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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500777

RESUMO

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Biocatálise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato/imunologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443492

RESUMO

Muscle wasting and cachexia are prominent comorbidities in cancer. Treatment with polyphenolic compounds may partly revert muscle wasting. We hypothesized that treatment with curcumin or resveratrol in cancer cachectic mice may improve muscle phenotype and total body weight through attenuation of several proteolytic and signaling mechanisms in limb muscles. In gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of cancer cachectic mice (LP07 adenocarcinoma cells, N = 10/group): (1) LC-induced cachexia, (2) LC-cachexia+curcumin, and (3) LC-cachexia + resveratrol, muscle structure and damage (including blood troponin I), sirtuin-1, proteolytic markers, and signaling pathways (NF-κB and FoxO3) were explored (immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting). Compared to nontreated cachectic mice, in LC-cachexia + curcumin and LC-cachexia + resveratrol groups, body and muscle weights (gastrocnemius), limb muscle strength, muscle damage, and myofiber cross-sectional area improved, and in both muscles, sirtuin-1 increased, while proteolysis (troponin I), proteolytic markers, and signaling pathways were attenuated. Curcumin and resveratrol elicited beneficial effects on fast- and slow-twitch limb muscle phenotypes in cachectic mice through sirtuin-1 activation, attenuation of atrophy signaling pathways, and proteolysis in cancer cachectic mice. These findings have future therapeutic implications as these natural compounds, separately or in combination, may be used in clinical settings of muscle mass loss and dysfunction including cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/fisiopatologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Músculos/patologia , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Proteólise , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443430

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and α-synuclein aggregation. Accumulated evidence indicates that the saponins, especially from ginseng, have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, saponin can also be found in marine organisms such as the sea cucumber, but little is known about its effect in neurodegenerative disease, including PD. In this study, we investigated the anti-Parkinson effects of frondoside A (FA) from Cucumaria frondosa and ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) from Panax notoginseng in C. elegans PD model. Both saponins were tested for toxicity and optimal concentration by food clearance assay and used to treat 6-OHDA-induced BZ555 and transgenic α-synuclein NL5901 strains in C. elegans. Treatment with FA and Rg3 significantly attenuated DAergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA in BZ555 strain, improved basal slowing rate, and prolonged lifespan in the 6-OHDA-induced wild-type strain with downregulation of the apoptosis mediators, egl-1 and ced-3, and upregulation of sod-3 and cat-2. Interestingly, only FA reduced α-synuclein aggregation, rescued lifespan in NL5901, and upregulated the protein degradation regulators, including ubh-4, hsf-1, hsp-16.1 and hsp-16.2. This study indicates that both FA and Rg3 possess beneficial effects in rescuing DAergic neurodegeneration in the 6-OHDA-induced C. elegans model through suppressing apoptosis mediators and stimulating antioxidant enzymes. In addition, FA could attenuate α-synuclein aggregation through the protein degradation process.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Neural/complicações , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Oxidopamina , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/toxicidade , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443447

RESUMO

Okara is a soybean transformation agri-food by-product, the massive production of which currently poses severe disposal issues. However, its composition is rich in seed storage proteins, which, once extracted, can represent an interesting source of bioactive peptides. Antimicrobial and antifungal proteins and peptides have been described in plant seeds; thus, okara is a valuable source of compounds, exploitable for integrated pest management. The aim of this work is to describe a rapid and economic procedure to isolate proteins from okara, and to produce an enzymatic proteolyzed product, active against fungal plant pathogens. The procedure allowed the isolation and recovery of about 30% of okara total proteins. Several proteolytic enzymes were screened to identify the proper procedure to produce antifungal compounds. Antifungal activity of the protein digested for 24 h with pancreatin against Fusarium and R. solani mycelial growth and Pseudomonas spp was assessed. A dose-response inhibitory activity was established against fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus. The exploitation of okara to produce antifungal bioactive peptides has the potential to turn this by-product into a paradigmatic example of circular economy, since a field-derived food waste is transformed into a source of valuable compounds to be used in field crops protection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Liofilização , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peso Molecular , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos de Soja , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Tripsina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445501

RESUMO

Lipid dysregulation in diabetes mellitus escalates endothelial dysfunction, the initial event in the development and progression of diabetic atherosclerosis. In addition, lipid-laden macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall plays a significant role in the pathology of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. Therefore, inhibition of endothelial dysfunction and enhancement of macrophage cholesterol efflux is the important antiatherogenic mechanism. Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses beneficial properties, including its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects. We previously reported that RA effectively inhibits diabetic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting inflammasome activation in endothelial cells. However, its effect on cholesterol efflux remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the effect of RA on cholesterol efflux and its underlying mechanisms in macrophages. RA effectively reduced oxLDL-induced cholesterol contents under high glucose (HG) conditions in macrophages. RA enhanced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) expression, promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux. Mechanistically, RA differentially regulated ABCA1 expression through JAK2/STAT3, JNK and PKC-p38 and ABCG1 expression through JAK2/STAT3, JNK and PKC-ERK1/2/p38 in macrophages. Moreover, RA primarily stabilized ABCA1 rather than ABCG1 protein levels by impairing protein degradation. These findings suggest RA as a candidate therapeutic to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease complications related to diabetes by regulating cholesterol efflux in macrophages.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/citologia , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1
6.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436790

RESUMO

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitinação
7.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397373

RESUMO

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia , Catálise , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445426

RESUMO

The causative agent of white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The recombinant capsid protein (CP) of MrNV was previously expressed in Escherichia coli, and it self-assembled into icosahedral virus-like particles (VLPs) with a diameter of approximately 30 nm. Extensive studies on the MrNV CP VLPs have attracted widespread attention in their potential applications as biological nano-containers for targeted drug delivery and antigen display scaffolds for vaccine developments. Despite their advantageous features, the recombinant MrNV CP VLPs produced in E. coli are seriously affected by protease degradations, which significantly affect the yield and stability of the VLPs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to enhance the stability of MrNV CP by modulating the protease degradation activity. Edman degradation amino acid sequencing revealed that the proteolytic cleavage occurred at arginine 26 of the MrNV CP. The potential proteases responsible for the degradation were predicted in silico using the Peptidecutter, Expasy. To circumvent proteolysis, specific protease inhibitors (PMSF, AEBSF and E-64) were tested to reduce the degradation rates. Modulation of proteolytic activity demonstrated that a cysteine protease was responsible for the MrNV CP degradation. The addition of E-64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, remarkably improved the yield of MrNV CP by 2.3-fold compared to the control. This innovative approach generates an economical method to improve the scalability of MrNV CP VLPs using individual protease inhibitors, enabling the protein to retain their structural integrity and stability for prominent downstream applications including drug delivery and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Nodaviridae/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/virologia , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Simulação por Computador , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444950

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to investigate the prophylactic effects of glutamine on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. For the first 2 weeks, Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control (n = 16) or glutamine-containing diet (n = 24). For the following 6 weeks, rats fed the control diet were further divided into two groups (n = 8 per group) according to whether their diet contained no ethanol (CC) or did contain ethanol (CE). Rats fed the glutamine-containing diet were also further divided into three groups (n = 8 per group), including a GG group (glutamine-containing diet without ethanol), GE group (control diet with ethanol), and GEG group (glutamine-containing diet with ethanol). After 6 weeks, results showed that hepatic fatty change, inflammation, altered liver function, and hyperammonemia had occurred in the CE group, but these were attenuated in the GE and GEG groups. Elevated intestinal permeability and a higher plasma endotoxin level were observed in the CE group, but both were lower in the GE and GEG groups. The level of a protein synthesis marker (p70S6K) was reduced in the CE group but was higher in both the GE and GEG groups. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation might elevate muscle protein synthesis by improving intestinal health and ameliorating liver damage in rats with chronic ethanol intake.


Assuntos
Glutamina/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3110-3127.e14, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233157

RESUMO

SPT6 is a histone chaperone that tightly binds RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) during transcription elongation. However, its primary role in transcription is uncertain. We used targeted protein degradation to rapidly deplete SPT6 in human cells and analyzed defects in RNAPII behavior by a multi-omics approach and mathematical modeling. Our data indicate that SPT6 is a crucial factor for RNAPII processivity and is therefore required for the productive transcription of protein-coding genes. Unexpectedly, SPT6 also has a vital role in RNAPII termination, as acute depletion induced readthrough transcription for thousands of genes. Long-term depletion of SPT6 induced cryptic intragenic transcription, as observed earlier in yeast. However, this phenotype was not observed upon acute SPT6 depletion and therefore can be attributed to accumulated epigenetic perturbations in the prolonged absence of SPT6. In conclusion, targeted degradation of SPT6 allowed the temporal discrimination of its function as an epigenetic safeguard and RNAPII elongation factor.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Elongação da Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Replicação do DNA , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Poliadenilação , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA/biossíntese , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207520

RESUMO

The 26S proteasome is the principal protease for regulated intracellular proteolysis. This multi-subunit complex is also pivotal for clearance of harmful proteins that are produced throughout the lifetime of eukaryotes. Recent structural and kinetic studies have revealed a multitude of conformational states of the proteasome in substrate-free and substrate-engaged forms. These conformational transitions demonstrate that proteasome is a highly dynamic machinery during substrate processing that can be also controlled by a number of proteasome-associated factors. Essentially, three distinct family of deubiquitinases-USP14, RPN11, and UCH37-are associated with the 19S regulatory particle of human proteasome. USP14 and UCH37 are capable of editing ubiquitin conjugates during the process of their dynamic engagement into the proteasome prior to the catalytic commitment. In contrast, RPN11-mediated deubiquitination is directly coupled to substrate degradation by sensing the proteasome's conformational switch into the commitment steps. Therefore, proteasome-bound deubiquitinases are likely to tailor the degradation events in accordance with substrate processing steps and for dynamic proteolysis outcomes. Recent chemical screening efforts have yielded highly selective small-molecule inhibitors for targeting proteasomal deubiquitinases, such as USP14 and RPN11. USP14 inhibitors, IU1 and its progeny, were found to promote the degradation of a subset of substrates probably by overriding USP14-imposed checkpoint on the proteasome. On the other hand, capzimin, a RPN11 inhibitor, stabilized the proteasome substrates and showed the anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. It is highly conceivable that these specific inhibitors will aid to dissect the role of each deubiquitinase on the proteasome. Moreover, customized targeting of proteasome-associated deubiquitinases may also provide versatile therapeutic strategies for induced or repressed protein degradation depending on proteolytic demand and cellular context.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirróis , Pirrolidinas , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3271-3279, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Androgen receptor (AR) degradation is the primary regulator of androgen receptor activity. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the proteasome on AR protein stability after enzalutamide (Enz) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell counting after treatment was utilized to assess the effect of Enz on cell proliferation. Changes in mRNA levels were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteasome activity was assessed by measurement of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the beta-5 subunit of the proteasome. Changes in protein levels after treatment with Enz, MG132 (MG), bortezomib (Bor), or their combination were assessed using western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with Enz led to a significant reduction of cell proliferation and AR protein levels. However, AR mRNA levels were unchanged. Inhibition of proteasome activity by MG counteracts the Enz-mediated AR degradation transiently, whereas Bor showed no inhibition of the Enz-mediated AR degradation. CONCLUSION: Enz-mediated change in AR stability as an early and essential event after treatment was shown. However, investigations of the ubiquitin/proteasome system indicate involvement of several proteases in the Enz-mediated AR degradation process.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
Sci Signal ; 14(690)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230209

RESUMO

Inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) are linear polymers composed of repeated phosphate (PO4 3-) units linked together by multiple high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In addition to being a source of energy, polyPs have cytoprotective and antiviral activities. Here, we investigated the antiviral activities of long-chain polyPs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In molecular docking analyses, polyPs interacted with several conserved amino acid residues in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host receptor that facilitates virus entry, and in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). ELISA and limited proteolysis assays using nano- LC-MS/MS mapped polyP120 binding to ACE2, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed interactions between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and identified the specific amino acid residues involved. PolyP120 enhanced the proteasomal degradation of both ACE2 and RdRp, thus impairing replication of the British B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. We thus tested polyPs for functional interactions with the virus in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 and Caco2 cells and in primary human nasal epithelial cells. Delivery of a nebulized form of polyP120 reduced the amounts of viral positive-sense genomic and subgenomic RNAs, of RNA transcripts encoding proinflammatory cytokines, and of viral structural proteins, thereby presenting SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Células CACO-2 , Chlorocebus aethiops , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/genética , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Polifosfatos/administração & dosagem , Polifosfatos/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Med Chem ; 64(12): 8042-8052, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106704

RESUMO

A current bottleneck in the development of proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) is the empirical nature of linker length structure-activity relationships (SARs). A multidisciplinary approach to alleviate the bottleneck is detailed here. First, we examine four published synthetic approaches that have been developed to increase synthetic throughput. We then discuss advances in structural biology and computational chemistry that have led to successful rational PROTAC design efforts and give promise to de novo linker design in silico. Lastly, we present a model generated from a curated list of linker SARs studies normalized to reflect how linear linker length affects the observed degradation potency (DC50).


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos/química , Proteínas/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Med Chem ; 64(13): 9120-9140, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176264

RESUMO

A series of novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) degraders were designed and synthesized based on proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) technology by linking two alectinib analogs (36 and 37) with pomalidomide through linkers of different lengths and types. The most promising degrader 17 possessed a high ALK-binding affinity and potent antiproliferative activity in the ALK-dependent cell lines and did not exhibit obvious cytotoxicity in ALK fusion-negative cells. More importantly, the efficacy of compound 17 in a Karpas 299 xenograft mouse model was further evaluated based on its ALK-sustained degradation ability in vivo. The reduction in tumor weight in the compound 17-treated group (10 mg/kg/day, I.V.) reached 75.82%, while alectinib reduced tumor weight by 63.82% at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day (P.O.). Taken together, our findings suggest that alectinib-based PROTACs associated with the degradation of ALK may have promising beneficial effects for treating ALK-driven malignancies.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Carbazóis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Piperidinas/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
J Med Chem ; 64(11): 7839-7852, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038131

RESUMO

Inspired by the success of dual-targeting drugs, especially bispecific antibodies, we propose to combine the concept of proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) and dual targeting to design and synthesize dual PROTAC molecules with the function of degrading two completely different types of targets simultaneously. A library of novel dual-targeting PROTAC molecules has been rationally designed and prepared. A convergent synthetic strategy has been utilized to achieve high synthetic efficiency. These dual PROTAC structures are characterized using trifunctional natural amino acids as star-type core linkers to connect two independent inhibitors and E3 ligands together. In this study, gefitinib, olaparib, and CRBN or VHL E3 ligands were used as substrates to synthesize novel dual PROTACs. They successfully degraded both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) simultaneously in cancer cells. Being the first successful example of dual PROTACs, this technique will greatly widen the range of application of the PROTAC method and open up a new field for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gefitinibe/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Ftalazinas/química , Piperazinas/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
17.
J Med Chem ; 64(11): 7296-7311, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042448

RESUMO

Whereas the PROTAC approach to target protein degradation greatly benefits from rational design, the discovery of small-molecule degraders relies mostly on phenotypic screening and retrospective target identification efforts. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and screening of a large diverse library of thalidomide analogues against a panel of patient-derived leukemia and medulloblastoma cell lines. These efforts led to the discovery of potent and novel GSPT1/2 degraders displaying selectivity over classical IMiD neosubstrates, such as IKZF1/3, and high oral bioavailability in mice. Taken together, this study offers compound 6 (SJ6986) as a valuable chemical probe for studying the role of GSPT1/2 in vitro and in vivo, and it supports the utility of a diverse library of CRBN binders in the pursuit of targeting undruggable oncoproteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/metabolismo , Camundongos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/metabolismo , Talidomida/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
18.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(8): e22827, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051020

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation and degradation of aggrecan in human chondrocytes play an important role in the progression and development of osteoarthritis (OA). Azilsartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, has been licensed for the treatment of high blood pressure. However, the effects of Azilsartan in OA and AGEs-induced damages in chondrocytes have not been previously reported. The injured chondrocytes model was established by incubating with 5 µmol/L AGEs. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to evaluate the cell viability of treated SW1353 cells. The gene expression levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), tumor necrosis factor-ß (TNF-ß), IL-6, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type motif-4 (ADAMTS-4), ADAMTS-5, Aggrecan, and Sox-4 were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and their protein levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot analysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway was surveyed using phosp-p38 level and its specific inhibitor SB203580 was employed to block the p38 pathway. The overexpression of Sox4 plasmid was transfected into SW1353 cells to assess its regulation on ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5. Azilsartan reduced AGEs-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, TNF-ß, and IL-6. Azilsartan prevented AGEs-induced expressions of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 as well as the reduction of aggrecan. Mechanistically, AGEs treatment increased the expression of Sox4 in a dose-dependent manner. AGE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated p38. However, treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580 inhibited AGEs-induced expression of Sox4, suggesting that AGEs-induced expression of Sox4 is mediated by p38. Furthermore, Azilsartan suppressed AGEs-induced phosphorylation of p38 and expression of Sox4. Finally, the overexpression of Sox4 abolished the inhibitory effects of Azilsartan against the expressions of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5. Azilsartan treatment prevented AGEs-induced inflammatory response and degradation of aggrecan through inhibition of Sox4.


Assuntos
Agrecanas/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo
19.
J Biol Chem ; 297(1): 100818, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029592

RESUMO

The cleavage of the insulin receptor by ß-secretase 1 (BACE1) in the liver increases during diabetes, which contributes to reduce insulin receptor levels and impair insulin signaling. However, the precise signaling events that lead to this increased cleavage are unclear. We showed that BACE1 cleaves the insulin receptor in the early secretory pathway. Indeed, coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal the interaction of the proforms of the two proteins. Moreover, fragments of insulin receptor are detected in the early secretory pathway and a mutated form of BACE1 that retains its prodomain cleaves an early secretory pathway-resident form of the insulin receptor. We showed that BACE1 proform levels are regulated by proteasome and/or lysosome-dependent degradation systems whose efficiencies are dependent on the O-GlcNacylation process. Our results showed that enhanced O-GlcNacylation reduces the efficiency of intracellular protein degradation systems, leading to the accumulation of the proform of BACE1 in the early secretory pathway where it cleaves the precursor of the insulin receptor. All these dysregulations are found in the livers of diabetic mice. In addition, we performed a screen of molecules according to their ability to increase levels of the insulin receptor at the surface of BACE1-overexpressing cells. This approach identified the aminosterol Claramine, which accelerated intracellular trafficking of the proform of BACE1 and increased autophagy. Both of these effects likely contribute to the reduced amount of the proform of BACE1 in the early secretory pathway, thereby reducing insulin receptor cleavage. These newly described properties of Claramine are consistent with its insulin sensitizing effect.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Colestanos/farmacologia , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Espermina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Via Secretória/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermina/farmacologia , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3140, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035258

RESUMO

INPP4B suppresses PI3K/AKT signaling by converting PI(3,4)P2 to PI(3)P and INPP4B inactivation is common in triple-negative breast cancer. Paradoxically, INPP4B is also a reported oncogene in other cancers. How these opposing INPP4B roles relate to PI3K regulation is unclear. We report PIK3CA-mutant ER+ breast cancers exhibit increased INPP4B mRNA and protein expression and INPP4B increased the proliferation and tumor growth of PIK3CA-mutant ER+ breast cancer cells, despite suppression of AKT signaling. We used integrated proteomics, transcriptomics and imaging to demonstrate INPP4B localized to late endosomes via interaction with Rab7, which increased endosomal PI3Kα-dependent PI(3,4)P2 to PI(3)P conversion, late endosome/lysosome number and cargo trafficking, resulting in enhanced GSK3ß lysosomal degradation and activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, Wnt inhibition or depletion of the PI(3)P-effector, Hrs, reduced INPP4B-mediated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Therefore, INPP4B facilitates PI3Kα crosstalk with Wnt signaling in ER+ breast cancer via PI(3,4)P2 to PI(3)P conversion on late endosomes, suggesting these tumors may be targeted with combined PI3K and Wnt/ß-catenin therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Endossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
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