by decreasing sensitivity to the stimulus. To that end, we used diet exposure to alter salivary proteins, then assessed an animal's ability to detect quinine, using a 2-response operant task. Rats were asked to discriminate descending concentrations of quinine from water in a modified forced-choice paradigm, before and after exposure to diets that alter salivary protein expression in a similar way (0.375% quinine or 3% TA), or 1 of 2 control diets. Control animals received either a bitter diet that does not upregulate salivary proteins (4% sucrose octaacetate), or a nonbitter diet. The rats exposed to salivary protein-inducing diets significantly decreased their performance (had higher detection thresholds) after diet exposure, whereas rats in the control conditions did not alter performance after diet exposure. A fifth group of animals were trained to detect sucrose before and after they were maintained on the 3% TA diet. There was no significant difference in performance, suggesting that these shifts in threshold are stimulus specific rather than task specific. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary proteins reduce sensitivity to quinine.


Assuntos
Quinina/farmacologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia
11.
Biofouling ; 35(2): 173-186, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935231

RESUMO

The chemical composition of biomaterials can drive their biological responses; therefore, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the proteomic profile of the salivary pellicle formed on titanium (Ti) alloys containing niobium (Nb) and zirconium (Zr). The experimental groups consisted of Ti35NbxZr (x = 5 and 10 wt%) alloys, and commercially pure titanium (cpTi); titanium aluminium vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloys were used as controls. The physical and chemical characteristics of the Ti materials were analysed. The proteomic profile was evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Bacterial adhesion (2 h) of mixed species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Actinomyces naeslundii) was investigated as colony-forming units (n = 6). This paper reports the finding that salivary pellicle composition can be modulated by the composition of the Ti material. The Ti35NbxZr group showed a significant ability to adsorb proteins from saliva, which can favour interactions with cells and compatibility with the body.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Película Dentária/química , Nióbio/química , Proteoma/análise , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Titânio/química , Zircônio/química , Adsorção , Aderência Bacteriana , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Proteômica
12.
J Texture Stud ; 50(1): 75-82, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198574

RESUMO

Wine sensory sessions normally involve the tasting of several samples, to remove food residues from the mouth the use of palate cleansers (PC) is needed. Until now, there is no agreement on the best PC to use during wine tasting sessions. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between the components retained in saliva after wine tasting and the remnant sensory feeling (astringency, alcohol, and acidity). For that, different common PC (water, carbonated water, and milk) were tested and saliva samples (expectorated and scraped) from nine trained panelists were collected after wine with and without PC trials. Results showed that after palate cleansing and not cleansing, astringency, alcoholic and acidity perception were influenced by time, PC and panelist. Astringency perception showed the greatest intensity in comparison to alcoholic and acidity. Milk was the only PC which reduced quantifiable polyphenols in expectorated saliva, as well as reducing astringency feelings. Although compositions of expectorated and scraped saliva correlated between them, polyphenols accumulated in the expectorated saliva significantly more. Retained polyphenols were correlated with astringency perception, but no correlation was found with salivary proteins. These findings assessed the astringency build-up effect during wine tasting due to polyphenols accumulation in saliva, remarking the importance of an adequate PC selection. All things considered, the present work confirmed the relationship between after-swallow mouthfeel perception and mouth residues instrumentally quantified. Also, milk has proven to be the most effective of the three PC. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: During tasting the accumulation of residues from previous wine samples tasted, could mislead the judgment of wine sensory qualities by oenologists. Therefore, between tasting samples it is highly important to choose the right PC. However, until now the selection of PC remains empirical, therefore in this work, we proposed to study the residues in saliva by using different PC and quantifying instrumentally, the wine residues. The methodology selected to quantify the wines residues in saliva was quick and easy to use. Furthermore, instrumental results were related with the sensory feeling of mouth cleanliness without considering individual panel member's preferences of PC. In this study, to remove astringency feeling, milk was shown to be the best cleanser in comparison with water, carbonated water or nothing, but oenologist/winemakers could use this instrumental methodology in saliva to select which one is the best among their current PC used.


Assuntos
Palato , Saliva/química , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Adstringentes/química , Etanol/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polifenóis/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Água/química , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 124: 1246-1255, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513307

RESUMO

Non-invasive diagnosis of cancer is often the key to effective treatment and patient survival. Saliva as a multi-constituent oral fluid comprises various disease signaling biomarkers, holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics with cost-effective and easy collection, storage, transport and processing. Therefore, detection of biomarkers and proteins in the saliva samples is highly demand. The current review was performed using reliable internet database (mainly PubMed) to provide an overview of the most recent developments on non-invasive diagnosis of cancers in saliva and highlights main challenges and future prospects in sensing of the salivary biomarkers. The conventional detection methods of cancer biomarkers in saliva is discussed in the paper, however, the main focus is on non-invasive diagnosis of cancers in saliva using immunosensing (electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric), DNA based sensors, aptasensors and peptide based bio-assays The reviewed literature revealed that non-invasive cancer detection methods using the mentioned biosensors and without any processing of saliva sample offers a quick, sensitive, specific and cost effective analytical tool. Besides, salivary based detection methods can be used for simultaneous detection of panels of disease specific biomarkers in a real time manner or as home testing kits in near future.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Aptâmeros de Peptídeos/química , Bioensaio/instrumentação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Saliva/química
14.
J Texture Stud ; 50(1): 83-89, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345521

RESUMO

Human saliva is a fluid naturally secreted in the oral cavity that interacts with food and food components for bolus formation, structure degradation, as well as lubrication. Because of the presence of salivary proteins, we speculate that saliva could also function as an effective emulsifier during oral processing of oil/fat. In this preliminary work, experiments were then designed to test this hypothesis. Whole human saliva from three healthy subjects were collected and analyzed for protein content, surface tension, and molecular weight distribution. Saliva emulsions were obtained both in vitro one and in situ for all three participating subjects. Droplet size distribution, zeta potential, and microstructure of such emulsions were examined immediately after the emulsification. Results show that stable saliva emulsions can be produced during oral processing of either pure oil (rapeseed oil) or fat food (pork belly in this work). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that protein fractions of 27 and 55 kDa molecular weights were favored for emulsion formation. This work suggests that human saliva could function as an effective emulsifier and oral emulsification could be an important mechanism for the oral processing of oil/fat. Despite being preliminary, findings from this work provide a new scientific insight to our understanding of the oral behavior of oil/fat and their sensory perception. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Food industry is currently under a growing pressure to use novel techniques and ingredients to minimize the use of oil/fat in food products but without compromising its sensory quality. However, food industry has limited progresses because of the lack of understanding of the mechanisms of oral sensation and perception of oil/fat. Whereas there have been extensive debates about the sensory mechanisms of oil/fat, this work takes a step back by examining the oral behavior of oil/fat. Findings show that saliva can actually function as emulsifier to oil/fat, which means that ingested oil/fat will be dispersed and converted into an emulsion at the oral stage. The findings from this work offer food industry new insight on the sensory mechanisms of oil/fat.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Emulsificantes/química , Gorduras/química , Óleos/química , Saliva/química , Adulto , Animais , Emulsões , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Boca , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Suínos , Percepção Gustatória , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 99: 15-21, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Opiorphin is a recently discovered peptide shown to inhibit the enkephalin-degrading enzymes and prolong the effects of enkephalins. Although opiorphin is found in high concentrations in saliva, the relationship between salivary opiorphin and orofacial pains is not yet fully understood. We aimed to determine salivary opiorphin concentrations in dental pain related to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP), and symptomatic apical periodontitis (SAP). DESIGN: 39 patients participated in this study. The participants were categorized into SIP and SAP based on their diagnosis. All the patients were treated with root canal treatment. Saliva specimens were collected, and pain levels were recorded at pre-treatment, 7 days post-treatment and 30 days post-treatment. Saliva opiorphin levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Pre-treatment and post-treatment opiorphin levels were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA. Correlations between VAS scores, opiorphin levels and age were evaluated using Spearman's Rank Correlation. RESULTS: The average saliva opiorphin level pre-treatment, 7 days post-treatment and 30 days post-treatment were 31.28 ± 7.10 ng/ml, 20.41 ± 2.67 ng/ml and 18.61 ± 2.05 ng/ml respectively. Significantly higher pre-treatment opiorphin levels were observed in the SIP group compared to the SAP group. A strong correlation was observed between the pre-treatment pain levels and the saliva opiorphin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that saliva opiorphin levels increase in inflammation related dental pain. The level of salivary opiorphin is strongly correlated with the reported level of pain. The extent of the inflammation (pulpal vs. periodontal) also affects the opiorphin level.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Oligopeptídeos/análise , Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Odontalgia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Dor Facial/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nociceptividade , Medição da Dor , Periodontite Periapical/induzido quimicamente , Periodontite Periapical/diagnóstico , Pulpite/induzido quimicamente , Pulpite/diagnóstico , Dente não Vital , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Oral Biol ; 98: 148-155, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study the salivary proteome of burning mouth syndrome patients and healthy subjects was characterized by a top-down proteomic approach and compared to highlight possible qualitative and quantitative differences that may give suggestions about the causes of this pathology which are still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting and stimulated whole saliva, stimulated parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected from burning mouth syndrome patients (n = 16) and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 14). An equal volume of 0.2% trifluoroacetic acid was added to each sample immediately after collection and the supernatants were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry. Proteins and peptides were quantified using a label-free approach measuring the extracted ion current peak areas of the main salivary proteins and peptides. RESULTS: The quantitation of the main salivary proteins and peptides revealed a higher concentration of cystatin SN in resting saliva of burning mouth syndrome patients with respect to healthy controls and no other conspicuous changes. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data showed that the salivary protein profile was not affected, in composition and relative abundance, by the burning mouth syndrome, except for the cystatin SN, a protein up-regulated in several pathological conditions, that might be considered potentially indicative of the disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Ardência Bucal/complicações , Síndrome da Ardência Bucal/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Saliva/química , Glândulas Salivares/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Parótida/metabolismo , Salivação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Xerostomia/complicações
17.
J Proteomics ; 190: 44-54, 2019 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654921

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread pain and associated with unspecific symptoms. So far, no laboratory tests have been validated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence in saliva of potential diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers which could be useful for the management of FM patients. Specifically, the salivary profile of FM patients was compared with those of healthy subjects, subjects suffering migraine (model of non-inflammatory chronic pain), and patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (model of inflammatory chronic pain). For proteomics analysis 2-DE and SELDI-TOF-MS were applied. From 2-DE serotransferrin and alpha-enolase were found differentially expressed in FM. Hence, their expression was validated by ELISA together with phosphoglycerate-mutase-I and transaldolase, which were found in a previous work. Moreover, ROC curve was calculated by comparing FM patients versus control subjects (healthy plus migraine) to investigate the discriminative power of biomarkers. The best performance was obtained by combining alpha-enolase, phosphoglycerate-mutase-I and serotransferrin. On the other hand, none of the candidate proteins showed a statistical correlation with clinical features. Finally, preliminary SELDI analysis highlighted two peaks whose identification need to be validated. Overall, these results could be useful in supporting the clinical diagnosis of FM. SIGNIFICANCE: FM is one of the most common chronic pain condition which is associated with significant disability. The fibromyalgic pain is a peculiar characteristic of this disease and FM patients suffer from reduced quality of life, daily functioning and productivity. Considering the deep complexity of FM, the discovery of more objective markers is crucial for supporting clinical diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the selection of biomarkers effectively associated with fibromyalgic pain which will enable clinicians to achieve an unambiguous diagnosis, and to improve approaches to patients' management. We defined a panel of 3 salivary proteins which could be one of the criteria to be taken into account. Consequently, the identification of disease salivary biomarkers could be helpful in detecting FM clusters and targeted treatment. Actually, our future perspective foresees to develop a simple, rapid and not invasive point-of-care testing which will be of use during the diagnostic process. In addition, the present results can offer a clue for shedding light upon the complex entity of such a disease like FM.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dor Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Fibromialgia/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(2): 470-481, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459085

RESUMO

Saliva of ticks is arguably the most complex saliva of any animal. This is particularly the case for ixodid species that feed for many days firmly attached to the same skin site of their obliging host. Sequencing and spectrometry technologies combined with bioinformatics are enumerating ingredients in the saliva cocktail. The dynamic and expanding saliva recipe is helping decipher the wonderous activities of tick saliva, revealing how ticks stealthily hide from their hosts while satisfying their gluttony and sharing their individual resources. This review takes a tick perspective on the composition and functions of tick saliva, covering water balance, gasket and holdfast, control of host responses, dynamics, individuality, mate guarding, saliva-assisted transmission, and redundancy. It highlights areas sometimes overlooked - feeding aggregation and sharing of sialomes, and the contribution of salivary gland storage granules - and questions whether the huge diversity of tick saliva molecules is 'redundant' or more a reflection on the enormous adaptability wonderous saliva confers on ticks.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/química , Carrapatos/química , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Glândulas Salivares/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396423

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the changes in salivary proteome in parvoviral enteritis (PVE) in dogs through a high-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis. Saliva samples from healthy dogs and dogs with severe parvovirosis that survived or perished due to the disease were analysed and compared by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) analysis. Proteomic analysis quantified 1516 peptides, and 287 (corresponding to 190 proteins) showed significantly different abundances between studied groups. Ten proteins were observed to change significantly between dogs that survived or perished due to PVE. Bioinformatics' analysis revealed that saliva reflects the involvement of different pathways in PVE such as catalytic activity and binding, and indicates antimicrobial humoral response as a pathway with a major role in the development of the disease. These results indicate that saliva proteins reflect physiopathological changes that occur in PVE and could be a potential source of biomarkers for this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Enterite/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biologia Computacional , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Enterite/imunologia , Enterite/mortalidade , Enterite/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Proteômica
20.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 55(3): 1-12, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-991066

RESUMO

Introdução: devido às limitações inerentes do processo de envelhecimento, a institucionalização é uma realidade, podendo gerar impacto na saúde física e psicológica do individuo sênior. Objetivo: determinar as concentrações de cortisol salivar de idosos institucionalizados e não institucionalizados e verificar as condições de saúde bucal e dependência física. Métodos: estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, com amostra composta por 80 indivíduos, sendo 45 institucionalizados e 35 não institucionalizados. Realizou-se exame clínico bucal para avaliação de uso e necessidade de prótese dentária nos arcos superior e inferior. Também foi realizada coleta salivar, para análise da concentração de cortisol, marcador biológico do nível de estresse. Resultados: a maioria dos idosos apresentou-se desdentado total, sendo 84,44 porcento no grupo institucionalizado e 71,43 porcento no grupo não institucionalizado. Os idosos institucionalizados apresentaram menor índice de uso de próteses, quando comparados ao grupo de idosos não institucionalizados (p= 0,0013). A análise das concentrações de cortisol salivar demonstrou diferenças significantes entre os grupos, com taxas mais elevadas no grupo institucionalizado (p= 0,0397). Maiores concentrações de cortisol salivar foram encontradas em indivíduos que possuíam necessidades protéticas, com diferença estatisticamente significante (p= 0,0454). Conclusão: os idosos institucionalizados apresentaram elevadas concentrações de cortisol salivar, maior necessidade de uso de próteses e apresentaram-se mais dependentes, quando comparados com o grupo não institucionalizado(AU)


Introducción: debido a las limitaciones inherentes del proceso de envejecimiento, la institucionalización es una realidad, lo que puede generar impacto en la salud física y psicológica del adulto mayor. Objetivo: determinar las concentraciones de cortisol salival de ancianos institucionalizados y no institucionalizados, y verificar variables como salud bucal y dependencia física. Métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo y analítico, en el cual la muestra estuvo compuesta por 80 individuos, de estos 45 eran institucionalizados y 35 no institucionalizados. Se realizó examen clínico bucal para evaluar el uso y necesidad de prótesis en los arcos superior e inferior. También se realizó recolecta salivar, para análisis de la concentración de cortisol, marcador biológico del nivel de estrés. Resultados: la mayoría de los ancianos se presentaron desdentados totales, para el 84,44 por ciento en el grupo institucionalizado y 71,43 por ciento en el grupo no institucionalizado. Los ancianos institucionalizados presentaron menor índice de uso de prótesis, en comparación con el grupo de ancianos no institucionalizados (p= 0,0013). El análisis de las concentraciones de cortisol salival demostró diferencias significativas entre los grupos, con tasas más elevadas en el grupo institucionalizado (p= 0,0397). Mayores concentraciones de cortisol salivar fueron encontradas en individuos que poseían necesidades protésicas, con diferencia estadísticamente significante (p= 0,0454). Conclusiones: ancianos institucionalizados presentan elevadas concentraciones de cortisol salival, mayor necesidad de uso de prótesis y se presentan más dependientes, al ser comparados con el grupo no institucionalizado(AU)


Introduction: due to the limitations inherent to the process of aging, institutionalization is a reality which may have an impact on the physical and psychological health status of elderly people. Objectives: determine salivary cortisol concentrations in institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly people, and verify variables such as oral health and physical dependence. Methods: a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample of 80 individuals, of whom 45 were institutionalized and 35 non-institutionalized. Oral clinical examination was performed to evaluate the use of and need for dental prostheses in the upper and lower arches. Saliva was collected to determine the concentration of cortisol, a biological marker of stress levels. Results: most of the sample were totally edentulous elderly people: 84.44 percent in the institutionalized group and 71.43 percent in the non-institutionalized group. A lower rate of prosthesis use was found in the institutionalized sample than in the non-institutionalized sample (p= 0.0013). Analysis of salivary cortisol concentrations revealed significant differences between the groups, with higher values in the institutionalized group (p= 0.0397). Higher salivary cortisol concentrations were found among individuals with prosthetic needs, the difference being statistically significant (p= 0.0454). Conclusions: institutionalized elderly people had higher salivary cortisol concentrations, greater prosthetic needs, and were more care dependent than the non-institutionalized group(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Identificação da Prótese Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
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