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1.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 540-547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146339

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of orthodontic bracket type (metallic or ceramic) and mouthguard on biomechanical response during impact. Two-dimensional plane-strain models of a patient with increased positive overjet of the maxillary central incisor was created based on a CT scan, simulating the periodontal ligament, bone support, gingival tissue, orthodontic brackets (metallic or ceramic) and mouthguard. A nonlinear dynamic impact finite element analysis was performed in which a steel object hit the model at 1 m/s. Stress distributions (Von Mises and Modified Von Mises) and strain were evaluated. Stress distributions were affected by the bracket presence and type. Models with metallic and ceramic bracket had higher stresses over a larger buccal enamel impact area. Models with ceramic brackets generated higher stresses than the metallic brackets. Mouthguards reduced the stress and strain values regardless of bracket type. Mouthguard shock absorption were 88.37% and 89.27% for the metallic and ceramic bracket, respectively. Orthodontic bracket presence and type influenced the stress and strain generated during an impact. Ceramic brackets generated higher stresses than metallic brackets. Mouthguards substantially reduced impact stress and strain peaks, regardless of bracket type.


Assuntos
Protetores Bucais , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Cerâmica , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Incisivo , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Estresse Mecânico
2.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 114-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969014

RESUMO

This is second of a two-part series on the history and effectiveness of mouthguards (MGs) for protection from orofacial injuries. MGs are hypothesized to reduce orofacial injuries by separating the upper and lower dentation, preventing tooth fractures, redistributing and absorbing the force of direct blows to the mouth, and separating teeth from soft tissue which helps prevent lacerations and bruises. The single study on MG use in military training found that when boil-and-bite MGs were required for four training activities, orofacial injury rates were reduced 56% compared with when MGs were required for just one training activity. A recent systematic review on the effectiveness of MGs for prevention of orofacial injuries included 23 studies involving MG users and nonusers and a wide variety of sports. For cohort studies that directly collected injury data, the risk of an orofacial injury was 2.33 times higher among MG nonusers (95% confidence interval, 1.59-3.44). More well-designed studies are needed on the effectiveness of MGs during military training. Despite some methodological limitations, the current data suggest that MGs can substantially reduce the risk of orofacial injuries in sport activities. MGs should be used in activities where there is a significant risk of orofacial injuries.


Assuntos
Militares , Protetores Bucais , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Faciais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lacerações , Boca/lesões
4.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 839-845, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590846

RESUMO

The effects of wearing an intra-oral device on several ventilatory and fatigue markers have been reported for a variety of sports. The quality of the figures performed in synchronized swimming is directly affected by fatigue, and can be monitored during training sessions (TS). The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of wearing customized intra-oral devices on heart rate variability, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate accumulation, and salivary cortisol production during a competitive training session. Twelve highly trained elite female athletes (age: 21.0±3.6 years) participated in the study. Fatigue markers were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the 3rd and 5th afternoon TS for that week, once with and once without an intra-oral device, in random order. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in relation to the baseline in the intra-oral device condition (P<0.05) but not in athletes without an intra-oral device. No differences between conditions were found in rating of perceived exertion (P=0.465) and blood lactate (P=0.711). No time or condition interactions or main effects were shown for heart rate variability. Thus, there is no evidence that wearing a low-arch intra-oral device is a good recommendation for high-standard athletes performing long and stressful routines.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Protetores Bucais , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Arcada Osseodentária , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580527

RESUMO

Sports-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess the association between mouthguard use and the incidence of SRC in college students through a case-control study using propensity score matching. In total, 195 of 2185 potential participants volunteered to participate in this study. We used Google Forms online to capture participants' information, including: age; gender; height; weight; sports contact level; level of play; exposure time; frequency of mouthguard use; mouthguard type; and SRC experience. Data for 115 participants who played collision and contact sports were used for the analysis. The difference in the frequency of mouthguard use was assessed between matched pairs and the overall association between SRC and mouthguard use was evaluated. In the matched groups, those who had not experienced SRC wore a mouthguard more frequently than those who had experienced SRC (7/28 vs. 1/28; p = 0.051). Logistic regression analysis showed there was a significant negative association between the frequency of mouthguard use and the incidence of SRC (odds ratio 0.101; p = 0.041). Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that mouthguard use may offer some benefit in preventing SRC.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Protetores Bucais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 139-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573752

RESUMO

This is the first of a two-part series on the history and effectiveness of mouthguards (MGs) for orofacial injury protection. Military studies have shown that approximately 60% of orofacial injuries are associated with military training activities and 20% to 30% with sports. MGs are hypothesized to reduce orofacial injuries by separating the upper and lower dentation, preventing tooth fractures, redistributing and absorbing the force of direct blows to the mouth, and separating teeth from soft tissue, preventing lacerations and bruises. In 1975, CPT Leonard Barber was the first to advocate MGs for military sports activities. In 1998, Army health promotion campaigns promoted MG education and fabrication. A US Army basic training study in 2000-2003 showed that more MG use could reduce orofacial injuries and the Army Training and Doctrine Command subsequently required that basic trainees be issued and use MGs. Army Regulation 600-63 currently directs commanders to enforce MG use during training and sports activities that could involve orofacial injuries. In the civilian sector, MGs were first used by boxers and then were required for football. MGs are currently required nationally for high school and college football, field hockey, ice hockey, and lacrosse, and are recommended for 29 sport and exercise activities.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Faciais/prevenção & controle , Militares , Protetores Bucais/história , Boca/lesões , História do Século XX , Humanos , Esportes , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(5): 458-459, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigid oesophagoscopy is a widely used therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. Smooth friction-free insertion of the rigid scope is important to prevent oral and oesophageal mucosal damage, as such damage can cause delays in oral intake or more serious complications such as perforation. Protection appliances such as gum guards are useful adjuncts to cushion the teeth in rigid oesophagoscopy; however, there are no specific adjuncts for the edentulous patient. METHODS: In order to investigate different adjuncts, the force required to pull a standard adult rigid oesophagoscope from a metal clamp whilst enclosed in dry gauze, wet gauze, a gum guard or sleek on gauze was recorded, and a prospective audit of post-procedural trauma was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Less force was required to create movement of the scope against sleek on gauze, with a lower rate of oral trauma (8 per cent) compared to that reported in the literature. Sleek on gauze is recommended for the edentulous patient.


Assuntos
Esofagoscópios/efeitos adversos , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Boca Edêntula/complicações , Boca/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Esofagoscopia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Protetores Bucais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(4): 516-525.e2, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this research were to identify the beliefs and practices of orthodontists about mouthguard use in orthodontic patients and to survey orthodontic patients currently playing school-sponsored basketball and/or football about mouthguards. METHODS: Fifteen orthodontists were interviewed about mouthguard use in their patients. Patients (aged 11-18 years) playing organized school basketball (n = 53) or football (n = 22) from 13 of those 15 orthodontic practices participated in an online survey about mouthguards. RESULTS: Approximately half of the orthodontists interviewed had initiated discussions about mouthguards with their patients. Although boil-and-bite mouthguards were recommended most often by orthodontists with only a single orthodontist recommending a stock type, stock was the most commonly used type (football [59%], basketball [50%]) followed by boil-and-bite (football [27%], basketball [35%]). Only 2 of the 75 patients surveyed (<3%) reported using a custom mouthguard. All football players reported using a mouthguard, as mandated by this sport. Basketball does not mandate mouthguard use, and only 38% of basketball players reported wearing one. Players who used mouthguards cited forgetting as the most frequent reason for not always using one. A greater percentage of football (91%) than basketball (32%) players reported that their coach recommended a mouthguard (P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontists differ in how they approach mouthguard use by their patients, which likely reflects a lack of evidence-based guidelines. The beliefs, recommendations, and practices of orthodontists concerning mouthguard use and the use of mouthguards by orthodontic patients are discussed. Research directions to improve mouthguard use are suggested.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Futebol Americano , Protetores Bucais , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Ortodontistas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(5): 543-550, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Wearing a mouthguard reduces the risk of sports-related injuries, but the material and thickness of the mouthguard have a substantial impact on its effectiveness and safety. The aim of this study was to establish a thermoforming technique in which the model position is moved just before formation to suppress the reduction in thickness. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of model height and model moving distance on mouthguard thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethylene-vinyl acetate sheets of 4.0 mm thick and a vacuum forming machine were used. Three hard plaster models were trimmed so that the height of the anterior teeth was 25 mm, 30 mm and 35 mm. Model position (MP) was 40 mm from the front of the forming unit. The sheet was softened until it sagged 15 mm, after which the sheet frame was lowered to cover the model. The model was then pushed from behind to move it forward, and the vacuum was switched on. The model was moved at distances of 20 mm, 25 mm or 30 mm whereas a control model was not moved. Thickness after formation was measured with a specialized caliper. Differences in mouthguard thickness due to model height and moving distance were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. RESULTS: Sheet thickness decreased as the model height increased. Each MP condition was significantly thicker than the control in each model. There was no significant difference among MP conditions except for the buccal surface. CONCLUSIONS: Moving the model forward by 20 mm or more just before formation is useful to secure the labial thickness of the mouthguard. This thermoforming technique increased the thickness by 1.5 times or more compared with the normal forming method, regardless of model height.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Bucais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Vácuo
11.
J Athl Train ; 55(5): 469-474, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216659

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Whereas much attention has been paid to identifying mechanisms for decreasing concussion rates in women's soccer players, which strategies are currently being used is unknown. In addition, athletic trainers' (ATs') knowledge and beliefs about the efficacy of concussion-prevention practices have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the concussion-prevention strategies being used in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and Division II women's soccer and identify the beliefs of certified ATs regarding mechanisms for preventing concussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 223 women's soccer team ATs employed at Division I or II universities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): A survey instrument of structured questions and open-ended, follow-up questions was developed to identify the use of cervical-strengthening programs, headgear, and other techniques for preventing concussion. Questions also addressed ATs' beliefs regarding the effectiveness of cervical strengthening, headgear, and mouthguards in concussion prevention. Data were collected via questionnaire in Qualtrics survey software. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were calculated for close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were evaluated for common themes, which were then reported by response frequency. RESULTS: Cervical strengthening or stability for concussion prevention was reported by 38 (17.12%) respondents; 153 (69.86%) ATs believed that cervical strengthening would aid in concussion prevention. Seventy-eight (35.49%) reported that their players wore headgear. Nineteen (8.76%) believed that soccer headgear prevented concussions; 45 (20.74%) believed that mouthguards prevented concussions. Education in proper soccer technique was reported by 151 (69.59%) respondents. Fourteen (0.06%) respondents cited nutritional strategies for concussion prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Although ATs believed that cervical strengthening could help prevent concussions, few had implemented this strategy. However, the ATs whose teams used headgear outnumbered those who believed that headgear was an effective prevention strategy. Based on our findings, we saw a disconnect among the current use of concussion-prevention strategies, ATs' beliefs, and the available evidence.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Futebol/lesões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Protetores Bucais , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
12.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(5): 538-542, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The appropriate heating temperature for the fabrication of mouthguards using ethylene vinyl acetate sheets is reported to be 80-120°C. However, the measurement side of the heating temperature has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the measurement side of the heating temperature when fabricating mouthguards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouthguard sheets of 3.8 mm ethylene vinyl acetate were vacuum-formed on working models until the sheet was heated to 120°C. The sheet temperature was measured at the upper side and the lower side. The thickness of the mouthguard was measured at the labial surface of the central incisor, and the buccal and occlusal surfaces of the first molar. The fit of the mouthguard was examined at the central incisor and the first molar by measuring the distance between the mouthguard and the cervical margin of the working model. Differences in the thickness and fit of the mouthguards were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Mouthguard thickness varied among the measured regions of the central incisors and first molars (P < .01). The thicknesses at the labial surface of the central incisor and buccal surface of the first molar were larger when the sheet temperature measured at the lower side was 120°C compared to when the sheet temperature measured at the upper side was 120°C (P < .01). The fit of the mouthguard was better when the sheet temperature measured at the lower side was 120°C (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The sheet temperature should be measured at the lower side of the sheet and it should be 120°C for fabricating mouthguards.


Assuntos
Protetores Bucais , Desenho de Equipamento , Etilenos , Temperatura , Vácuo , Compostos de Vinila
13.
Mil Med ; 185(Suppl 1): 190-196, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074346

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although concussion continues to be a major source of acute and chronic injuries, concussion injury mechanisms and risk functions are ill-defined. This lack of definition has hindered efforts to develop standardized concussion monitoring, safety testing, and protective countermeasures. To overcome this knowledge gap, we have developed, tested, and deployed a head impact monitoring mouthguard (IMM) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The IMM system was first calibrated in 731 laboratory tests. Versus reference, Laboratory IMM data fit a linear model, with results close to the ideal linear model of form y = x + 0, R2 = 1. Next, during on-field play involving n = 54 amateur American athletes in football and boxing, there were tens of thousands of events collected by the IMM. A total of 890 true-positive head impacts were confirmed using a combination of signal processing and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health Common Data Elements methods. RESULTS: The median and 99th percentile of peak scalar linear acceleration and peak angular acceleration were 20 and 50 g and 1,700 and 4,600 rad/s2, respectively. No athletes were diagnosed with concussion. CONCLUSIONS: While these data are useful for preliminary human tolerance limits, a larger population must be used to quantify real-world dose response as a function of impact magnitude, direction, location, and accumulation. This work is ongoing.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/classificação , Pesos e Medidas/instrumentação , Atletas/psicologia , Boxe/lesões , Futebol Americano/lesões , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/etiologia , Humanos , Protetores Bucais , Esportes/psicologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesos e Medidas/normas
14.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(4): 433-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The appropriate heating conditions for polyolefin sheets have not yet been determined and polyolefin sheets are usually formed in the same manner as ethylene vinyl acetate sheets. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriate heating conditions for polyolefin sheets when fabricating vacuum-formed mouthguards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouthguard sheets of 3.0 mm polyolefin were vacuum formed on working models at three heating temperatures: 90°C, 105°C, and 120°C. The thickness of the mouthguard was measured at the labial surface of the central incisor, and the buccal and occlusal surfaces of the first molar. The fit of the mouthguard was examined at the central incisor and the first molar by measuring the distance between the mouthguard and the cervical margin of the working model. Differences in the thickness and fit of the mouthguards according to the heating conditions and the measured regions were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Mouthguard thickness varied among the measured regions of the central incisors and first molars (P < .01). The smallest thickness was found at the labial surface of the central incisor in mouthguards fabricated at 90°C (P < .01). The smallest thickness was found at the buccal and occlusal surface of the first molar in mouthguards fabricated at 120°C (P < .01). The worst fit was obtained with the heating temperature of 90°C (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate heating temperature for polyolefin sheets was 105°C to maintain mouthguard thickness and to obtain proper fit.


Assuntos
Protetores Bucais , Desenho de Equipamento , Polienos , Pressão , Vácuo
15.
J Oral Sci ; 62(1): 23-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996518

RESUMO

Laminated custom-made mouthguards tend to delaminate with use; this is a problem in clinical use. Insufficient bonding strength causes delamination, and bonding strength is strongly affected by heating temperature during lamination. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of heating temperature on the sheet lamination process. Seven mouthguard sheet products were laminated together at different heating temperatures. To evaluate the bonding strength, a delamination test (n = 6) was performed, and the fracture patterns were inspected visually. To evaluate the shock absorption capability, a falling impact test (n = 5) was performed, and the specimen thicknesses were measured. All recorded values were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honest Significant Difference Test (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed that bonding strength was dependent on heating temperature: In ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer products, the bonding strength was almost constant at 130°C and above, and it was constant at 110°C and above in polyolefin products. The thickness of every specimen decreased and, in some specimens, the shock absorption capability decreased with increasing heating temperature. The present study concludes that the heating temperature during the sheet lamination process when laminated custom-made mouthguards are fabricated may not be less than 120°C in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer products and 110°C in polyolefin products.


Assuntos
Protetores Bucais , Desenho de Equipamento , Temperatura
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(14): 866-870, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concussion is the most common injury in youth ice hockey. Whether mouthguard use lowers the odds of concussion remains an unanswered question. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between concussion and mouthguard use in youth ice hockey. METHODS: Nested case-control design. Cases and controls were identified from two prospective cohort studies using valid injury surveillance methods. Cases were players concussed during a game or practice; controls were players who sustained a non-concussion injury during a game or practice. The primary exposure was mouthguard use at time of injury; mouthguard type (dental custom fit or off the shelf) was a secondary exposure. Physician-diagnosed or therapist-suspected concussion was the primary outcome. Dental injury was a secondary outcome. Multilevel logistic regression with random effect at a team level was used to obtain ORs for the mouthguard effect, adjusted for level of play, age group, position, concussion history, mechanism of injury, cohort, session type and body checking policy. RESULTS: Among cases, 236/315 (75%) were wearing a mouthguard at time of injury, while 224/270 (83%) controls were wearing a mouthguard at time of injury. Any mouthguard use was associated with an adjusted OR for concussion of 0.36 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Off-the-shelf mouthguards were associated with a 69% lower odds of concussion (adjusted OR: 0.31; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.65). Dental custom-fit mouthguards were associated with a non-significant 49% lower odds of concussion (adjusted OR: 0.51; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.10). No dental injuries were identified in either cohort. CONCLUSION: Mouthguard use was associated with lower odds of concussion. Players should be required to wear mouthguards in youth ice hockey.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Hóquei/lesões , Protetores Bucais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos Dentários/prevenção & controle
17.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(2): 198-202, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557381

RESUMO

AIM: Mouthguard thickness influences the preventive effects against dental and oral injury. The aim of this study was to examine the difference in pressure-formed mouthguard thickness according to the laminate procedure used. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials used were mouthguard sheets of 2.0-mm and 3.0-mm ethylene vinyl acetate, and pressure formed using a pressure former. Two forming conditions for laminated mouthguards were examined: the condition 23P used the 2.0-mm sheet as the first layer and 3.0-mm sheet as the second layer. The condition 32P used the 3.0-mm sheet as the first layer and 2.0-mm sheet as the second layer. The first layer was trimmed to cover only the anterior region; then, the second layer was formed over the first layer. Mouthguard thickness was measured at the labial surface of the central incisor, buccal surface of the first molar, and occlusal surface of the first molar. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni method to analyze the differences in thickness by measurement region of mouthguards and forming conditions. RESULTS: Mouthguard thickness differed in different regions of the central incisors and the first molars (P < .01). The thickness at the labial surface of the central incisor became statistically significantly larger on the 32P condition than that on the 23P condition (P < .01). The thickness at the buccal surface and the occlusal surface of the first molar became statistically significantly larger on the 23P condition than that on the 32P condition (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The thicknesses of the labial surface of the central incisor became larger when the sheet thickness of the first layer was larger.


Assuntos
Protetores Bucais , Desenho de Equipamento , Dente Molar , Pressão , Vácuo
18.
Res Sports Med ; 28(1): 55-71, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880469

RESUMO

While many research efforts have focused on head impact exposure in professional soccer, there have been few studies characterizing exposure at the youth level. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new instrumentation approach and collect some of the first head impact exposure data for youth female soccer players. Athletes were instrumented with custom-fit mouthpieces that measure head impacts. Detailed video analysis was conducted to identify characteristics describing impact source (e.g., kick, header, throw). A total of 763 verified head impacts were collected over 23 practices and 8 games from 7 athletes. The median peak linear accelerations, rotational velocities, and rotational accelerations of all impacts were 9.4 g, 4.1 rad/s, and 689 rad/s2, respectively. Pairwise comparisons resulted in statistically significant differences in kinematics by impact source. Headers following a kicked ball had the highest accelerations and velocity when compared to headers from thrown or another header.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/fisiopatologia , Protetores Bucais , Futebol/lesões , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(2): 422-429, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927893

RESUMO

Martins, RS, Girouard, P, Elliott, E, and Mekary, S. Physiological responses of a jaw repositioning custom-made mouthguard on airway and their effects on athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res 34(2): 422-429, 2020-Advanced dental techniques such as jaw-repositioning have shown to increase lower body muscular power such as vertical jump, but its effects on acceleration and speed have not been studied. Similarly, jaw repositioning is commonly used to increase airways volume and ventilation in a special population (i.e., obstructive sleep apnea); however, its ergogenic effects on aerobic performance have yet not been studied. The purpose of the cross-over study was to investigate the effects of a jaw-repositioning custom-made mouthguard (JCM) on volumetric changes in airway and jaw position and determine the effects this may have on aerobic and anaerobic performance. Results indicated that jaw-repositioning custom-made mouthguard may have an ergogenic effect on performance. The JCM condition showed an increase of 13% in upper airway volume (p = 0.04), 10% in upper airway width (p = 0.004), 7% in ventilation (p = 0.006), 5% in maximal aerobic power (p = 0.003), 4% in time to exhaustion (p = 0.03), 3% in vertical jump (p = 0.03), 2% in broad jump (p = 0.009), and a decrease of 4% in 20-m (p = 0.04) and 2% in 40-m (p = 0.001) sprint times. This is the first study to demonstrate a significant link between jaw repositioning, airway volumetric change, and performance enhancement in both aerobic and anaerobic performances. The results of this study may lead to a change in culture for the use of mouthguards in different sports applications, from high orofacial injury risk sports to other sports, specifically for ergogenic enhancement.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Protetores Bucais , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
20.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(3): 285-290, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Orofacial injuries are a serious problem in field hockey. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of orofacial injuries in field hockey players in Catalonia, the frequency of mouthguard use, the types of mouthguards used and the degree of interference with oral function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 325 field hockey players (28% women) from all age categories completed a questionnaire about orofacial injuries occurring during their sporting lives, including dental injuries, oral lacerations and episodes of acute temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. The questionnaire also asked about the experience of using a mouthguard, the type of mouthguard used and any adverse effects of use. The degree of interference with oral function was compared by type of mouthguard (mouth-formed, custom-made and pre-fabricated mouthguards) using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Half of the players (50.2%) reported at least one orofacial injury during their sporting lives. The mean number of oral lacerations, TMD pain episodes and dental injuries were 1.59, 0.24 and 0.18, respectively. In total, 310 players (95.7%) had tried a mouthguard, and of these 269 (86.8%) and 283 (91.3%) still used a mouthguard habitually during training and competition, respectively. Only 11 players (3.5%) had tried all three types of mouthguards, and 71 players (22.9%) had tried two types of mouthguard. By type, 217 players (70.0%) had tried mouth-formed (boil-and-bite) mouthguards, 156 (50.3%) had tried custom-made mouthguards and 30 (9.7%) had tried pre-fabricated mouthguards. Custom-made mouthguards were rated as more comfortable than the mouth-formed type (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of orofacial injuries among field hockey players is relatively high. Most players habitually use a mouthguard during training and competition, typically preferring custom-made or a mouth-formed types. Custom-made mouthguards were considered the most comfortable.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Hóquei , Protetores Bucais , Traumatismos Dentários/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Espanha
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