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2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105355, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790937

RESUMO

The growing popularity of physical sunscreens will lead to an increased release of ingredients from zinc oxide (ZnO) sunscreens into marine environments. Though zinc (Zn) is a necessary micronutrient in the ocean, greater than natural Zn concentrations may be released into marine environments by use of sunscreens. The extent of the consequences of this addition of Zn to the ocean are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of materials released by ZnO- sunscreens on the development of California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Embryos incubated in various concentrations of Zn (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/L), the sources of which included zinc-containing compounds: ZnO and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4); and ZnO sunscreens: All Good, Badger, and Raw Elements brands. Based on EC50 values, ZnO-containing sunscreens were slightly, but not significantly, more toxic than ZnO and ZnSO4, suggesting that sunscreens may release additional unknown materials that are detrimental to sea urchin embryo development. All concentrations of Zn-exposure resulted in significant malformations (skeletal abnormality, stage arrest, axis determination disruption), which were identified using light and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The concentration of Zn2+ internalized by the developing embryos correlated positively with the concentration of Zn in seawater. Additionally, exposure to both ZnO sunscreens and ZnO and ZnSO4 at 1 mg/L Zn, significantly increased calcein-AM (CAM) accumulation, indicating decreased multidrug resistant (MDR) transporter activity. This is one of the first studies documenting ZnO-containing sunscreens release high concentrations of Zn that are internalized by and have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Sulfato de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluoresceínas/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus/embriologia
3.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(10): 604-613, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188186

RESUMO

Introducción: La exposición solar es el principal determinante del estado de vitaminaD. Nuestro objetivo fue describir las prácticas de exposición y protección solar de una serie de pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) y evaluar su influencia en la concentración sérica de vitaminaD. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio observacional de tipo transversal. Las variables clínico-demográficas se obtuvieron mediante entrevista clínica y revisión de la historia. La evaluación de la exposición solar se realizó mediante el Sun Exposure Questionnaire. La concentración de 25-hidroxivitaminaD (25OHD) se determinó por electroquimioluminiscencia. Se realizaron cuestionarios de calidad de vida, actividad física, ingesta semanal de vitaminaD y hábitos de protección solar. Resultados: Se incluyeron 149 pacientes. En el 69% de los pacientes se registraron valores deficientes o insuficientes de 25OHD. El 67% presentaron una baja exposición solar. Se observó una modesta correlación significativa entre la puntuación total del cuestionario de exposición solar y la concentración de 25OHD en la serie completa (r=0,226; p=0,006) y en verano (r=0,274; p=0,01). La puntuación del cuestionario de protección solar no influyó en la concentración de 25OHD. En el análisis multivariado solo la presencia de actividad clínica se asoció a una exposición solar baja (OR=3,23). Discusión: La exposición solar de acuerdo con el cuestionario empleado fue baja, se asoció a la presencia de actividad clínica y se correlacionó débilmente con la concentración de 25OHD sérica. Se necesitan más estudios que exploren el uso de cuestionarios individuales de exposición solar y su correlación con la vitaminaD sérica en la EII


Introduction: Sunlight exposure is the main source of vitaminD. Our aim was to describe both sun exposure and sun protection behaviour in a series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to study their potential association with vitaminD concentration. Patients and methods: A cross sectional, observational study. The clinical-demographic variables were obtained via clinical interviews and medical history review. The sunlight exposure assessment was carried out using the Sun Exposure Questionnaire and the concentration of 25-hydroxy vitaminD (25OHD) was measured by an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Questionnaires were conducted on quality of life, physical activity, weekly vitaminD intake and sun protection behaviour. Results: 149 patients were included. In 69% of patients, deficient or insufficient 25OHD values were recorded. 67% showed low sun exposure. A modest significant correlation was observed between the total score of the solar exposure questionnaire and the 25OHD concentration in the complete series (r=0.226, P=.006) and in the summer (r=0.274, P=.01). The sun protection behaviour questionnaire score did not influence the 25OHD concentration. In the multivariate analysis, only the presence of clinical activity was associated with low sun exposure (OR=3.23). Discussion: Sun exposure according to the questionnaire used was low, was associated with the presence of clinical activity and was weakly correlated with serum 25OHD concentration. More studies are needed to explore the use of individual questionnaires for sun exposure and its relationship with vitaminD in patients with IBD


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Calcitriol , Inquéritos e Questionários , Qualidade de Vida , Vitamina D/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Modelos Logísticos
4.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. METHODS: The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. RESULTS: The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. CONCLUSION: The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Energia Solar , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
5.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 567-573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the main prevention methods against skin cancer is the use of sunscreen; however, incidence of this disease has not declined despite prevention campaigns. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of non-use of sunscreen and its associated factors. METHOD: A population-based cross-sectional study with individuals aged 18 years or over living in the urban area. Conducted between April and July of 2016. Participants were interviewed about socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral questions. Non-use of sunscreen was considered as the outcome. For multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust adjustment for variance was used. RESULTS: Among the 1300 participants, prevalence of non-use of sunscreen was 38.2% (95% CI: 34.6-41.8). The variables independently associated with the outcome were male sex, older age, brown or black skin color, lower income, fewer years of education, no physical activity in leisure time, no medical consultations in the last year, and self-perception of health as regular or poor. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The prevalence may be underestimated by reports of more use of sunscreen than actually used, which could increase the figure in the outcome. CONCLUSION: It was estimated that about four out of ten adults and elderly do not use sunscreen in this sample. Prevention strategies are needed to advance health policy and ensure that sun protection options are easily accessible.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002932, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia has one of the highest skin cancer rates in the world. 'SunSmart' is a multi-component, internationally recognised community-wide skin cancer prevention program implemented in Melbourne, Australia, since summer 1988-1989. Following recent reductions in melanoma rates among younger Australian cohorts, the extent of behaviour change and the potential contribution of prevention programs to this decline in melanoma rates are of interest. Sun protection is a multifaceted behaviour. Measures previously applied to monitor change over time in preventive behaviour for this population focused on individual behaviours. The omission of multiple behaviours that reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) may have led to underestimates of behaviour change, meriting further analysis of long-term trends to contribute to this debate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based survey was conducted in Melbourne in the summer before SunSmart commenced (1987-1988) and across summers in 3 subsequent decades (1988-2017). During summer months, residents (14-69 years) were recruited to cross-sectional weekly telephone interviews assessing their tanning attitudes, sun protection behaviour, and sunburn incidence on the weekend prior to interview. Quotas were used to ensure the sample was proportional to the population by age and sex, while younger respondents were oversampled in some years. The majority of the respondents reported their skin was susceptible to sunburn. Changes in sun protection behaviour were analysed for N = 13,285 respondents in multivariable models, cumulating surveys within decades (1987-1988: N = 1,655; 1990s: N = 5,258; 2000s: N = 3,385; 2010s: N = 2,987) and adjusting for relevant ambient weather conditions and UV levels on weekend dates. We analysed specific and composite behaviours including a novel analysis of the use of maximal sun protection, which considered those people who stayed indoors during peak UV hours together with those people well-protected when outdoors. From a low base, use of sun protection increased rapidly in the decade after SunSmart commenced. The odds of use of at least 1 sun protection behaviours on summer weekends was 3 times higher in the 1990s than pre-SunSmart (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04, 95% CI 2.52-3.68, p < 0.001). There was a smaller increase in use of maximal sun protection including shade (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.44-1.97, p < 0.001). These improvements were sustained into the 2000s and continued to increase in the 2010s. Inferences about program effects are limited by the self-reported data, the absence of a control population, the cross-sectional study design, and the fact that the survey was not conducted in all years. Other potential confounders may include increasing educational attainment among respondents over time and exposure to other campaigns such as tobacco and obesity prevention. CONCLUSIONS: With an estimated 20-year lag between sun exposure and melanoma incidence, our findings are consistent with SunSmart having contributed to the reduction in melanoma among younger cohorts.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how patients' primary spoken language influences the understanding of their disorder and their subsequent sun-related behaviors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between February 2015 and July 2016 in two outpatient dermatology clinics among 419 adults with a sun-exacerbated dermatosis. The primary outcome was a successful match between the patient-reported diagnosis on a survey and the dermatologist-determined diagnosis. RESULTS: Of participants, 42% were native English speakers, and 68% did not know their diagnosis. Fewer non-native English speakers identified one risk factor for their condition (46% versus 54%, p < 0.01). A greater number of non-native English speakers were less familiar with medical terminology. Native English speakers were 2.5 times more likely to know their diagnosis compared to non-native speakers (adjusted odds (aOR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 4.5; p = 0.005). Additional factors associated with higher odds of knowing the diagnosis included: Higher education, sunscreen use, female gender, symptoms for 1-5 years, and diagnosis of melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the diagnosis and understanding of factors that may influence skin disease may promote conscious sun behavior. Patients who knew that their diagnosis was sun-exacerbated had higher odds of wearing sunscreen.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Queimadura Solar/diagnóstico , Queimadura Solar/tratamento farmacológico , Queimadura Solar/psicologia , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1044, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sunburns during childhood are strongly associated with development of melanoma in later life. While parents play an important role in children's sun protection, insight in possible shifts in behavioral responsibility from parents towards their children and the possible effect of children's sex is important for targeting sun safety interventions throughout childhood and adolescence. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study was conducted among a representative sample of Dutch parents (N = 1053) of children aged between 4 and 13 years old. Questionnaires measured both parental and children's own sun safety behavior during planned (e.g. going to the beach) and incidental (e.g. bycicling) sun exposure situations. Analyses of variance were used to test for age group differences and linear regression models were computed to detect behavioral shifts in executive behavior. RESULTS: Parents applied all sun safety behaviors (i.e. sunscreen use, wearing UV-protective clothing and seeking shade) more often on younger children, except for supportive behavior (facilitating children's own sun safety behavior), which remained relatively stable over the years. Older children and girls were more likely to execute sun safety behaviors themselves. A behavioral shift was found in wearing UV-protective clothing during planned situations among 11 year old children. For other behaviors, shifts were predicted after the age of 13. CONCLUSIONS: Older children execute sun safety behaviors more often than younger children, although they still largely depend on their parents' protection. Specific attention for boys in the primary school years, and for both boys and girls in the years adjacent to adolescence is warranted in skin cancer prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
10.
Pediatr Ann ; 48(6): e213-e214, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185109

RESUMO

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and risk for melanoma is greatly increased with a serious sunburn in childhood or adolescence. Skin cancer also is one of the most preventable cancers, as sun exposure is an almost entirely modifiable risk factor. Proper skin protection should start early in life when infants begin to be exposed to the outdoors. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(6):e213-e214.].


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/terapia , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Melanoma/etiologia , Roupa de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Queimadura Solar/diagnóstico , Queimadura Solar/etiologia , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
11.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(4): 372-379, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the association of health literacy with skin cancer risk and protective behaviors among young adults at moderate to high risk of skin cancer, the most common cancer. METHOD: A US national sample of 958 adults, 18-25 years old, at moderate to high risk of developing skin cancer, completed a survey online. Behavioral outcomes were ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (e.g., indoor and outdoor tanning, sunburn) and protective (e.g., sunscreen use, sunless tanning) behaviors. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to determine whether health literacy (a four-item self-report measure assessing health-related reading, understanding, and writing) was associated with behavioral outcomes while controlling for demographic factors. RESULTS: Higher health literacy was independently associated with less sunbathing, odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-0.98; less indoor tanning, OR = 0.38, CI = 0.31-0.48; and less use of tanning oils, OR = 0.54, CI = 0.43-0.69. However, health literacy was also associated with a lower likelihood of wearing long pants, OR = 0.76, CI = 0.58-0.99, or a hat, OR = 0.68, CI = 0.53-0.87, when outdoors. On the other hand, higher health literacy was associated with higher incidental UV exposure, OR = 1.69, CI = 1.34-2.14, and a greater likelihood of ever having engaged in sunless tanning, OR = 1.50, CI = 1.17-1.92. CONCLUSION: Interestingly, higher health literacy was associated with lower levels of intentional tanning yet also higher incidental UV exposure and lower skin protection among US young adults. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for young adults at varying levels of health literacy as well as populations (e.g., outdoor workers, outdoor athletes/exercisers) who may be receiving large amounts of unprotected incidental UV.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Queimadura Solar/complicações , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 23(4): 357-369, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219707

RESUMO

Recently in Canada, there has been an effort to create consistent messaging about sun safety as there is a lack of up-to-date evidence-based guidelines regarding sun-protection measures. This review aimed to provide updated, evidence-based recommendations on sunscreen application, safety, and sun protection regarding the following topics for which there is clinical uncertainty: physical barriers, sunscreen properties, sunscreen application, and risk-benefit analysis.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/normas , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Vestuário/normas , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fator de Proteção Solar , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/química
13.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 172-181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure is the major risk factor for skin cancer. Thus, sun exposure behavior is the major focus for prevention of this disease, since it is potentially modifiable. Increasing the knowledge on sun related habits and other skin cancer risk factors is fundamental in the development of preventive programs, especially when directed to young people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the photoprotection habits and the knowledge about skin cancer in college students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from Oct. 16 to Feb. 17, including 371 students from the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The level of knowledge about skin cancer and photoprotection was unsatisfactory in more than 10% of the students. The occurrence of sunburn was extremely high among students, and 25% reported at least one episode of second degree sunburn. Proper use of sunscreen was referred by only 34% of individuals. Students who reported having received photo education in college were associated with a more consistent use of sunscreen. STUDY LIMITATIONS: health area represented a large part of the sample; instrument validated outside Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are unaware of basic information about sun protection and exposure. Even among those with proper knowledge, the use of photoprotective measures is very low. The sun exposure has shown to be excessive in most of the students, which makes this population an important target for photo-educational measures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hábitos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Luz Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Pigmentação da Pele , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9068314, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143777

RESUMO

Background: Malar melasma has a chronic and recurrent character that may be related to epigenetic changes. Objective: To recognize the expression and DNA methylation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in malar melasma and perilesional skin, as well as the changes in DNMTs after their treatment with sunscreen in combination with 4% niacinamide, 0.05% retinoic acid, or placebo. Methods: Thirty female patients were clinically evaluated for the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. These initial results were compared to results after eight weeks of treatment with sunscreen in combination with niacinamide, retinoic acid, or placebo. Results: The relative expression of DNMT1 was significantly elevated in melasma compared with unaffected skin in all subjects, indicating DNA hypermethylation. After treatment, it was decreased in all groups: niacinamide (7 versus 1; p<0.01), retinoic acid (7 versus 2; p<0.05), and placebo (7 versus 3; p<0.05), which correlates with clinical improvement. DNMT3b was not overexpressed in lesional skin but reduced in all groups. Conclusions: We found DNA hypermethylation in melasma lesions. Environmental factors such as solar radiation may induce cellular changes that trigger hyperpigmentation through the activation of pathways regulated by epigenetic modifications. However, limiting or decreasing DNA methylation through sunscreen, niacinamide, and retinoic acid treatments that provide photoprotection and genetic transcription can counteract this.


Assuntos
Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Melanose/tratamento farmacológico , Melanose/enzimologia , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Fluorescência , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Placebos , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
15.
Health Promot J Austr ; 30(2): 267-271, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972900

RESUMO

ISSUE ADDRESSED: The SunSmart Policy Support and Intervention Study (SSPSIS) (ACTRN12614000926639) investigated the feasibility of improving schools' implementation of the SunSmart Program, which is a resource for primary school communities to support their development of a comprehensive sun protection policy. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) was used to evaluate the SSPSIS, which was conducted in NSW SunSmart schools (n = 20). Objective measurements of students' sun-safe hat-wearing behaviours and sunscreen application, and teachers' role-modelling behaviours, were collected for baseline, post-test and follow-up data. Interviews with school community stakeholders, including students (n = 103), parents (n = 31), teachers (n = 11) and executive staff (n = 4), were conducted to inform the intervention design, which was implemented following baseline data collection. RESULTS: The results of baseline observations and interviews have been published previously. The intervention design aimed to combat negative perceptions of hat-wearing policy and create a trigger for sunscreen application by rewarding students practising these sun protection behaviours with play-based incentives. Although this intervention had no significant effect on the wearing of sun-safe hats among students or teachers, it did have a large effect on the consumption of sunscreen. CONCLUSIONS: Associating sunscreen and play-based incentives can create an effective trigger for students' sunscreen application behaviours. However, further evidence is needed to investigate how students' and teacher role models' hat-wearing behaviours could be increased. SO WHAT?: While combining a play-based incentive with a trigger for behaviour can promptly increase students' sunscreen application, it was unable to increase students' or teacher role models' hat-wearing behaviours.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Roupa de Proteção , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , New South Wales , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Lupus ; 28(6): 697-702, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023132

RESUMO

Lupus erythematosus (LE) represents a spectrum of inflammatory autoimmune disease comprising varying clinical entities ranging from primary cutaneous to systemic disease. There is a clear relationship between ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) and the clinical manifestations of LE in both adult and pediatric populations. Although it has been established that UVR exacerbates pre-existing LE, it remains unclear whether UVR induces the development of the disease. This review serves to discuss effective photoprotective measures in LE and describe the pathogenic relationship of UVR and LE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/complicações , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/etiologia , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/terapia , Roupa de Proteção , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 172-181, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001149

RESUMO

Abstract BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure is the major risk factor for skin cancer. Thus, sun exposure behavior is the major focus for prevention of this disease, since it is potentially modifiable. Increasing the knowledge on sun related habits and other skin cancer risk factors is fundamental in the development of preventive programs, especially when directed to young people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the photoprotection habits and the knowledge about skin cancer in college students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from Oct. 16 to Feb. 17, including 371 students from the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The level of knowledge about skin cancer and photoprotection was unsatisfactory in more than 10% of the students. The occurrence of sunburn was extremely high among students, and 25% reported at least one episode of second degree sunburn. Proper use of sunscreen was referred by only 34% of individuals. Students who reported having received photo education in college were associated with a more consistent use of sunscreen. STUDY LIMITATIONS: health area represented a large part of the sample; instrument validated outside Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are unaware of basic information about sun protection and exposure. Even among those with proper knowledge, the use of photoprotective measures is very low. The sun exposure has shown to be excessive in most of the students, which makes this population an important target for photo-educational measures.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes/psicologia , Luz Solar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hábitos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Pigmentação da Pele , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Dermatol Clin ; 37(2): 149-157, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850037

RESUMO

Cumulative ultraviolet exposure plays a critical role in photodamage. Recent advancements in photomedicine have resulted in a more thorough understanding of these mechanisms. Despite this, the adoption of routine sun protective practices is commonly not undertaken regularly by a large proportion of the public. Various obstacles exist that contribute to the public's nonadherence to these practices. Sunscreens, which are an integral component in all photoprotective regimens, have been questioned recently in terms of their safety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of new concepts in photoprotection and also address current controversies pertaining to sunscreens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Benzofenonas/efeitos adversos , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Recifes de Corais , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Meio Ambiente , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo , Fator de Proteção Solar , Queimadura Solar/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Titânio/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Óxido de Zinco/uso terapêutico
20.
Dermatol Clin ; 37(2): 159-168, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850038

RESUMO

Melanoma is rapidly evolving because of advances in noninvasive diagnosis, targeted therapies, and improved prognostic methods. This article discusses what is new in melanoma risk factors, prevention, clinical management, and targeted treatment. The incidence continues to increase worldwide, whereas mortality is steadily improving. This trend reinforces the importance of dermatologists comprehensively understanding all aspects of melanoma. Further research is needed to continue making a material impact on outcomes for patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Café , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Fator de Proteção Solar , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia , Vemurafenib/uso terapêutico
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