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1.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4334-4340, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504639

RESUMO

Brassica carinata is a new oilseed crop in Florida with the potential of producing high-quality jet biofuel. A high-protein meal (~40% crude protein; CP) is obtained as a byproduct of oil extraction; however, limited research is available on the utilization of this meal as a protein supplement for beef cattle. A generalized randomized block design was used to evaluate the effects of supplementation with B. carinata meal pellets on performance and attainment of puberty in growing beef heifers consuming bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon) ad libitum. Sixty-four Angus crossbred heifers (240 ± 39 kg initial body weight; BW) were stratified and blocked (2 blocks: light and heavy) by initial BW and randomly allocated into 18 pens over 2 consecutive years (10 in year 1 and 8 in year 2). Within block, pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 0 (CTL) or 0.3% of BW/d (as fed) of B. carinata meal pellets (BCM). Blood samples and BW were collected weekly for 70 d, before daily supplementation. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with repeated measures. Model included the fixed effects of treatment, day, treatment × day interactions, block, and block × treatment interactions, with the random effect of year. Plasma was analyzed for concentrations of progesterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and haptoglobin (Hp). An effect of treatment was observed (P ˂ 0.01) for ADG between CTL (0.14 kg) and BCM (0.42 kg). There was no treatment or block (P > 0.05) effect for concentrations of T3, T4, or Hp; however, there was an effect of day (P < 0.01) for T3, T4, and Cp. An effect of treatment (P ˂ 0.01) was observed for Cp, with CTL having greater concentrations compared with BCM. Time to attainment of puberty did not differ (P = 0.93) between treatments. Feeding B. carinata meal as a protein supplement at 0.3% of BW/d is a viable option for increasing ADG of growing beef heifers, without affecting attainment of puberty, thyroid hormone status, or eliciting an acute phase response.


Assuntos
Brassica , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cynodon , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Progesterona/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394788

RESUMO

Plant-sourced proteins offer environmental and health benefits, and research increasingly includes them in study formulas. However, plant-based proteins have less of an anabolic effect than animal proteins due to their lower digestibility, lower essential amino acid content (especially leucine), and deficiency in other essential amino acids, such as sulfur amino acids or lysine. Thus, plant amino acids are directed toward oxidation rather than used for muscle protein synthesis. In this review, we evaluate the ability of plant- versus animal-based proteins to help maintain skeletal muscle mass in healthy and especially older people and examine different nutritional strategies for improving the anabolic properties of plant-based proteins. Among these strategies, increasing protein intake has led to a positive acute postprandial muscle protein synthesis response and even positive long-term improvement in lean mass. Increasing the quality of protein intake by improving amino acid composition could also compensate for the lower anabolic potential of plant-based proteins. We evaluated and discussed four nutritional strategies for improving the amino acid composition of plant-based proteins: fortifying plant-based proteins with specific essential amino acids, selective breeding, blending several plant protein sources, and blending plant with animal-based protein sources. These nutritional approaches need to be profoundly examined in older individuals in order to optimize protein intake for this population who require a high-quality food protein intake to mitigate age-related muscle loss.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Musculares/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia
3.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(5): 1747-1757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297679

RESUMO

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of dietary protein levels (37, 40, and 43%) on the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expressions of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in fingerling yellow catfish. One hundred and eighty fingerlings (average weight 0.77 ± 0.03 g) were equally distributed across four replicate tanks for each of the three treatments, with 15 fish per tank. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in initial body weight, survival rate (SR), hepatosomatic index (HSI), viscera index (VSI), dressing percentage (DP), and condition factor (CF) among all the treatments. The diet containing 40% protein increased significantly (P < 0.05) final body weight, weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), nitrogen retention (NRE), and energy retention (ERE) in fish. The highest protease activity in the stomach and intestine was observed in the P40 group (P < 0.05), while amylase and lipase were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The transcriptional levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and Akt were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in fish fed P40 or P43 than those of fish fed P37. TOR and S6K1 mRNA expressions were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the P40 groups. Hence, the diet containing 40% protein would be suitable for the optimum growth and effective protein utilization of fingerling Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. In vitro, the transcriptional levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R, Akt, TOR, and S6K1 in hepatocyte supplemented with a 40-µM mixed amino acids were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to other treatments. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 in vivo and in vitro among all the treatments. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance likely are involved in the activation of TOR signaling pathway in fingerling Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. METHODS: Seventy-three sedentary obese older men and women who completed a 12-week elliptical HIIT program with double-blinded randomized supplementation of CIT or placebo (PLA) were divided into four groups according to their initial protein intake (CIT-PROT+: n = 21; CIT-PROT-: n = 19; PLA-PROT+: n = 19; PLA-PROT-: n = 14). Body composition (fat and fat-free masses), handgrip (HSr) strength, knee extensor (KESr) strength, muscle power, and functional capacities were measured pre-intervention and post-intervention. RESULTS: Following the intervention, the four groups improved significantly regarding all the parameters measured. For the same initial amount of protein intake, the CIT-PROT- group decreased more gynoid fat mass (p = 0.04) than the PLA-PROT- group. The CIT-PROT+ group increased more KESr (p = 0.04) than the PLA-PROT+ group. In addition, the CIT-PROT- group decreased more gynoid FM (p = 0.02) and improved more leg FFM (p = 0.02) and HSr (p = 0.02) than the CIT-PROT+ group. CONCLUSION: HIIT combined with CIT induced greater positive changes than in the PLA groups. The combination seems more beneficial in participants consuming less than 1 g/kg/d of protein, since greater improvements on body composition and muscle strength were observed.


Assuntos
Citrulina/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Citrulina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/química
5.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 89: 165-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351525

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and associated metabolic disorders are responsible for nearly 40 million deaths globally per year. Hypertension or high blood pressure (BP) is one of the primary reasons for the development of CVDs. A healthy nutritional strategy complementing with physical activity can substantially reduce high BP and prevent the occurrence of CVD-associated morbidity and mortality. Bioactive peptides currently are the next wave of the promising bench to clinic options for potential targeting chronic and acute health issues including hypertension. Peptides demonstrating anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-I inhibitory activity are widely studied for the amelioration of hypertension and associated CVDs. Isolating these potent bioactive peptides from different food sources is a promising endeavor toward nutraceutical based dietary management and prevention of hypertension. Understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and the action mechanisms of the bioactive peptides would complement in designing and characterizing more potent peptides and suitable comprehensive dietary plans for the prevention of hypertension and associated CVDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Peptídeos/química
6.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212755

RESUMO

With the rapid growth in the aging population, there has been a subsequent increase in the rates of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). To combat these increases in ADRD, scientists and clinicians have begun to place an increased emphasis on preventative methods to ameliorate disease rates, with a primary focus area on dietary intake. Protein/amino acid intake is a burgeoning area of research as it relates to the prevention of ADRD, and consumption is directly related to a number of disease-related risk factors as such low-muscle mass, sleep, stress, depression, and anxiety. As a result, the role that protein/amino acid intake plays in affecting modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline has provided a robust area for scientific exploration; however, this research is still speculative and specific mechanisms have to be proven. The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of protein and amino acids and the preventative roles they play with regard to ADRD, while providing future recommendations for this body of research. Additionally, we will discuss the current recommendations for protein intake and how much protein older adults should consume in order to properly manage their long-term risk for cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/prevenção & controle , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Institutionalized elderly are at higher risk for micronutrient deficiency. In particular, fat soluble micronutrients, which additionally have antioxidative function, are of interest. The purpose of this secondary investigation of the Vienna Active Ageing Study was to assess and evaluate the plasma status of retinol, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, as well as vitamin D (25(OH)D) in a cohort of institutionalized elderly. We further determined the effect of six months strength training with or without supplementing (antioxidant) vitamins and protein on the plasma status of these ten micronutrients. METHODS: Three groups (n = 117, age = 83.1 ± 6.1 years)-resistance training (RT), RT combined with protein and vitamin supplementation (RTS), or cognitive training (CT)-performed two guided training sessions per week for six months. Micronutrients were measured with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Physical fitness was assessed by the 6-min-walking, the 30-s chair rise, isokinetic dynamometry, and the handgrip strength tests. RESULTS: At baseline, the plasma status of retinol was satisfactory, for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and 25(OH)D, the percentage of individuals with an insufficient status was 33%, 73% and 61%/81% (when using 50 nmol/L or 75 nmol/L as threshold levels for 25(OH)D), respectively. Plasma analyses were supported by intake data. Six months of elastic band resistance training with or without protein-vitamin supplementation had no biological impact on the status of fat soluble micronutrients. Even for vitamin D, which was part of the nutritional supplement (additional 20 µg/d), the plasma status did not increase significantly, however it contributed to a lower percentage of elderly below the threshold levels of 50/75 nmol/L (49%/74%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study lead to the strong recommendation for regular physical activity and increased consumption of plant-based foods in institutionalized elderly. When supported by blood analysis, supplementing micronutrients in a moderate range should also be considered.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Exercício , Feminino , Habitação para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Aptidão Física , Treinamento de Resistência , Vitaminas/sangue
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 185, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ex vivo whole blood stimulation assays (WBSA) have been used to characterize the cytokine response to diet in cats. The present study aimed to use this assay to determine the cytokine response to diets being fed at the time of diagnosis to dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) and to compare this to a control group of dogs presented for non-gastrointestinal (GI) causes. RESULTS: Dogs with chronic GI signs and dogs presented for non-GI causes were prospectively recruited. For each case, residual blood following diagnostic sampling was placed into heparin. WBSAs were performed using crude extracts of the diet currently being fed and provided by the owner. Supernatants were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-4 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The case group consisted of 22 dogs with CE diagnosed on histopathology of GI biopsy and 9 with suspected CE. The non-GI group consisted of 18 dogs. Of the diets being fed at or prior to diagnosis, hydrolyzed protein diets elicited significantly lower IL-10 and TNF-alpha concentrations compared to commercial intact protein diets in dogs with confirmed or suspected CE (P-value 0.004 and < 0.001, respectively). Six out of 15 dogs with detectable IL-4 concentrations in the confirmed CE group had IL-4 to IL-10 ratios that exceeded the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean of the non-GI group (non-GI: 95% CI of IL-4:IL-10 = 0.64-2.71; confirmed CE: IL-4:IL-10 in 6 dogs = mean 22.40, range 2.77-89.11). CONCLUSIONS: Hydrolyzed protein diets elicited a significantly reduced cytokine response when incubated with patient whole blood ex vivo compared to commercial intact protein diets in dogs with CE. The IL-4 to IL-10 ratio as a marker of dietary responsiveness warrants further investigation, together with assessment of the cytokine response to diet at the intestinal mucosal surface.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Enteropatias/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Cães , Feminino , Enteropatias/imunologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200437

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moderate increase in protein intake on muscle strength, functional capacity and lean mass quality improvements in postmenopausal women following resistance exercise. Forty-seven postmenopausal women were randomized in two groups: Normal protein (NP, n = 25), who received a dietary plan containing ~0.8 g protein·kg-1·d-1 (recommended dietary allowance-RDA recommendations); and higher protein (HP, n = 22), which a moderate increase in protein intake was recommended (~1.2 g protein·kg-1·d-1). Resistance training was performed for 10 weeks, three times/week. Muscle strength (handgrip strength and one repetition maximum test-1-RM), functional capacity and lean mass (LM) quality (muscle strength to lean mass ratio) were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by nine 24 h food recalls. After intervention, both groups increased similarly the leg extension 1-RM and handgrip strength. Regarding functional capacity tests, both groups increased the balance test score (SPPB) and 10 m walk test speed, with no differences between the groups. In addition, an increase in speed to perform the 6 min and 400 m walk tests was observed over the time, with an additional improvement in the HP group (time × group interaction; p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). About LM quality, leg extension 1-RM/leg LM improved over the time in both groups (p = 0.050), with no time × group interaction. All these significant changes had a low effect size. In conclusion, a moderate increase in protein intake promoted a small additional improvement in functional capacity, but it did not induce a greater increase in strength and LM quality after 10 weeks of resistance exercise in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03024125.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Pós-Menopausa , Método Simples-Cego
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(3): 718-722, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184573

RESUMO

Introduction: casein-derived peptides can be liberated both in vivo via normal digestion of casein, as well as in vitro via enzymatic hydrolysis. These peptides were suggested to have biological activity. Objectives: the aim of this study was to describe the production and characterization of casein peptides and to explore the potential of these peptides as an option for low-phenylalanine diets. Methods: peptides were produced by tryptic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate and acid precipitation with HCl, followed by precipitation with ethanol or aggregation of CaCl2 or ZnSO4. Results: the amino acid analysis revealed a significant reduction in the amount of phenylalanine from the original protein. Conclusion: casein-derived peptides could be a future alternative of short chain peptides to low-phenylalanine formulations


Introducción: los péptidos derivados de la caseína se pueden liberar tanto in vivo, a través de la digestión normal de la caseína, como in vitro a través de la hidrólisis enzimática. Se sugirió que estos péptidos tenían actividad biológica. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue describir la producción y caracterización de péptidos de caseína y explorar el potencial de estos péptidos como una opción para las dietas con bajo contenido de fenilalanina. Métodos: los péptidos se produjeron por hidrólisis tríptica de caseinato de sodio y precipitación ácida con HCl, seguido de precipitación con etanol o agregación de CaCl2 o ZnSO4. Resultados: el análisis de aminoácidos reveló una reducción significativa en la cantidad de fenilalanina de la proteína original. Conclusión: los péptidos derivados de la caseína podrían ser una alternativa futura de los péptidos de cadena corta a las formulaciones con bajo contenido de fenilalanina


Assuntos
Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Caseínas/farmacocinética , Felipressina/química , Caseínas/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia
11.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_2): S105-S119, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089731

RESUMO

Nutrition is a modifiable factor potentially related to aging. Milk and other dairy products may contribute to the prevention of physical and cognitive impairment. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of dairy product intake for preventing cognitive decline, sarcopenia, and frailty in the elderly population. A systematic search for publications in electronic databases [MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews] from 2009 to 2018 identified observational and interventional studies in English and Spanish that tested the relation between dairy product consumption and cognitive decline, sarcopenia, and frailty in community-dwelling older people. We assessed the participants, the type of exposure or intervention, the outcomes, and the quality of evidence. We screened a total of 661 records and included 6 studies (5 observational prospective cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled trial). Regarding cognitive impairment, the relation cannot be firmly established. Consumption of milk at midlife may be negatively associated with verbal memory performance. In older women, high intakes of dairy desserts and ice cream were associated with cognitive decline. On the other hand, 1 study demonstrated a significant inverse relation between dairy intake and development of Alzheimer disease among older Japanese subjects. The consumption of dairy products by older people may reduce the risk of frailty, especially with high consumption of low-fat milk and yogurt, and may also reduce the risk of sarcopenia by improving skeletal muscle mass through the addition of nutrient-rich dairy proteins (ricotta cheese) to the habitual diet. Despite the scarcity of evidence on the topic, our systematic review shows that there are some positive effects of dairy products on frailty and sarcopenia, whereas studies concerning cognitive decline have contradictory findings.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Laticínios , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Animais , Demência/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Leite , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo
12.
Adv Nutr ; 10(suppl_2): S88-S96, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089738

RESUMO

There is a physiological basis for the roles of selected nutrients, especially proteins, calcium, and vitamin D, in growth and development, which are at a maximum during the pediatric period. Milk and dairy products are particularly rich in this group of nutrients. The present systematic review summarizes the available evidence relating dairy product intake with linear growth and bone mineral content in childhood and adolescence. A search was conducted in the MEDLINE (via PubMed) and SCOPUS databases following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included intervention-controlled clinical trials with dairy products in children from 1 January, 1926 to 30 June, 2018. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using the Cochrane methodology. The number of study participants, the type of study and doses, the major outcomes, and the key results of the 13 articles included in the review are reported. The present systematic review shows that supplementing the usual diet with dairy products significantly increases bone mineral content during childhood. However, the results regarding a possible relation between dairy product consumption and linear growth are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Saúde da Criança , Laticínios , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacologia , Criança , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Leite/química , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas
13.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130625

RESUMO

Low glycemic index (GI) and/or low glycemic load (GL) are associated with decreased risks of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is therefore relevant to consider GI and GL in the early phases of the development of packaged foods and beverages. This paper proposes a model that predicts GI and GL from macronutrient composition, by quantifying both the impact of glycemic carbohydrates and the GI-lowering effects of nutrients such as proteins, fats and fibers. The precision of the model is illustrated using data on 42 breakfast cereals. The predictions of GI (r = 0.90, median residual = 2.0) and GL (r = 0.96, median residual = 0.40 g) compete well with the precision of the underlying in-vivo data (Standard Error SE = 3.5 for GI). This model can guide product development towards lowering GI and GL, before final confirmation by in vivo testing.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Modelos Biológicos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Adulto , Bebidas , Desjejum , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Grão Comestível , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 269: 334-356, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128463

RESUMO

Amyloid fibrils have traditionally been considered only as pathological aggregates in human neurodegenerative diseases, but it is increasingly becoming clear that the propensity to form amyloid fibrils is a generic property for all proteins, including food proteins. Differently from the pathological amyloid fibrils, those derived from food proteins can be used as advanced materials in biomedicine, tissue engineering, environmental science, nanotechnology, material science as well as in food science, owing to a combination of highly desirable feature such as extreme aspect ratios, outstanding stiffness and a broad availability of functional groups on their surfaces. In food science, protein fibrillization is progressively recognized as an appealing strategy to broaden and improve food protein functionality. This review article discusses the various classes of reported food protein amyloid fibrils and their formation conditions. It furthermore considers amyloid fibrils in a broad context, from their structural characterization to their forming mechanisms and ensued physical properties, emphasizing their applications in food-related fields. Finally, the biological fate and the potential toxicity mechanisms of food amyloid fibrils are discussed, and an experimental protocol for their health safety validation is proposed in the concluding part of the review.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Amiloide/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Amiloide/farmacocinética , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão , Etanol/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micro-Ondas , Concentração Osmolar , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Conformação Proteica , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013719

RESUMO

Sports nutrition products are developed and targeted mainly for athletes to improve their nutrient intake, performance, and muscle growth. The fastest growing consumer groups for these products are recreational sportspeople and lifestyle users. Although athletes may have elevated physiological protein requirements and they may benefit from dietary supplements, the evidence regarding the role of dietary protein and supplements in the nutrition of recreational sportspeople and sedentary populations is somewhat complex and contradictory. In high-protein diets, more undigested protein-derived constituents end up in the large intestine compared to moderate or low-protein diets, and hence, more bacterial amino acid metabolism takes place in the colon, having both positive and negative systemic and metabolic effects on the host. The aim of the present review is to summarize the impact of the high-protein products and diets on nutrition and health, in sportspeople and in sedentary consumers. We are opening the debate about the current protein intake recommendations, with an emphasis on evidence-based effects on intestinal microbiota and personalized guidelines regarding protein and amino acid supplementation in sportspeople and lifestyle consumers.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional , Comportamento Sedentário , Esportes , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Humanos , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5094-5108, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928268

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to characterize the implications of changing between diets formulated to be adequate (ADMP) or low (LOMP) in metabolizable protein in a Latin square (LSq) design or of feeding the same diets continuously in a randomized complete block experimental design (RCBD). Fifty-four multiparous early-lactation cows (initial average ± SD; parity 2.8 ± 0.9, 85.8 ± 31 d in milk, 715 ± 63 kg of body weight, 29.1 ± 2.7 kg of dry matter intake/d, and 57.7 ± 5.7 kg of milk yield/d) were blocked by parity and days in milk and were then randomly assigned to experimental design, with 16 cows assigned to LSq and 38 cows assigned to RCBD. Cows within blocks in LSq were randomly assigned to sequence in a 4-sequence, 4-period, 2-treatment LSq balanced for the effects of previous treatment carryover. Cows within blocks in RCBD were randomly assigned to dietary treatment, which was fed over the same four 28-d periods as the cows in LSq. Treatment diets were formulated to be similar in composition with the exception of exchanging an equal quantity of expeller soybean meal from ADMP (16.5% crude protein; 28.4% ash-free, amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber organic matter) for soybean hulls in LOMP (14.6% crude protein; 31.1% ash-free, amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber organic matter). Cows were individually fed treatment diets in a tiestall barn once daily for ad libitum consumption, milked 3 times daily, and administered recombinant bovine somatotropin every 14 d. Milk yield and feed offered and refused were measured daily; BW was recorded on 2 consecutive days each week; milk composition was measured at 6 consecutive milkings each week; and spot samples of feces, urine, and blood were collected during the last week of each period and a covariate period. Experimental designs were analyzed separately using results from wk 4 of each period with mixed effects modeling. Dry matter intake and milk fat yield were not affected by diet in either design, whereas milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed ADMP in both designs. Milk fat and protein percentage responses and milk energy output inferences were different between designs. Milk fat yield and percentage responses were affected by previous treatment carryover in LSq. Metabolic and digestibility inferences were very similar between designs. Under the conditions of this experiment, inferences on N metabolism and the majority of production measurements were not affected by experimental design, with the principal exceptions of milk fat and protein percentage and milk energy output.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja/metabolismo
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(8): e1800811, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892810

RESUMO

SCOPE: MicroRNA are critical to the coordinated post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, yet few studies have addressed the influence of habitual diet on microRNA expression. High protein diets impact cardiometabolic health and body composition in the elderly suggesting the possibility of a complex systems response. Therefore, high-throughput small RNA sequencing technology is applied in response to doubling the protein recommended dietary allowance (RDA) over 10 weeks in older men to examine alterations in circulating miRNAome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Older men (n = 31; 74.1 ± 0.6 y) are randomized to consume either RDA (0.8 g kg-1  day-1 ) or 2RDA (1.6 g kg-1  day-1 ) of protein for 10 weeks. Downregulation of five microRNAs (miR-125b-5p, -100-5p, -99a-5p, -23b-3p, and -203a) is observed following 2RDA with no changes in the RDA. In silico functional analysis highlights target gene enrichment in inflammation-related pathways. qPCR quantification of predicted inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, pTEN, PPP1CB, and HOXA1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells shows increased expression following 2RDA diet (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest a possible selective alteration in the post-transcriptional regulation of the immune system following a high protein diet. However, very few microRNAs are altered despite a large change in the dietary protein.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/sangue , Idoso , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro , Recomendações Nutricionais
18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 2125-2138, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883644

RESUMO

Seventy-two piglets aged at 25 d were chosen to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis DSM32315 supplementation in diets with different protein levels on growth performance, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota profile in a 42-d trial. The animals were allotted to four treatment groups in a randomized complete block design involving a 2 (protein levels) × 2 (probiotic levels) factorial arrangement of treatments. Two protein levels included the high CP (HP) diets (0 to 14 d, 20.5%; 15 to 42 d, 19.5%) and the low CP (LP) diets (0 to 14 d, 18%; 15 to 42 d, 17%), and added probiotic (PRO) levels included at 0 and 500 mg/kg diet. Two interactions between CP and PRO for ADG (P < 0.01) and F/G (P < 0.05) were observed in phase 1. Within the piglets given the LP diet, probiotic supplementation increased ADG and decreased F/G ratio. Likewise, there were interactions between CP and PRO on the digestibility of CP (P < 0.01) and EE (P < 0.05), and probiotic supplementation increased the digestibility of CP and ether extract (EE) of piglets fed with LP diet, but that was not the case for piglets fed with HP diet. Furthermore, there were interactions between CP and PRO on villus height (P < 0.01) and villus height:crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in ileum. Piglets fed with LP diet containing probiotic had the greatest villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in ileum among treatments. There were also main effects of PRO on the propionic acid (P < 0.05) and butyric acid (P < 0.05), and the concentrations of propionic acid and butyric acid in colonic digesta were increased with the inclusion of probiotic in diet. Piglets fed with LP diet containing probiotic had the greatest population of Bacillus and Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05) in colon. In addition, there were interactions between CP and PRO on the mRNA expressions of occludin-1 (P < 0.05), epidermal growth factor (EGF) (P < 0.05), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) (P < 0.05). The LP fed piglets plus probiotic exhibited the greatest mRNA expressions of occludin-1, EGF, and IGF-1R in ileum compared with other treatments. In conclusion, moderate dietary protein restriction combining with the addition of B. subtilis DSM32315 synergistically increased growth performance, altered hindgut bacterial composition and metabolites, maintained intestinal barrier function in ileum of piglets.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Duodeno/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
19.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823387

RESUMO

Mucosal healing after an inflammatory flare is associated with lasting clinical remission. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of the amount of dietary protein on epithelial repair after an acute inflammatory episode. C57BL/6 DSS-treated mice received isocaloric diets with different levels of dietary protein: 14% (P14), 30% (P30) and 53% (P53) for 3 (day 10), 6 (day 13) and 21 (day 28) days after the time of colitis maximal intensity. While the P53 diet worsened the DSS- induced inflammation both in intensity and duration, the P30 diet, when compared to the P14 diet, showed a beneficial effect during the epithelial repair process by accelerating inflammation resolution, reducing colonic permeability and increasing epithelial repair together with epithelial hyperproliferation. Dietary protein intake also impacted mucosa-adherent microbiota composition after inflammation since P30 fed mice showed increased colonization of butyrate-producing genera throughout the resolution phase. This study revealed that in our colitis model, the amount of protein in the diet modulated mucosal healing, with beneficial effects of a moderately high-protein diet, while very high-protein diet displayed deleterious effects on this process.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Diabetes ; 68(5): 939-946, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833465

RESUMO

Insulin and glucagon exert opposing actions on glucose metabolism, and their secretion is classically viewed as being inversely regulated. This is, however, context specific as protein ingestion concomitantly stimulates euglycemic insulin and glucagon secretion. It remains enigmatic how euglycemia is preserved under these conditions. Accordingly, we examined the systems-level mechanisms governing such endocrine control of glucose homeostasis. Eight healthy participants completed a water (control) and multidose whey protein ingestion trial designed to augment the protein-induced endocrine response. Glucose kinetics were measured using stable isotope tracer methodology. Protein ingestion induced marked hyperaminoacidemia, hyperinsulinemia (approximately sixfold basal), and unprecedented hyperglucagonemia (approximately eightfold basal) while suppressing free fatty acids. Both glucose disposal (Rd) and endogenous glucose production (EGP) increased by ∼25%, thereby maintaining euglycemia. This demonstrates 1) that protein ingestion can stimulate glucose Rd and EGP, 2) that postprandial inhibition of adipose lipolysis does not suppress EGP, and 3) that physiological hyperglucagonemia can override the hepatic actions of insulin, rendering the liver unresponsive to insulin-mediated EGP suppression. Finally, we argue that glucagon is a bona fide postprandial hormone that evolved to concurrently and synergistically work with insulin to regulate glucose, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism. These findings may have implications for glucagon receptor antagonist or agonist-based therapies.


Assuntos
Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial
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