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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 113-128, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise and increased dietary protein have been linked to improved muscle and cognitive health, but the combination may be more effective. OBJECTIVE: In this study performed in community-dwelling older adults undergoing a 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise training program, we investigated whether those who consumed lean red meat compared to carbohydrates on the 3 training days per wk would experience greater exercise-induced improvements in total body and leg lean mass (LM), muscle strength, and executive function (multiple primary outcomes), as well as muscle size and density, functional performance, cognition, inflammatory and neurotrophic markers, blood pressure, and lipid concentrations. DESIGN: In a 24-wk, 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial, 154 adults aged ≥65 y participated in a multicomponent 3-d/wk resistance-based exercise program with random allocation to either a lean red meat group (two 80-g servings of cooked red meat), the exercise plus lean red meat (Ex + Meat) group (n = 77) or a control group receiving carbohydrates in the form of one-half cup (approximately 225 g cooked weight) of rice or pasta or 1 medium potato, the exercise plus carbohydrate control (C + Ex) group (n = 77), on the training days. RESULTS: Exercise-induced improvements (mean within group changes) did not significantly differ between groups for the primary outcomes of total body LM (0.6 to 0.8 kg), leg LM (0.1 to 0.2 kg), thigh muscle cross-sectional area (3.7% to 4.9%), leg and back muscle strength (26% to 40%), and executive function (z-score SD: 0.33 to 0.39), nor the secondary outcomes of global cognition function (0.17 to 0.23 SD), fat mass (-0.65 to -0.75 kg), physical function measures (sit-to-stand, both 15%; 4-square step test, 2% to 7%), or systolic blood pressure (-3.2 to -4.1 mm Hg). The Ex + Meat group experienced greater improvements than the C + Ex in arm LM (0.07 kg; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14; P = 0.029), gait speed (0.05 m/s; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.11; P = 0.042), muscle density (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; P = 0.015), and appendicular LM in the per-protocol analysis (0.21 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.40; P = 0.03). The C + Ex group had greater net improvements in working memory/learning after 12 wk (SD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43; P = 0.011) and 24 wk (SD: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.49; P = 0.007). Inflammatory and neurotrophic markers did not change in either group. CONCLUSION: In healthy community-dwelling older adults undertaking resistance-based exercise training 3-d/wk, participants who consumed lean red meat in line with current Australian dietary recommendations did not experience any significant additional benefits in the primary outcome measures of muscle mass, strength, or cognitive function compared to participants consuming carbohydrates.This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12613001153707.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Músculos/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Composição Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Nova Zelândia , Desempenho Físico Funcional
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386296

RESUMO

Thirty five barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 15.1 ± 1.0 kg) were used to determine the effect of partially replacing Gly + Ser with Thr in reduced crude protein (CP) diets on growth performance, protein deposition in carcass and viscera, and skin collagen abundance during the late nursery phase to 25 kg BW. Pigs were individually fed one of five iso-nitrogenous diets (n = 7) for 21 d. The basal diet met estimated essential amino acids (AA) requirements by using all essential AA plus Gly and Ser in free form (CON; 12.1% CP; as-fed, analyzed contents). The remaining four diets were formulated by reducing total Gly and Ser concentrations to 60% or 20% of the CON diet. The N removed with Gly and Ser was replaced with either crystalline Thr or Glu. Total analyzed Thr made up either 1.59% (T1; 12.5% CP) or 2.34% (T2; 12.2% CP) of the Thr-supplemented diets, and total analyzed Glu made up either 3.47% (G1; 12.7% CP) or 4.64% (G2; 12.9% CP) of the Glu-supplemented diets. Pigs were slaughtered on day 21 to determine body composition and skin collagen abundance via bright field microscopy. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and G:F and final carcass weights were greater for pigs fed diets supplemented with Glu (G1 + G2) vs. those fed diets supplemented with Thr (T1 + T2; P < 0.05, P = 0.060, and P = 0.050 for ADG, G:F, and final carcass weight, respectively); intermediate values were observed for CON. Nitrogen retention in carcass plus viscera and the AA profile of deposited protein in the carcass were not influenced by dietary treatment. Pigs fed the T2 and G2 diets had greater retention of Thr (vs. CON and G2) and Glu (vs. CON and T2) in the viscera protein, respectively (P < 0.05). The apparent utilization efficiency of standardized ileal digestible Thr for protein deposition in carcass plus viscera was less for pigs fed T2 (15.1%) vs. those fed CON (56.7%) or G2 (58.6% ± 2.9%) diets (P < 0.001). Only pigs fed T1 had skin collagen abundance not different from CON; pigs fed G1, G2, and T2 had reduced skin collagen abundance compared with CON and T1 (P < 0.01). Using Glu as an N source when Gly and Ser were reduced to 60% and 20% of CON in reduced CP diets maintained ADG for pigs between 15 and 25 kg BW, whereas supplying Thr as a N source reduced ADG and carcass weight. When dietary Gly and Ser were supplied at 60% of CON, only Thr supplementation rescued skin collagen abundance. Therefore, supplemental Thr at excess levels is not sufficient to replace N from Gly and Ser in reduced CP diets fed to late nursery pigs, despite supporting skin collagen abundance as a secondary indicator of Gly status.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Serina/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Treonina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Serina/administração & dosagem , Pele/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Vísceras , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6233-6243, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418685

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of a novel and proprietary high-protein corn product [56% crude protein (CP)] relative to other common sources of protein on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Twenty-four Holstein cows (620 ± 47.7 kg of body weight, 111 ± 34 d in milk, 2.28 ± 0.46 lactations; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were individually fed 1 of 4 diets with a different protein concentrate source during each 28-d period, including soybean meal (SBM), high-protein corn product (HPCP), soybean meal with rumen-bypass soy protein (SBMBP), and canola meal with rumen-bypass soy protein (CANBP). Diets were formulated for equal concentrations of CP and balanced to meet predicted lysine and methionine requirements. The SBM diet was formulated to provide 5.7% rumen-undegradable protein (RUP), whereas SBMBP and CANBP diets were formulated for 6.8% RUP to match HPCP. Data were analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of treatment, period, square, the interactions of treatment and period and of treatment and square, and the random effect of cow. The CANBP diet increased dry matter intake (DMI) compared with SBM and HPCP. Treatment affected milk yield, as SBMBP and CANBP increased yield compared with SBM, but HPCP decreased milk yield compared with all treatments. The HPCP diet reduced CP intake as a percent of total DMI and increased the CP content of orts, indicative of selection against HPCP. The HPCP diet also decreased apparent total-tract and CP digestibility, leading to less urine nitrogen excretion and greater fecal nitrogen output. The SBMBP and CANBP diets performed similarly in nearly every variable measured, except that SBMBP increased milk urea nitrogen. In conclusion, the HPCP diet reduced yield of milk and milk components, likely because of reduced apparent total-tract dry matter and CP digestibility.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Bovinos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/química , Zea mays/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Lactação/fisiologia , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470053

RESUMO

Adaptive regulation of epithelial transporters to nutrient intake is essential to decrease energy costs of their synthesis and maintenance, however such regulation is understudied. Previously we demonstrated that the transport function of the basolateral amino acid uniporter LAT4 (Slc43a2) is increased by dephosphorylation of serine 274 (S274) and nearly abolished by dephosphorylation of serine 297 (S297) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Phosphorylation changes in the jejunum of food-entrained mice suggested an increase in LAT4 transport function during food expectation. Thus, we investigated further how phosphorylation, expression and localization of mouse intestinal LAT4 respond to food-entrained diurnal rhythm and dietary protein content. In mice entrained with 18% protein diet, LAT4 mRNA was not submitted to diurnal regulation, unlike mRNAs of luminal symporters and antiporters. Only in duodenum, LAT4 protein expression increased during food intake. Concurrently, S274 phosphorylation was decreased in all three small intestinal segments, whereas S297 phosphorylation was increased only in jejunum. Interestingly, during food intake, S274 phosphorylation was nearly absent in ileum and accompanied by strong phosphorylation of mTORC1 target S6. Entraining mice with 8% protein diet provoked a shift in jejunal LAT4 localization from the cell surface to intracellular stores and increased S274 phosphorylation in both jejunum and ileum during food anticipation, suggesting decreased transport function. In contrast, 40% dietary protein content led to increased LAT4 expression in jejunum and its internalization in ileum. Ex vivo treatments of isolated intestinal villi fraction demonstrated that S274 phosphorylation was stimulated by protein kinase A. Rapamycin-sensitive insulin treatment and amino acids increased S297 phosphorylation, suggesting that the response to food intake might be regulated via the insulin-mTORC1 pathway. Ghrelin, an oscillating orexigenic hormone, did not affect phosphorylation of intestinal LAT4. Overall, we show that phosphorylation, expression and localization of intestinal mouse LAT4 responds to diurnal and dietary stimuli in location-specific manner.


Assuntos
Sistema L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Alimentos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Antiporters/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/administração & dosagem , Grelina/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microvilosidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Microvilosidades/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfosserina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316391

RESUMO

Circulating uric acid concentrations have been linked to various metabolic diseases. Consumption of large boluses of nucleotides increases serum uric acid concentrations. We investigated the effect of a nucleotide-rich mixed meal on postprandial circulating uric acid, glucose, and insulin responses. Ten healthy adults participated in a randomised, controlled, double-blind, crossover trial in which they consumed a mixed-meal containing either nucleotide-depleted mycoprotein (L-NU) or high-nucleotide mycoprotein (H-NU) on two separate visits. Blood samples were collected in the postabsorptive state and throughout a 24 h postprandial period, and were used to determine circulating uric acid, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Mixed meal ingestion had divergent effects on serum uric acid concentrations across conditions (time x condition interaction; P < 0.001), with L-NU decreasing transiently (from 45 to 240 min postprandially) by ~7% (from 279 ± 16 to 257 ± 14 µmol·L-1) and H-NU resulting in a ~12% increase (from 284 ± 13 to 319 ± 12 µmol·L-1 after 210 min), remaining elevated for 12 h and returning to baseline concentrations after 24 h. There were no differences between conditions in blood glucose or serum insulin responses, nor in indices of insulin sensitivity. The ingestion of a nucleotide-rich mixed-meal increases serum uric acid concentrations for ~12 h, but does not influence postprandial blood glucose or serum insulin concentrations.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Insulina/sangue , Nucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeos/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201878

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and ileal digestibility of nutrients and digestive enzyme activity of jejunum in growing pigs. In experiment 1, 10 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows (initial BW: 48.7 kg) were allotted to a three-period switchback design with five experimental diets and two replicate pigs per diet in each period. Diets were categorized as high CP (HP, 18% CP), moderate low CP (MLP, 15% CP), very low CP (VLP, 12% CP), and MLP and VLP with 0.1% NCG supplementation. Feces and urine were collected from day 6 to day 11 after a 5-d adaptation period. The DE, ME, and ATTD of GE, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and P decreased (P < 0.01) with a reduction of dietary CP, but no effect of dietary treatments on pig daily N retention was detected. The NCG supplementation increased (P < 0.01) DE and ATTD of ADF of the VLP diet. In experiment 2, 10 jejunal-cannulated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows (initial BW: 44.5 kg) were fed five diets for three periods as experiment 1. Jejunal fluid was collected on days 6 and 8 after a 5-d adaptation period. The digestive enzymes activity was not affected by dietary CP level, except for α-amylase, for which there was a decrease (P < 0.01) in pigs fed VLP diets compared to HP and MLP diets. In experiment 3, 12 ileal-cannulated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows (initial BW: 46.7 kg) were allotted to a three-period switchback design with six diets and two replicate pigs per diet in each period. The six experimental diets consisted of five experimental diets as experiment 1 and one N-free diet. Ileal digesta was collected from day 6 to day 8 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and P and ileal digestibility of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, and all dispensable AA, except Pro, decreased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed VLP diet compared to HP and MLP diets, but AID of GE, OM, EE, NDF, and ADF were not affected. The supplementation of NCG in the VLP diet increased (P < 0.01) the AID of CP and ileal digestibility of Arg, His, Leu, Phe, Val, Ser, and Tyr. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP level decreased nutrient digestibility, but improved the efficiency of dietary N utilization and reduced N emission. Moderate reduction of dietary CP level had a minimal effect on nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activity. Additionally, NCG supplementation plays a beneficial effect on nutrient digestion only if the dietary CP level is extremely lowered.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino
7.
Br J Nutr ; 124(4): 363-373, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189604

RESUMO

Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) are a highly valued aquaculture species, and, as obligate carnivores, they have a demonstrated preference for dietary protein over lipid or starch to fuel energetic growth demands. In order to investigate how carnivorous fish regulate nutritional cues, we examined the metabolic effects of feeding two isoenergetic diets that contained different proportions of digestible protein or starch energy. Fish fed a high proportion of dietary starch energy had a higher proportion of liver SFA, but showed no change in plasma glucose levels, and few changes in the expression of genes regulating key hepatic metabolic pathways. Decreased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin growth signalling cascade was consistent with decreased growth performance values. The fractional synthetic rate (lipogenesis), measured by TAG 2H-enrichment using 2H NMR, was significantly higher in barramundi fed with the starch diet compared with the protein diet (0·6 (se 0·1) v. 0·4 (se 0·1) % per d, respectively). Hepatic TAG-bound glycerol synthetic rates were much higher than other closely related fish such as sea bass, but were not significantly different (starch, 2·8 (se 0·3) v. protein, 3·4 (se 0·3) % per d), highlighting the role of glycerol as a metabolic intermediary and high TAG-FA cycling in barramundi. Overall, dietary starch significantly increased hepatic TAG through increased lipogenesis. Compared with other fish, barramundi possess a unique mechanism to metabolise dietary carbohydrates and this knowledge may define ways to improve performance of advanced formulated feeds.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo
8.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 66(1): 86-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115459

RESUMO

Nutrition and light-dark cycle influence rat testicular development. With 9% casein diet (low protein diet) under normal 12 h-12 h lighting cycles (9P), juvenile rat testes undergo normal growth. On the other hand, a low protein diet with constant darkness (D9P) results in a growth arrest of rat testes. Supplementation of cystine to the low protein diet under constant darkness (D9PC) had a tendency to increase testes weight, suggesting an improvement in growth suppression. Whether the growth suppression of testes in D9P is associated with suppression of spermatogenesis has not yet been shown. We aimed to determine the effect of a low protein diet and constant darkness with or without dietary cystine in testes using a histological technique. In the histological assessment, D9P testes showed a decreased number of seminiferous tubules with elongated spermatids, indicating a functional testicular defect in this group. However, cystine supplementation resulted in enhanced spermatogenesis versus control animals (D9PC vs. D9P) implying the importance of cystine to testicular development in this condition. Furthermore, serum testosterone concentration was increased in D9PC suggesting contribution of testosterone to ameliorate spermatogenesis. From these results, we conclude that cystine supplementation to a low protein diet under constant darkness promoted an increase in testosterone which in turn benefitted spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Cistina , Escuridão/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Cistina/administração & dosagem , Cistina/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121154

RESUMO

The present study verified the responses of proteins related to the autophagy pathway after 10 h of fast with resistance exercise and protein ingestion in skeletal muscle and liver samples. The rats were distributed into five experimental groups: control (CT; sedentary and without gavage after fast), exercise immediately (EXE-imm; after fast, rats were submitted to the resistance protocol and received water by gavage immediately after exercise), exercise after 1 h (EXE-1h; after fast, rats were submitted to the resistance protocol and received water by gavage 1 h after exercise), exercise and supplementation immediately after exercise (EXE/Suppl-imm; after fast, rats were submitted to the resistance protocol and received a mix of casein: whey protein 1:1 (w/w) by gavage immediately after exercise), exercise and supplementation 1 h after exercise (EXE/Suppl-1h; after fast, rats were submitted to the resistance protocol and received a mix of casein: whey protein 1:1 (w/w) by gavage 1 h after exercise). In summary, the current findings show that the combination of fasting, acute resistance exercise, and protein blend ingestion (immediately or 1 h after the exercise stimulus) increased the serum levels of leucine, insulin, and glucose, as well as the autophagy protein contents in skeletal muscle, but decreased other proteins related to the autophagic pathway in the liver. These results deserve further mechanistic investigations since athletes are combining fasting with physical exercise to enhance health and performance outcomes.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Jejum/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Treinamento de Resistência , Albuminas/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Jejum/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Leucina/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121298

RESUMO

In older adults, the relationship between healthy eating motivation (HEM) and protein intake as key component of a healthy diet is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigate the association of HEM with (1) total protein intake and (2) intake of different protein sources in older adults with varying functional status. In this cross-sectional study including 250 adults (≥70 years), we assessed HEM with "The Eating Motivation Survey" and protein intake by 7-day food records. In addition, gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), energy intake and functional status were considered. Regression analyses revealed that HEM was neither related to total (ß = -0.02; p = 0.723) nor to relative protein intake (ß = 0.04; p = 0.370). Notwithstanding this, participants with stronger HEM showed lower intake of protein from meat and meat products (ß = -0.14; p = 0.018), higher intake of overall plant-based protein (ß = 0.11; p = 0.032), protein from fruit and vegetables (ß = 0.20.; p = 0.002) and from pulses, nuts an seeds (ß = 0.16; p = 0.016). Our findings suggest HEM as a valuable indicator for intake of distinct protein sources. However, since HEM is not related to total protein intake, the importance of sufficient protein consumption should be emphasized by promoting healthy eating, regardless of self-perceived HEM.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Vida Independente , Motivação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
11.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 65: 105063, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199256

RESUMO

The effects of microwave, ultrasound and combined ultrasound-microwave (UM) treatment with different intensities on structural and hydrolysis properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) were investigated. Freeradical scavenging ability, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities of the related bioactive peptides were also evaluated. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicated that MP molecule tended to unfold and stretch with increasing in ß-turn and random coil content under mild microwave (100 W), ultrasound (100-200 W) and combined UM treatments. Meanwhile, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed these treatments could also improve the thermal stability against heat-induced denaturation and degeneration. The 200 W ultrasound treatment clearly increased MP solubility by disrupting the highly-ordered aggregates into smaller filament and fragment structures. The 300 W ultrasound coupled with 100 W microwave treatment further enhanced these effects. The resulting partially denatured structure induced by suitable ultrasound and combined UM treatments increased the susceptibility of MP to exogenous enzymes, thereby accelerating hydrolytic process and yielding a high peptide concentration in MP hydrolysates. MP peptides could effectively inhibit free radical and ACE activity, which also improved the ability of antioxidant defence system, and suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by H2O2. The combination of 100 W microwave and 300 W ultrasound treatment was optimal method for generating bioactive MP peptides with the strongest multi-activity effects against H2O2-induced cell damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Miofibrilas/química , Peptídeos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Sonicação/métodos , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Radicais Livres/química , Camundongos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Picratos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Desdobramento de Proteína , Células RAW 264.7 , Solubilidade
12.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(2): 223-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary protein intake and protein sources with cognitive function in population aged 60 years and older. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. PARTICIPANTS: Non-institutionalized US adults aged 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive functions were assessed by a series of cognitive tests. Dietary protein intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between quartiles of dietary protein intake and cognitive function. RESULTS: Protein intake was positively associated with cognitive function. In full-adjusted model, the significant association between dietary protein intake and Recall Test score was observed (quartile (Q) 2 versus Q1, ß=0.24, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.47); the association between protein intake and Animal Fluency test was significant (Q2 versus Q1, ß=1.40, 95%CI: 0.51 to 2.29; Q4 versus Q1, ß=1.42, 95%CI: 0.37 to 2.48); the positive associations with DSST score and Composite z-score were observed both in Q2 versus Q1 and Q3 versus Q1 of protein intake. Protein intake from total animal, total meat, eggs and legumes were associated with a better performance on certain cognitive tests. However, an adverse association between higher protein intake from milk and milk products and cognitive function was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found the positive associations of dietary protein intake and protein intake from total animal, total meat, eggs and legumes with cognitive function in adults aged 60 years and older, while higher milk and milk products were negatively associated with cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3177-3190, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059861

RESUMO

Our objectives were to determine the repeatability of residual feed intake (RFI) across dietary protein levels and to determine the association between RFI and protein efficiency in lactating cows. Holstein cows (n = 166; 92 primiparous, 74 multiparous) with initial milk yield 41.3 ± 9.8 kg/d were fed diets with high or low protein in peak lactation. Experiments were conducted as crossovers with 2 treatment periods of 28 to 35 d. Production of 69 of the 166 cows (42 primiparous, 27 multiparous) was also measured in late lactation. Low-protein diets were 14% crude protein (CP) in peak lactation and 13% CP in late lactation and were formulated to contain adequate rumen-degradable protein to maintain rumen function. High-protein diets were 18% CP in peak lactation and 16% CP in late lactation and contained extra expeller soybean meal to increase absorbed protein. Cows were milked twice daily; DMI and milk yield were recorded daily. Milk composition was measured over 4 consecutive milkings weekly, and body weight (BW) was measured 3 times weekly. Fixed effects of diet, parity, and treatment period, interaction of parity and diet, and random effects of experiment and cow nested within experiment were included in the model to compare intake and production performance between cows fed different levels of CP. The RFI value was calculated for each cow on each treatment based on the actual intake, milk energy output, metabolic BW, and body energy (calculated from BW change and body condition score over the treatment period) change. Ranking of cows for RFI was moderately repeatable across dietary protein in peak lactation (r = 0.59) but less repeatable in late lactation (r = 0.41). Negative correlation was observed between RFI and protein efficiency values (dietary protein captured in milk) for cows in both peak lactation (r = -0.42) and late lactation (r = -0.24), which suggested that cows with higher energy efficiency had greater protein efficiency. In conclusion, RFI was repeatable across dietary protein levels within lactation stage, and cows with lower RFI values utilized protein more efficiently.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja
14.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 91: 29-64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035599

RESUMO

Proteins and its building blocks, amino acids, have many physiological roles in the body. While some amino acids can be synthesized endogenously, exogenous protein and amino acids are necessary to maintain homeostasis. Because skeletal muscle contains a large portion of endogenous protein and plays important roles in movement, regulation, and metabolism, imbalanced protein and amino acid availability may result in clinical conditions including skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired muscle growth or regrowth, and functional decline. Aging is associated with changes in protein metabolism and multiple physiological and functional alterations in the skeletal muscle that are accentuated by decreased dietary protein intake and impaired anabolic responses to stimuli. Inactivity and chronically elevated inflammation of the skeletal muscle can initiate and/or augment pathological remodeling of the tissue (i.e., increase of fat and fibrotic tissues and atrophy of the muscle). Defining an adequate amount of dietary protein that is appropriate to maintain the availability of amino acids for biological needs is necessary but is still widely debated for older adults. This chapter will provide (i) an overview of dietary protein and amino acids and their role in skeletal muscle health; (ii) an overview of skeletal muscle structure and function and the deterioration of muscle that occurs with advancing age; (iii) a discussion of the relationship between protein/amino acid metabolism and skeletal muscle decline with aging; and (iv) a brief discussion of optimal protein intakes for older adults to maintain skeletal muscle health in aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos
15.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023943

RESUMO

Understanding how dietary nutrients modulate the gut microbiome is of great interest for the development of food products and eating patterns for combatting the global burden of non-communicable diseases. In this narrative review we assess scientific studies published from 2005 to 2019 that evaluated the effect of micro- and macro-nutrients on the composition of the gut microbiome using in vitro and in vivo models, and human clinical trials. The clinical evidence for micronutrients is less clear and generally lacking. However, preclinical evidence suggests that red wine- and tea-derived polyphenols and vitamin D can modulate potentially beneficial bacteria. Current research shows consistent clinical evidence that dietary fibers, including arabinoxylans, galacto-oligosaccharides, inulin, and oligofructose, promote a range of beneficial bacteria and suppress potentially detrimental species. The preclinical evidence suggests that both the quantity and type of fat modulate both beneficial and potentially detrimental microbes, as well as the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio in the gut. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the type and amount of proteins in the diet has substantial and differential effects on the gut microbiota. Further clinical investigation of the effect of micronutrients and macronutrients on the microbiome and metabolome is warranted, along with understanding how this influences host health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos
16.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941008

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, and is caused when the energy intake is greater than the energy expenditure. We aimed to determine the mechanism whereby acid-hydrolyzed silk peptide (SP) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, and whether it induces browning and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in white adipose tissue (WAT), using in vivo and ex vivo approaches. We determined the effects of dietary SP in high-fat diet-fed obese mice. The expression of adipose tissue-specific genes was quantified by western blotting, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence analysis. We also investigated whether SP directly induces browning in primarily subcutaneous WAT-derived adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that SP has a browning effect in WAT by upregulating AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. SP also suppresses adipogenesis and promotes FAO, implying that it may have potential as an anti-obesity drug.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Seda , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Oxirredução , Seda/metabolismo , Seda/farmacologia
17.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940783

RESUMO

Consumption of a high-protein diet increases protein entry into the colon. Colonic microbiota can ferment proteins, which results in the production of protein fermentation end-products, like polyamines. This review describes the effects of polyamines on biochemical, cellular and physiological processes, with a focus on the colon. Polyamines (mainly spermine, spermidine, putrescine and cadaverine) are involved in the regulation of protein translation and gene transcription. In this, the spermidine-derived hypusination modification of EIF5A plays an important role. In addition, polyamines regulate metabolic functions. Through hypusination of EIF5A, polyamines also regulate translation of mitochondrial proteins, thereby increasing their expression. They can also induce mitophagy through various pathways, which helps to remove damaged organelles and improves cell survival. In addition, polyamines increase mitochondrial substrate oxidation by increasing mitochondrial Ca2+-levels. Putrescine can even serve as an energy source for enterocytes in the small intestine. By regulating the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, polyamines help maintain mitochondrial membrane integrity. However, their catabolism may also reduce metabolic functions by depleting intracellular acetyl-CoA levels, or through production of toxic by-products. Lastly, polyamines support gut physiology, by supporting barrier function, inducing gut maturation and increasing longevity. Polyamines thus play many roles, and their impact is strongly tissue- and dose-dependent. However, whether diet-derived increases in colonic luminal polyamine levels also impact intestinal physiology has not been resolved yet.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/fisiologia , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/fisiologia
18.
Animal ; 14(2): 285-294, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368423

RESUMO

Hyper-prolific sows nurse more piglets than less productive sows, putting a high demand on the nutrient supply for milk production. In addition, the high production level can increase mobilization from body tissues. The effect of increased dietary protein (104, 113, 121, 129, 139 and 150 g standardized ileal digestible (SID) CP/kg) on sow body composition, milk production and plasma metabolite concentrations was investigated from litter standardization (day 2) until weaning (day 24). Sow body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique on days 3 and 24 postpartum. Blood samples were collected weekly, and milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10 and 17 of lactation. Litter average daily gain (ADG) peaked at 135 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). Sow BW and back fat loss reached a breakpoint at 143 and 127 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). Milk fat increased linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P < 0.05), and milk lactose decreased until a breakpoint at 124 g SID CP/kg and 5.3% (P < 0.001) on day 17. The concentration of milk protein on day 17 increased until a breakpoint at 136 g SID CP/kg (5.0%; P < 0.001). The loss of body protein from day 3 until weaning decreased with increased dietary SID CP until it reached a breakpoint at 128 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). The body ash loss declined linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P < 0.01), and the change in body fat was unaffected by dietary treatment (P=0.41). In early lactation (day 3 + day 10), plasma urea N (PUN) increased linearly after the breakpoint at 139 g SID CP/kg at a concentration of 3.8 mmol/l, and in late lactation (day 17 + day 24), PUN increased linearly after a breakpoint at 133 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001) at a concentration of 4.5 mmol/l. In conclusion, the SID CP requirement for sows was estimated to 135 g/kg based on litter ADG, and this was supported by the breakpoints of other response variables within the interval 124 to 143 g/kg.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Período Pós-Parto , Suínos/sangue , Desmame
19.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1461(1): 25-36, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644556

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus and obesity both contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and they can accelerate the loss of kidney function. Dietary intake can potentially have wide-reaching effects on the risk of CKD/DKD and their progression by reducing weight and blood pressure, improving glycemic control, reducing hyperfiltration, and modulating inflammation. Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets can reduce weight and improve glycemic control, but the relatively higher protein content also raises concern in CKD/DKD. Empiric evidence supporting the kidney-related benefits or risks of LC diets is needed to understand the balance of these potential harms and benefits for patients with DKD and is the subject of our review.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Obesidade/dietoterapia
20.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 288: 113377, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881203

RESUMO

The synergy between the genetic potential and the nutrient intake determines the growth performance of meat-type chicken and nutrigenomics approach helps us understand the response of candidate genes of growth in chicken to dietary manipulations. The current study aimed to assess the growth performance and expression of hepatic growth related genes in the naked neck broiler chicken in response to different dietary energy and protein levels with a hypothesis that high plane of nutrition enhances both of these positively. The results revealed that birds have shown significantly better growth performance under high protein (HP) and high energy (HE) dietary regime. The expression profiles of the genes studied revealed upregulation of IGF-1, IGF-2, and GH under dietary HP and HE regime relative to other protein and energy levels with greater upregulation at 3rd week than the 1st and 5th week of age of birds. The IGFR and GHR mRNA expression was significantly higher under HP and HE dietary regimen with an increasing and decreasing trend from 1st to 5th week of age, respectively. A consistent and significant downregulation of IGFBP-2 was observed under HP and HE regime throughout the feeding trial. The myostatin expression was higher at 3rd week of age followed by 1st week expression. The HP and HE as well as LP (Low protein) and HE diet resulted in significant upregulation of myostatin gene expression in liver. In support to the set hypothesis of this study the high protein and high energy diet resulted in better growth performance of broiler chickens with corresponding upregulation of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFR, GH, GHR, and Myostatin gene expression and downregulation of IGFBP-2 in liver.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo
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