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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1748-1756, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An extreme reduction of the crude protein (CP) level in diets, even balanced with amino acids (AAs), is detrimental for intestinal nitrogen (N) metabolism and the growth of pigs. This study investigated the effects of casein hydrolysate supplementation in low-CP diets on growth performance, N balance, and intestinal N supply for pigs. A total of 24 barrows were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments of 160 g kg-1 CP (control), 130 g kg-1 CP (LAA), and 130 g kg-1 CP plus casein hydrolysate (LCH) for 28 days. RESULTS: The LCH group had a higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) than the LAA group, and a higher ADG than the control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, both the LAA and LCH decreased N intake, serum urea N, fecal N, and N excretion, and increased apparent N availability, with LCH having higher N intake and N retention than LAA group (P < 0.05). Compared with LAA, LCH increased ileal fluxes of CP and AA (P < 0.05), and with values similar to those of the control. However, ileal flows of CP and AA were similar between LCH and LAA, both of which were lower than those in the control (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using protein hydrolysate to replace some crystalline AAs in low-CP diets increased feed intake, N retention and ADG without affecting N utilization. These findings point to the important impact of protein hydrolysate supplementation on improving growth for pigs fed low-CP diets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 235-244, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of early antibiotic exposure (EAE) on subsequent amino acid (AA) profiles and small intestinal AA transporter and receptor expression level in pigs with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Eighteen litters of piglets were fed creep feed diets, either with or without antibiotics while with sow on day 7. The pigs were weaned at day 23 and fed the same diets until day 42, when random pigs within each group were offered a normal- or low-CP diet, thereby creating four groups. On day 120, the pigs were euthanized, and jejunal and ileal mucosa and digesta were collected for gene-expression and AA-concentration analysis. RESULTS: With the normal-CP diet, EAE increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of six essential amino acids (EAA) and three non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in serum, four EAAs and four NEAAs in jejunal mucosa, one EAA and two NEAAs in ileal mucosa, five EAAs and three NEAAs in jejunal digesta, and three EAAs and two NEAAs in ileal digesta. Early antibiotic exposure upregulated (P < 0.05) CAT1, ASCT2, ATB0,+ , CaSR, T1R1, and T1R3 expression in the jejunum, downregulated PepT1 expression with a normal-CP diet. It upregulated (P < 0.05) the expressions of CAT1, ATB0,+ , ATP1A1, and T1R3 in the ileum with a normal-CP diet. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EAE has long-term effects on AA profiles, mainly in the jejunum and serum, by increasing AA transporter expression in the intestine, and that these effects may be influenced by dietary CP levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10947-10963, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704011

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to update and evaluate predictions of essential AA (EAA) outflows from the rumen. The model was constructed based on previously derived equations for rumen-undegradable (RUP), microbial (MiCP), and endogenous (EndCP) protein outflows from the rumen, and revised estimates of ingredient composition and EAA composition of the protein fractions. Corrections were adopted to account for incomplete recovery of EAA during 24-h acid hydrolysis. The predicted ruminal protein and EAA outflows were evaluated against a data set of observed values from the literature. Initial evaluations indicated a minor mean bias for non-ammonia, non-microbial nitrogen flow ([RUP + EndCP]/6.25) of 16 g of N per day. Root mean squared errors (RMSE) of EAA predictions ranged from 26.8 to 40.6% of observed mean values. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) of EAA predictions ranged from 0.34 to 0.55. Except for Leu, all ruminal EAA outflows were overpredicted by 3.0 to 32 g/d. In addition, small but significant slope biases were present for Arg [2.2% mean squared error (MSE)] and Lys (3.2% MSE). The overpredictions may suggest that the mean recovery of AA from acid hydrolysis across laboratories was less than estimates encompassed in the recovery factors. To test this hypothesis, several regression approaches were undertaken to identify potential causes of the bias. These included regressions of (1) residual errors for predicted EAA flows on each of the 3 protein-driven EA flows, (2) observed EAA flows on each protein-driven EAA flow, including an intercept, (3) observed EAA flows on the protein-driven EAA flows, excluding an intercept term, and (4) observed EAA flows on RUP and MiCP. However, these equations were deemed unsatisfactory for bias adjustment, as they generated biologically unfeasible predictions for some entities. Future work should focus on identifying the cause of the observed prediction bias.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
4.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6417-6428, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517363

RESUMO

Protein fermentation has an adverse effect on colonic health; high-quality proteins and reducing the protein level (protein restriction) can effectively decrease the amount of proteins flowing into the colon for microbial protein fermentation. The study is aimed at determining the effects of different protein sources on colonic microbial composition and barrier function in nursery pigs with a low protein diet. A total of 264 weaned pigs were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and each group had 6 pens with 11 pigs. Four low protein, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets containing either 4% Palbio 50 RD (P50), Soyppt-50% (S50), concentrated degossypolized cottonseed protein (CDCP), or fish meal (FM) were prepared, and all the diets had similar digestible energy (DE), crude protein content (CP, about 18%), and equal amount of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine. After 28 days of feeding trial, CDCP decreased the Desulfovibrio abundance but increased the Parabacteroides abundance. S50 elevated the Bacteroides and CF231 abundance. P50 and FM reduced the Clostridium and Ruminococcus abundance. CDCP upregulated the Occludin mRNA expression and tended to increase the amount of mixed neutral-acidic mucins in the colon. FM and CDCP declined the serum DAO and endotoxin contents. S50 and CDCP decreased the levels of serum IL-1α, and P50 lowered the serum IL-8 content. We concluded that plant protein (CDCP and S50) had advantages over animal protein (P50 and FM) in maintaining the colonic health via the regulation of colonic microbiota and barrier function.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colo/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , Suínos
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11061-11066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521354

RESUMO

Digestibilities of nutrients, especially protein, are crucial characteristics of milk replacers in a calf-rearing program. Endogenous synthesis of proteins and microbial fermentation in the large intestine alter apparent total-tract digestibility of AA. Therefore, collection of digesta samples at the end of the ileum is the only method to estimate true small intestinal digestibility of AA. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of preweaning calves for use in digestibility studies. A second objective was to evaluate the use of a "broken-line" statistical model to compare treatment effects on calf growth and digesta pH. A T-cannula was surgically installed in the terminal ileum of 2 calves approximately 5 cm anterior to the ileocecal junction at 15 d of age, and 2 paired noncannulated calves were used as controls. Cannulation did not affect mean body weight (BW), average daily gain, milk and water intakes, and body frame dimensions. However, final BW (89.2 vs. 94.6 kg) was lower and starter intake (0.06 vs. 0.21 kg/d) tended to be decreased in cannulated calves compared with control calves. No effects on health scores, rectal temperature, or the odds of incurring diarrhea or being medicated were observed. Flow of digesta (46.4 ± 0.04 g/h) increased linearly after feeding, whereas there was a quadratic effect of time on digesta pH, with the nadir at approximately 8.5 h postfeeding. The broken-line model successfully fitted daily fluctuations of pH and allowed us to detect differences in growth slopes between cannulated and control calves. Despite the expected negative effect on BW, we conclude that this technique permitted sampling of representative ileal digesta while allowing satisfactory growth and health of the calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cateterismo/veterinária , Bovinos/cirurgia , Digestão , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/cirurgia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 558-565, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546036

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrate the enhanced disease resistance and positive immunomodulation of novel pectin isolated from Spirulina maxima (SmP) in zebrafish model. Zebrafish larvae exposed to SmP had significantly (p < 0.05) higher cumulative percent survival (CPS) at 25 (44.0%) and 50 µg/mL (67.0%) against Edwardsiella piscicida compared to the control. However, upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, SmP exposed larvae at 50 µg/mL had slightly higher CPS (33.3%) compared to control group (26.7%). SmP supplemented zebrafish exhibited the higher CPS against E. piscicida (93.3%) and A. hydrophila (60.0%) during the early stage of post-infection (<18 hpi). qRT-PCR results demonstrated that exposing (larvae) and feeding (adults) of SmP, drive the modulation of a wide array of immune response genes. In SmP exposed larvae, up-regulation of the antimicrobial enzyme (lyz: 3.5-fold), mucin (muc5.1: 2.84, muc5.2: 2.11 and muc5.3: 2.40-fold), pro-inflammatory cytokines (il1ß: 1.79-fold) and anti-oxidants (cat: 2.87 and sod1: 1.82-fold) were identified. In SmP fed adult zebrafish (gut) showed >2-fold induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (il1ß) and chemokines (cxcl18b, ccl34a.4 and ccl34b.4). Overall results confirmed the positive modulation of innate immune responses in larval stage and it could be the main reason for developing disease resistance against E. piscicida and A. hydrophila. Thus, non-toxic, natural and biodegradable SmP could be considered as the potential immunomodulatory agent for sustainable aquaculture.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/química , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Edwardsiella/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Pectinas/administração & dosagem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527400

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with reduced spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion and basal insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels-which in turn is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate: (1) the association of somatotropic axis with cardiometabolic status; (2) the association of somatotropic axis with the Mediterranean diet and nutritional pattern in people with obesity. Cross-sectional observational study was carried out in 200 adult women, aged 36.98 ± 11.10 years with severe obesity (body mass index-BMI of 45.19 ± 6.30 kg/m2). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the total calorie intake was assessed. Anthropometric measurements, body composition and biochemical profile were determined along with Growth Hormone (GH)/Insulin like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) axis and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance-HoMA-IR). The enrolled subjects were compared after being divided according to GH peak response and according to IGF-1 standard deviation scores (SDS). Derangements of GH peak were detected in 61.5% of studied patients while IGF-1 deficiency was detected in 71% of the population. Both blunted GH peak response and IGF-1 SDS were indicators of derangements of somatotropic axis and were associated with comparable results in terms of cardiometabolic sequelae. Both GH peak and IGF-1 levels were inversely associated with anthropometric and metabolic parameters. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet predicts GH peak response. Fatty liver index (FLI), fat mass (FM) and phase angle (PhA) were predictive factors of GH peak response as well. In conclusion derangements of somatotropic axis is associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile in people with obesity. A high adherence to the Mediterranean diet-and in particular protein intake-was associated with a better GH status.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9883-9901, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477306

RESUMO

Variations of mammary gland (MG) metabolism were studied in dairy cows in response to diets containing 2 levels of net energy of lactation [NEL; 25.0 and 32.5 Mcal/d for low (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively], combined with 2 levels of metabolizable protein [MP, 1,266 and 2,254 g/d of protein digestible in the intestine for low (LP) and high protein (HP), respectively] in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four cows received 4 diets (LELP, HELP, LEHP, and HEHP) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Milk production and feed intake were measured on the last 5 d of each period, whereas MG net uptake of AA was determined on d 13. Efficiencies were estimated as the sum of measured milk true protein yield (MPY) and of estimations of metabolic fecal and scurf proteins multiplied by their respective AA profile and divided by the estimated AA supply minus the AA endogenous urinary loss. The increased MPY in the HE compared with the LE diets (higher by 123 g/d) was accompanied by increased mammary plasma flow and MG uptake of the nonessential AA (NEAA) and the essential AA (EAA), except for branched-chain AA. In contrast, the increase in MPY (higher by 104 g/d) observed in the HP compared with the LP diets was linked to increased MG uptake of EAA without a change in mammary plasma flow and a decreased NEAA uptake. Because MG uptake of total AA-N was almost equal to cows' milk output on a nitrogen basis, these different mechanisms involve a large MG flexibility, with variable synthesis of NEAA. In addition, MP efficiency did not increase only through increased MPY in the HE compared with the LE diets but also through metabolic fecal protein, estimated to increase (by 65 g/d) with dry matter intake. The MPY increased in the HP compared with the LP diets, but the increase was smaller than the calculated increase (greater by 993 g/d) in MP supply. The highest MG clearance rates of individual EAA could suggest that Met, His, and Lys were limiting in LP, and Met was the most limiting AA in HP. Interestingly, a similar hypothesis could be stated by analyzing estimated AA efficiencies. The highest efficiencies among EAA, observed for His in HELP and for Met with the other diets, could indicate that they were the most limiting AA in these respective diets, whereas other EAA (including Lys) efficiencies varied with MP efficiency. The MG metabolic flexibility with regard to individual AA utilization partially contributes to the anabolic fate of AA through MPY; however, other export proteins also contribute to variations in MP and AA efficiencies.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470570

RESUMO

Dietary protein restriction has beneficial impacts on metabolic health. B0AT1 (SLC6A19) is the major transporter of neutral amino acids at the intestinal epithelia and absorbs the bulk of the diet-derived neutral amino acids from the intestinal lumen. It also reabsorbs neutral amino acids in the renal proximal tubules. Mice lacking B0AT1 show cellular outcomes of protein restriction, such as high FGF21 levels and low mTORC1 activity. Moreover, they have improved glucose homeostasis and resist diet-induced obesity. In this study, we investigated the relationship between protein restriction and dietary protein intake in C57Bl6/J wild-type (wt) and SLC6A19-knockout (SLC6A19ko) mice. When SLC6A19ko mice were fed diets containing 5%, 25%, or 52% of their total calories derived from protein, no differences in food intake or weight gain were observed. All essential amino acids significantly positively correlated with increasing dietary casein content in the wt mice. The SLC6A19ko mice showed reduced postprandial levels of essential amino acids in plasma, particularly following high-protein diets. Upon fasting, essential amino acids were the same in the wt and SLC6A19ko mice due to reduced amino acid catabolism. Bacterial metabolites originating from amino acid fermentation correlated with the dietary protein content, but showed a complex profile in the blood of the SLC6A19ko mice. This study highlights the potential of SLC6A19 as a knock-out or inhibition target to induce protein restriction for the treatment of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/deficiência , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Síndromes de Malabsorção/metabolismo , Reabsorção Renal , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Síndromes de Malabsorção/sangue , Síndromes de Malabsorção/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514469

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between amount and type of dietary protein intake and insulin sensitivity in late pregnancy, in normal weight and overweight women (29.8 ± 0.2 weeks gestation, n = 173). A 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered following an overnight fast to estimate the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR, mg · kg-1 · min-1) using four different equations accounting for the availability of blood samples. Total (TP), animal (AP), and plant (PP) protein intakes were assessed using a 3-day food record. Two linear models with MCR as the response variable were fitted to the data to estimate the relationship of protein intake to insulin sensitivity either unadjusted or adjusted for early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) because of the potential of BMI to influence this relationship. There was a positive association between TP (ß = 1.37, p = 0.002) and PP (ß = 4.44, p < 0.001) intake in the last trimester of pregnancy and insulin sensitivity that weakened when accounting for early pregnancy BMI. However, there was no relationship between AP intake and insulin sensitivity (ß = 0.95, p = 0.08). Therefore, early pregnancy BMI may be a better predictor of insulin sensitivity than dietary protein intake in late pregnancy.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , /metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4124-4133, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418796

RESUMO

Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and carrot pomace (CAP) were used as fiber sources in low- or high-protein diets in dogs. Ten adult Beagles were involved in 5 feeding periods of 19 d in a cross-over design. Experimental diets contained 7.5% of total dietary fiber (TDF) from BSG or CAP and 20% or 40% of crude protein in dry matter. A diet with 3.5% TDF from both fiber sources and 20% crude protein was used as reference. Fecal dry matter was 27% higher for diets with BSG compared to CAP (P < 0.001). Apparent fecal digestibility of crude protein was 7% to 11% higher in diets with 40% protein concentration (P < 0.001), while apparent digestibility of crude fat was 2% to 3% higher for diets with CAP (P < 0.001). Carrot pomace increased the apparent fecal digestibility of TDF, phosphorus, and magnesium (P < 0.001), while 40% protein diets had a positive impact on TDF and sodium and a negative effect on magnesium apparent fecal digestibility (P < 0.001). Inclusion of CAP increased fecal short-chain fatty acids (P = 0.010), mainly acetate (P = 0.001). i-butyrate (P = 0.001), i-valerate (P = 0.002), biogenic amines (P < 0.001), and ammonium (P < 0.001) increased with higher dietary protein levels. Diet-induced changes in the fecal microbiome were moderate. Relative abundance of Bifidobacteriales was higher for the low-protein diets (P = 0.001). To conclude, BSG and CAP can be used as fiber sources in canine diets and are well tolerated even at higher inclusion rates, the effect on microbial protein fermentation seems to be limited compared to the dietary protein level.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Cães/fisiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Daucus carota , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Cães/microbiologia , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4282-4292, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410464

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that excess dietary Leu affects metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in growing pigs. Forty barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 30.0 ± 2.7 kg) were housed individually in metabolism crates and allotted to 5 dietary treatments (8 replicates per treatment) in a randomized complete block design. The 5 diets were based on identical quantities of corn, soybean meal, wheat, and barley and designed to contain 100%, 150%, 200%, 250%, or 300% of the requirement for standardized ileal digestible Leu. Initial and final (day 15) BW of pigs were recorded. Daily feed consumption was also recorded. Urine and fecal samples were collected for 5 d following 7 d of adaptation to the diets. At the end of the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected to analyze plasma urea N (PUN), plasma and hypothalamic serotonin, tissue BCAA, serum and tissue branched-chain α-keto acids, and messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of genes involved in BCAA metabolism. Results indicated that acid detergent fiber, average daily feed intake, and gain-to-feed ratio decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Leu increased. A trend (linear, P = 0.082) for decreased N retention and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) biological value of dietary protein was also observed, and PUN increased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Leu increased. A quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in plasma serotonin and a linear reduction (P < 0.05) in hypothalamic serotonin were observed with increasing dietary Leu. Concentrations of BCAA in liver increased (linear, P < 0.001), whereas concentrations of BCAA in skeletal muscle decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary Leu increased. Concentration of α-ketoisovalerate was reduced (linear and quadratic, P < 0.001) in liver, skeletal muscle, and serum, and α-keto-ß-methylvalerate was reduced (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0.001) in skeletal muscle and serum. In contrast, α-keto isocaproate increased (linear, P < 0.05) in liver and skeletal muscle and also in serum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Leu. Expression of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase and of the E1α subunit of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase increased (linear, P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle as dietary Leu increased. In conclusion, excess dietary Leu impaired growth performance and nitrogen retention, which is likely a result of increased catabolism of Ile and Val, which in turn reduces availability of these amino acids resulting in reduced protein retention, and excess dietary Leu also reduced hypothalamic serotonin synthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Serotonina/biossíntese , Suínos/fisiologia , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Cetoácidos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Serotonina/genética , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443231

RESUMO

Weight regain after a successful weight loss intervention is very common. Most studies show that, on average, the weight loss attained during a weight loss intervention period is not or is not fully maintained during follow-up. We review what is currently known about dietary strategies for weight loss maintenance, focusing on nutrient composition by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies and discuss other potential strategies that have not been studied so far. Twenty-one studies with 2875 participants who were overweight or obese are included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies investigate increased protein intake (12 studies), lower dietary glycemic index (four studies), green tea (three studies), conjugated linoleic acid (three studies), higher fibre intake (three studies), and other miscellaneous interventions (six studies). The meta-analysis shows a significant beneficial effect of higher protein intake on the prevention of weight regain (SMD (standardized mean difference) -0.17 (95% CI -0.29, -0.05), z = 2.80, p = 0.005), without evidence for heterogeneity among the included studies. No significant effect of the other strategies is detected. Diets that combine higher protein intake with different other potentially beneficial strategies, such as anti-inflammatory or anti-insulinemic diets, may have more robust effects, but these have not been tested in randomized clinical trials yet.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443582

RESUMO

Dietary protein profoundly influences organismal traits ultimately affecting healthspan. While intracellular signalling downstream of altered amino acid supply is undoubtedly important, peptide hormones have emerged as critical factors determining systemic responses to variations in protein intake. Here the regulation and role of certain peptides hormones in such responses to altered dietary protein intake is reviewed.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação do Apetite , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344809

RESUMO

Military personnel may be exposed to circumstances (e.g., large energy deficits, sleep deprivation, cognitive demands, and environmental extremes) of external stressors during training and combat operations (i.e., operational stressors) that combine to degrade muscle protein. The loss of muscle protein is further exacerbated by frequent periods of severe energy deficit. Exposure to these factors results in a hypogonadal state that may contribute to observed decrements in muscle mass. In this review, lessons learned from studying severe clinical stressed states and the interventions designed to mitigate the loss of muscle protein are discussed in the context of military operational stress. For example, restoration of the anabolic hormonal status (e.g., testosterone, insulin, and growth hormone) in stressed physiological states may be necessary to restore the anabolic influence derived from dietary protein on muscle. Based on our clinical experiences, restoration of the normal testosterone status during sustained periods of operational stress may be advantageous. We demonstrated that in severe burn patients, pharmacologic normalization of the anabolic hormonal status restores the anabolic stimulatory effect of nutrition on muscle by improving the protein synthetic efficiency and limiting amino acid loss from skeletal muscle. Furthermore, an optimal protein intake, and in particular essential amino acid delivery, may be an integral ingredient in a restored anabolic response during the stress state. Interventions which improve the muscle net protein balance may positively impact soldier performance in trying conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Medicina Militar , Militares , Contração Muscular , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Profissionais/metabolismo , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 414-429, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342789

RESUMO

Dairy cows are commonly fed compound feed concentrates, whose accurate formulation relies on the additivity of ruminal degradation characteristics of single feeds, and the absence of associative effects. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the additivity of single feeds in compound feeds made thereof. Twelve single feeds were used to produce eight compound feeds in mash and pelleted form. Samples of single and compound feeds were incubated in situ in three ruminally fistulated dairy cows, and effective ruminal degradation (ED) of CP and starch (ST) was computed. The ED values of examined compound feeds could be, in most cases, accurately calculated from ED values of single feeds. Observed EDCP values were significantly lower than that calculated, but differences were overall small and not exceeded 5% points. No significant differences were observed between calculated and observed EDST. The study also examined the effects of pelleting of compound feeds on in situ degradation. Pelleting significantly increased EDCP (up to 8% points), and EDST (up to 4% points) of most compound feeds. This could have been caused by the pelleting process increasing the proportion of fine feed particles with fast disappearance from the bags. It was concluded that small associative effects between the examined single feeds could be disregarded when formulating compound feeds for dairy cows, and that additivity of EDCP and EDST can be assumed in most cases.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Feminino
17.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349606

RESUMO

Aging and frailty are associated with a high risk of lean mass (LM) loss, which leads to physical disability and can be effectively alleviated by protein supplementation (PS) and muscle strengthening exercise (MSE). In this study, the associations between LM gain and PS + MSE efficacy (measured using physical outcomes) in elderly patients with a high risk of sarcopenia or frailty were identified. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the efficacy of PS + MSE in elderly patients with sarcopenia or frailty. The included RCTs were analyzed using meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment. We finally included 19 RCTs in this meta-analysis with a median (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 7/10 (5-9/10). The PS + MSE group exhibited significant improvements in the whole-body LM (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.66; p < 0.00001), appendicular LM (SMD = 0.35; p < 0.00001), leg strength (SMD = 0.65; p < 0.00001), and walking capability (SMD = 0.33; p = 0.0006). Meta-regression analyses showed that changes in appendicular LM were significantly associated with the effect sizes of leg strength (ß = 0.08; p = 0.003) and walking capability (ß = 0.17; p = 0.04), respectively. Our findings suggest that LM gain after PS + MSE significantly contributes to the efficacy of the intervention in terms of muscle strength and physical mobility in elderly patients with a high risk of sarcopenia or frailty.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Terapia por Exercício , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/metabolismo , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4664-4672, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220863

RESUMO

2 experiments were conducted to explore nutrient composition, AME, AMEn, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP, and amino acids (AA) of 4 indigenous protein sources including canola meal (CM), rapeseed meal (RSM), guar meal (GM), and sunflower meal (SFM) collected from 2 different locations, Multan (MUL; n = 3) and Sukkur (SKR; n = 3), of Pakistan. Higher (P < 0.05) dry matter (DM), CP, and gross energy (GE), whereas lower (P < 0.05) ash contents were found in SKR, CM, and RSM compared with those from MUL. The MUL GM had higher (P < 0.05) crude fiber (CF) and CP, whereas lower (P < 0.05) GE compared with those from SKR. The SFM from MUL had higher DM, whereas lower CF and CP contents than SKR. In the first experiment, 216 21-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were distributed over 8 test diets (4 ingredients × 2 locations) and 1 basal diet, with 4 replicates containing 6 birds each (9 × 4 × 6), in a complete randomized design to determine AME and AMEn. The results indicated higher (P < 0.05) AME and AMEn in MUL CM than SKR. In the second experiment, 216 21-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were raised in 36 cages (6 birds each) to determine SID of CP and AA in a complete randomized design. 8 test diets (4 ingredients × 2 locations) and a protein-free diet, with 4 replicates each, were tested. The SID of CP and some AA were higher (P < 0.05) in MUL CM and RSM than SKR. The SKR GM had a higher (P < 0.05) SID of CP, arginine, methionine, threonine, valine, and cysteine compared with that from MUL. The SFM from MUL had higher (P < 0.05) SID of CP, arginine, histidine, methionine, valine, alanine, aspartate, cysteine, and serine than SKR. In conclusion, major differences do exist between CM, GM, RSM, and SFM from different locations in terms of nutrients, AME, digestible CP, and AA contents for male broilers.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Estado Nutricional , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3472-3486, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251796

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were 1) to quantify dietary N utilized for milk N and N loss in urine and feces, in sows fed increasing dietary CP with a constant amount of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp to meet their standardized ileal digestible (SID) requirement and 2) to determine the optimal dietary CP concentration based on dietary N utilization for milk production. Seventy-two sows were fed 1 of 6 dietary treatments, formulated to increase the SID CP as followed: 11.8, 12.8, 13.4, 14.0, 14.7, and 15.6% and formulated to be isocaloric (9.8 MJ NE/kg). Diets were fed from day 2 after parturition until weaning at day 28 (± 3 d). Litters were equalized to 14 piglets and weighed within 48 h following parturition. Sows were weighed and back fat scanned, at day 18 (± 3 d) and day 28 (weaning; ± 3 d). Litter weight was recorded at day 11, 18 (± 3 d), and 28 (± 3 d). Nitrogen balances were conducted on approximately day 4, 11, and 18 (± 3 d). Daily milk yield was estimated from recorded litter gain and litter size. To calculate sows mobilization of fat and protein, body pools of fat and protein were estimated by D2O (deuterated water) enrichment on day 4 and 18 (± 3 d). No linear, quadratic, or cubic effects of increasing dietary CP was observed for sows total feed intake, sow BW, body pools of protein and fat, protein and fat mobilization, total milk yield, and piglet performance. The protein content in milk increased linearly with increasing dietary CP in week 1 (P < 0.05), week 2 (P < 0.05), and week 3 (P < 0.001). Urine production did not differ among treatments and N output in urine increased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration in week 1 (P = 0.05), week 2 (P < 0.001), and week 3 (P < 0.001). Urine N excretion relative to N intake increased linearly with increasing dietary CP (P < 0.001). Milk N utilization relative to N intake decreased linearly from 77.8% to 63.1% from treatment 1 through 6 (P < 0.001). Corrected milk N utilization decreased from 68.6% to 64.2% from treatment 1 through 6 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a low dietary CP concentration for lactating sows with supplemented crystalline AA improved the efficiency of dietary N utilization and reduced the N output in urine without affecting lactation performance.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/urina , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Desmame
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5525-5532, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180123

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate 3 novel proteases in broilers. In experiment 1, 600 male, Cobb 500 broilers were allocated to 1 of 12 experimental diets (5 birds/pen and 10 replicates/diet). A control (C) diet was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Proteases 1, 2, or 3 were added to this diet at 3 doses (1x, 3x, or 9x) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The factorial was augmented with 2 treatments of phytase at 500 or 1,500 FTU/kg added to the C diet. In experiment 2, 2,050 male Ross 308 broilers were allocated to 1 of 10 experimental diets (25 birds/pen and 9 replicates/diet). A C diet was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Protease 1, 2, or 3 was then added to the C diet at 3 doses (1x, 2x, or 4x) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus the C. In experiment 1, birds fed phytase gained more (P < 0.05) than birds fed protease, but neither were different than birds fed the C. Supplementation of 9x dose of any protease resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in BWG when compared with birds fed 1x dose of protease or phytase at 500 or 1,500 FTU/kg. Feed conversion ratio was improved (P < 0.05) in birds fed phytase compared with birds fed the C diet. Nitrogen digestibility was greater (P < 0.05) in birds fed protease 1 when compared with birds fed protease 2. Birds fed the 1x dose of protease or 500 FTU/kg of phytase had a greater (P < 0.05) N digestibility than birds fed 3x dose of protease. In experiment 2, protease supplementation significantly reduced (P < 0.05) BWG when compared with birds fed the C from hatch to 35 D post-hatch. Protease supplementation did not improve broiler growth performance or N digestibility above that of a nutrient adequate control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 FTU/kg of phytase.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
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