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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3055, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296870

RESUMO

KRAS mutations are present in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), and drive their poor outcomes and failure to respond to targeted therapies. Here we show that Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) expression is induced specifically by oncogenic KRAS in PDAC and that LIF depletion by genetic means or by neutralizing antibodies prevents engraftment in pancreatic xenograft models. Moreover, LIF-neutralizing antibodies synergize with gemcitabine to eradicate established pancreatic tumors in a syngeneic, KrasG12D-driven, PDAC mouse model. The related cytokine IL-6 cannot substitute for LIF, suggesting that LIF mediates KRAS-driven malignancies through a non-STAT-signaling pathway. Unlike IL-6, LIF inhibits the activity of the Hippo-signaling pathway in PDACs. Depletion of YAP inhibits the function of LIF in human PDAC cells. Our data suggest a crucial role of LIF in KRAS-driven pancreatic cancer and that blockade of LIF by neutralizing antibodies represents an attractive approach to improving therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3633-3639, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of DL-methadone on enhancing the action of the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel on head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemotherapeutic drugs were applied alone or in combination with DL-methadone and cytotoxicity was analyzed by XTT assays. Expression of the µ-opioid receptor and the drug transporter p-glycoprotein were analyzed by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: The effect of DL-methadone strongly depended on the respective chemotherapeutic agent. The basic expression of the µ-opioid receptor was not associated with the effect of DL-methadone, rather its induction by chemotherapeutic drugs. Expression or expression induction of p-glycoprotein was higher in weak-responder cell lines. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs by DL-methadone depends on the drug and on the cell line used.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Metadona/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
3.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 258-280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous cancer, a substantial portion overexpresses CD71 (transferrin receptor 1) and MYCN. This study provides a mechanistically driven rationale for a combination therapy targeting neuroblastomas that doubly overexpress or have amplified CD71 and MYCN. For this subset, CD71 was targeted by its natural ligand, gambogic acid (GA), and MYCN was targeted with an HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat. A combination of GA and vorinostat was then tested for efficacy in cancer and non-cancer cells. METHODS: Microarray analysis of cohorts of neuroblastoma patients indicated a subset of neuroblastomas overexpressing both CD71 and MYCN. The viability with proliferation changes were measured by MTT and colony formation assays in neuroblastoma cells. Transfection with CD71 or MYCN along with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect expression changes. For pathway analysis, gene ontology (GO) and Protein-protein interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the potential mechanisms of GA and vorinostat in treated cells. RESULTS: For both GA and vorinostat, their pathways were explored for specificity and dependence on their targets for efficacy. For GA-treated cells, the viability/proliferation loss due to GA was dependent on the expression of CD71 and involved activation of caspase-3 and degradation of EGFR. It relied on the JNK-IRE1-mTORC1 pathway. The drug vorinostat also reduced cell viability/proliferation in the treated cells and this was dependent on the presence of MYCN as MYCN siRNA transfection led to a blunting of vorinostat efficacy and conversely, MYCN overexpression improved the vorinostat potency in those cells. Vorinostat inhibition of MYCN led to an increase of the pro-apoptotic miR183 levels and this, in turn, reduced the viability/proliferation of these cells. The combination treatment with GA and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell survival in the MYCN and CD71 overexpressing tumor cells. The same treatment had no effect or minimal effect on HEK293 and HEF cells used as models of non-cancer cells. CONCLUSION: A combination therapy with GA and vorinostat may be suitable for MYCN and CD71 overexpressing neuroblastomas.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc , Neuroblastoma , Receptores da Transferrina , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia
4.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(8): 643-651, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291131

RESUMO

Introduction: LAG-3 is checkpoint inhibitor in cancer that coordinates the downregulation of the proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. There is a great need to discover and develop new therapies focused on inhibiting the action of LAG-3 and consequently improving the immune response in the various types of cancer. Areas covered: The patent literature reveals novel therapies, which provide information on cancer therapies. The authors used the patent databases of the six main patent offices of the world: United States Patent and Trademark Office, European Patent Office, World Intellectual Property Organization, Japan Patent Office, State Intellectual Property Office of China and Korean Intellectual Property Office, to generate a detailed landscape of patents and patent applications of active companies related to LAG-3 inhibitors. Specific patents have been grouped into innovative patents and adopting patents. Expert opinion: There is a continuing development of LAG-3 inhibitors, and these inhibitors are being used in combination with other cancer treatment schemes, for example, antibodies against PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Immutep and IO Therapeutics were the leaders in generating innovator patents, followed by Gustave Roussy Institute, and Applied Research Systems ARS. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute was the leader in the generation of adopter patents, followed by Novartis .


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticorpos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/imunologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Patentes como Assunto
5.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2834-2845, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278880

RESUMO

Recurrence and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer remain important issues for patients treated with conventional therapeutics. Metformin and phenformin, previously used in the treatment of diabetes, have been shown to have anticancer effects in various cancers, including breast, lung and prostate cancers. However, their molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of these drugs in chemoresistant rectal cancer cell lines. We found that SW837 and SW1463 rectal cancer cells were more resistant to ionizing radiation and 5-fluorouracil than HCT116 and LS513 colon cancer cells. In addition, metformin and phenformin increased the sensitivity of these cell lines by inhibiting cell proliferation, suppressing clonogenic ability and increasing apoptotic cell death in rectal cancer cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and transforming growth factor-ß/Smad signaling pathways were more activated in rectal cancer cells, and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression using an inhibitor or siRNA sensitized rectal cancer cells to chemoresistant by inhibition of the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1. Moreover, metformin and phenformin inhibited cell migration and invasion by suppression of transforming growth factor ß receptor 2-mediated Snail and Twist expression in rectal cancer cells. Therefore, metformin and phenformin may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of chemoresistant rectal cancer by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and transforming growth factor-ß/Smad signaling.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Fenformin/farmacologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos da radiação , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fenformin/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Life Sci ; 232: 116628, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278946

RESUMO

AIMS: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) infection. Major limitations in Doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy are tumor resistance and severe drug complications. Here, we combined Thymoquinone (TQ) with low concentrations of Dox and determined anticancer effects against ATL in cell culture and animal model. MAIN METHODS: HTLV-1 positive (HuT-102) and HTLV-1 negative (Jurkat) CD4+ malignant T-cell lines were treated with TQ, Dox and combinations. Viability and cell cycle effects were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Combination effects on mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Expression levels of key cell death proteins were investigated by western blotting. A mouse xenograft model of ATL in NOD/SCID was used for testing drug effects and tumor tissues were stained for Ki67 and TUNEL. KEY FINDINGS: TQ and Dox caused greater inhibition of cell viability and increased sub-G1 cells in both cell lines compared to Dox or TQ alone. The combination induced apoptosis by increasing ROS and causing disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pan caspase inhibitor significantly inhibited the apoptotic response suggesting that cell death is ROS- and caspase-dependent. TQ and Dox combination reduced tumor volume in NOD/SCID mice more significantly than single treatments through enhanced apoptosis without affecting the survival of mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our combination model offers the possibility to use up to twofold lower doses of Dox against ATL while exhibiting the same cancer inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Int J Oncol ; 55(1): 223-242, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180528

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 5­fluorouracil (5­FU), anti­epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody and aspirin (ASA) on the characteristics of two CRC cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, maintained in a spherical culture system. We observed that the morphology of both the HCT116 and HT29 cell­derived spheres was significantly impaired and the size of the colonospheres was markedly reduced following treatment with the aforementioned three drugs. In contrast to adherent cultures, the spherical cultures were more resistant to the tested drugs, as was reflected by their capacity to re­create the colonospheres when sustained in serum­free medium. Flow cytometric analysis of the drug­treated HCT116 cell­derived spheres revealed changes in the fraction of cells expressing markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), whereas the CSC phenotype of HT29 cell­derived colonospheres was affected to a lesser extent. All reagents enhanced the percentage of non­viable cells in the colonospheres despite the diminished fraction of active caspase­3­positive cells following treatment of the HT29 cell­derived spheres with anti­EGFR antibody. Increased autophagy, assessed by acridine orange staining, was noted following the incubation of the HT29­colonospheres with ASA and 5­FU in comparison to the control. Notably, the percentage of cyclooxygenase (COX)­2­positive cells was not affected by ASA, although its activity was markedly elevated in the colonospheres incubated with anti­EGFR antibody. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that all the tested drugs were involved in different cellular processes, which suggests that they should be considered for the combined therapeutic treatment of CRC, particularly for targeting the population of CSC­like cells. Thus, cancer cell­derived spheres may be used as a preferable model for in vitro anticancer drug testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/biossíntese , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Esferoides Celulares , Receptor fas/biossíntese
8.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2690-2699, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250942

RESUMO

Senescence is a state of growth arrest induced not only in normal cells but also in cancer cells by aging or stress, which triggers DNA damage. Despite growth suppression, senescent cancer cells promote tumor formation and recurrence by producing cytokines and growth factors; this state is designated as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of senescent human breast cancer cells to immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Doxorubicin (DXR) treatment induced senescence in 2 human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and BT-549, with the induction of γH2AX expression and increased expression of p21 or p16. Treatment with DXR also induced the expression of senescence-associated ß-galactosidase and promoted the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, DXR-treated senescent MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased sensitivity to 2 types of immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity: cytotoxicity of activated CD4+ T cells and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells. This increased sensitivity to cytotoxicity was partially dependent on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and perforin, respectively. This increased sensitivity was not observed following treatment with the senescence-inducing cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 inhibitor, abemaciclib. In addition, treatment with DXR, but not abemaciclib, decreased the expression of antiapoptotic proteins in cancer cells. These results indicated that DXR and abemaciclib induced senescence in breast cancer cells, but that they differed in their sensitivity to immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These findings could provide an indication for combining anticancer immunotherapy with chemotherapeutic drugs or molecular targeting drugs.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/imunologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
9.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(7): 541-552, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241371

RESUMO

Introduction: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a disease with a dismal prognosis. Despite accounting for only 3% of cancer diagnosis, 7% of all cancer deaths in the United States are from PC. This is explained by many being diagnosed with late-stage disease and the cancer's resistance to chemotherapy. Since 1996 there have only been two upfront regimens found to be superior to gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. Areas covered: Clinical pharmacology of newer agents that are either approved or being investigated in the management of PC. Knowledge of their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics can be used to predict outcomes for specific patient populations. Drugs discussed include nanoliposomal irinotecan, pegvorhyaluronidase alfa, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme inhibitors, larotrectinib, and napabucasin. Expert opinion: PC is a heterogeneous disease and outcomes are likely to improve as better predictive models of an individual's response to different therapies are developed. This may be best accomplished through phase 0 studies and the use of tumor organoid models grown from initial biopsies or resected tissue. The genetic and physical makeup of the tumor as well as the functional characterization in patient-derived organoids (PDOs), can help guide which agents may be most efficacious or toxic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Farmacogenética , Prognóstico
10.
Life Sci ; 231: 116530, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170419

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of naturally occurring isothiocyanates and doxorubicin in combined treatment of doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer. Doxorubicin is a cytostatic commonly used to treat many different types of cancer but its usage is often abrogated by severe side-effects and drug-induced resistance. MAIN METHODS: The antiproliferative potential of the combined treatment was analyzed in vitro by the SRB method (sulforhodamine B) and further evaluated for the mechanisms that determine the treatment outcome using a series of assays which included oxidative stress, apoptosis and compounds accumulation assessment. Ultimately, a combined treatment potential was assessed in vivo utilizing doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer model. KEY FINDING: The results indicate that naturally occurring isothiocyanates, represented by 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl isothiocyanate (dMBITC) increase doxorubicin the efficacy in doxorubicin-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma model by attenuated drug efflux, an increased reactive oxygen species production and an increased rate of apoptosis. In in vitro studies, over a 3-fold decrease in doxorubicin IC50 value was observed on the LoVoDX cell line when used in combination with suboptimal concentrations of dMBITC. The combined therapy exhibited a significantly higher efficacy than doxorubicin-alone treatment (c.a. 50% tumor growth inhibition in comparison to c.a. 25% for doxorubicin-alone treatment) in vivo. At the same time, the combined treatment attenuates doxorubicin toxicity as evidenced by improved animals body mass, main organs weight and biochemical markers of toxicity. SIGNIFICANCE: The adopted approach provides evidence that isothiocyanates can be successfully applied in the treatment of doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer, which warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Life Sci ; 232: 116583, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226417

RESUMO

TP53 mutation is an indicator of poor prognostic in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Worse still, CLL patients with TP53 mutation are associated with poor efficacy to current chemotherapeutic, such as Fludarabine. Here, we confirmed that high expression of HDAC1 in CLL patients with TP53 mutation, which is closely related to poor prognosis and drug-resistance. Subsequently, we demonstrated Entinostat (HDAC1 inhibitor) combination with Fludarabine significantly induced apoptosis in TP53 mutations CLL cells. Its mechanism was associated with up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the down-regulation of HDAC1, HO-1 and BCL-2 proteins. More importantly, we also confirmed that upregulation of HDAC1 could resistant Entinostat-induced apoptosis in TP53 mutations CLL cells by activating the HDAC1/P38/HO-1 pathway. In vivo, we found that Entinostat combination with Fludarabine significantly induced tumor cells apoptosis and prolong survival time in xenograft mouse model. Finally, combining vitro and vivo experiments, we presented the first demonstration that Entinostat combination with Fludarabine had a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis in TP53 mutations CLL cells. In conclusion, we provide valuable pre-clinical experimental evidence for the treatment of CLL patients with poor prognosis, especially for TP53 mutations.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Histona Desacetilase 1/biossíntese , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/biossíntese , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2674, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209238

RESUMO

The effectiveness of most cancer targeted therapies is short-lived. Tumors often develop resistance that might be overcome with drug combinations. However, the number of possible combinations is vast, necessitating data-driven approaches to find optimal patient-specific treatments. Here we report AstraZeneca's large drug combination dataset, consisting of 11,576 experiments from 910 combinations across 85 molecularly characterized cancer cell lines, and results of a DREAM Challenge to evaluate computational strategies for predicting synergistic drug pairs and biomarkers. 160 teams participated to provide a comprehensive methodological development and benchmarking. Winning methods incorporate prior knowledge of drug-target interactions. Synergy is predicted with an accuracy matching biological replicates for >60% of combinations. However, 20% of drug combinations are poorly predicted by all methods. Genomic rationale for synergy predictions are identified, including ADAM17 inhibitor antagonism when combined with PIK3CB/D inhibition contrasting to synergy when combined with other PI3K-pathway inhibitors in PIK3CA mutant cells.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacogenética/métodos , Proteína ADAM17/antagonistas & inibidores , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benchmarking , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/normas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Antagonismo de Drogas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Farmacogenética/normas , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1187-1194, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PD-1 inhibition (PD-1i) is the standard of care in melanoma and other malignancies. In patients with bone metastases of solid tumors, the monoclonal antibody denosumab directed against RANKL is approved for the prevention of skeletal-related events. However, RANKL is not only relevant in osteoclastogenesis, but also has immunological effects. Hence, we aimed at investigating, whether the combination of PD-1i and denosumab produces synergistic effects in metastatic melanoma treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data of metastatic melanoma patients with bone metastases, who received PD-1i and denosumab therapy. RESULTS: 29 patients were identified with a median age of 60.7 years: 20 were male and 9 were female. 20 patients (69%) were in stage IV M1c and 9 (31%) in stage IV M1d; 52% had an increased serum LDH. 24 patients (83%) received PD-1i as first-line therapy and five patients (17%) as second- or third-line therapy. 13 patients received the triple combination nivolumab, ipilimumab and denosumab (N + I+D), 16 patients received PD-1i and denosumab (PD-1i + D). Within a median follow-up time of 19.8 months, 17 patients progressed with a median time to progression of 6 months. The objective response rate was 54% in the N + I + D group and 50% in the PD-1i + D group. Recalcification of bone metastases was radiologically observed in 18 (62%) patients. No unexpected treatment-related adverse events emerged. CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of metastatic melanoma with PD-1i and denosumab was feasible without unexpected safety issues and showed a promising efficacy signal. Further investigation in prospective studies is needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Denosumab/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ligante RANK/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligante RANK/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2678, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213601

RESUMO

Myeloid cells contribute to tumor progression, but how the constellation of receptors they express regulates their functions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is unclear. We demonstrate that Fcmr (Toso), the putative receptor for soluble IgM, modulates myeloid cell responses to cancer. In a syngeneic melanoma model, Fcmr ablation in myeloid cells suppressed tumor growth and extended mouse survival. Fcmr deficiency increased myeloid cell population density in this malignancy and enhanced anti-tumor immunity. Single-cell RNA sequencing of Fcmr-deficient tumor-associated mononuclear phagocytes revealed a unique subset with enhanced antigen processing/presenting properties. Conversely, Fcmr activity negatively regulated the activation and migratory capacity of myeloid cells in vivo, and T cell activation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Therapeutic targeting of Fcmr during oncogenesis decreased tumor growth when used as a single agent or in combination with anti-PD-1. Thus, Fcmr regulates myeloid cell activation within the TME and may be a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/mortalidade , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1073-1085, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161238

RESUMO

Cryptotanshinone (CT), a purified compound initially isolated from the dried roots of Salvia militorrhiza. Bunge, exhibits cytotoxic antitumor effects on many tumors. We have shown that CT possesses the dual capacities to concomitantly inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer cells and promote the generation of antitumor immunity. In this study, we investigated whether CT could be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a mouse Hepa1-6 model. CT inhibited the proliferation of mouse hepatoma (Hepa1-6) cells in vitro by inducing Hepa1-6 cells apoptosis through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, CT activated macrophages and polarized mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) toward an M1 phenotype in vitro, which depended on the TLR7/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, CT significantly inhibited the growth of syngeneic Hepa1-6 hepatoma tumors, and, in combination with anti-PD-L1 cured Hepa1-6-bearing mice with the induction of long-term anti-Hepa1-6 specific immunity. Immunoprofiling of treated Hepa1-6-bearing mice revealed that CT-promoted activation of tumor-infiltrating macrophages and dendritic cells, induction of antitumor T cell response, and infiltration of effector/memory CD8 T cells in the tumor tissue. Importantly, the immunotherapeutic effects of CT and anti-PD-L1 depended on the presence of CD8 T cells. Thus, CT and anti-PD-L1 may provide an effective immunotherapeutic regimen for human HCC based on a combination of cytotoxic effects and induction of tumor-specific immunity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenantrenos/uso terapêutico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(6): 513-523, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159588

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been substantially improved in the last few years; it has been revolutionized by a patient-tailored approach, especially in the oncogene addicted disease, and by novel combinations containing immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, chemotherapy still represents a mainstay that persists over the decades with limited novelties. Tubulin inhibitors belong to different sub-classes of drugs that share the capability to interfere with mitosis by a direct action on the microtubule system. Among them, taxanes and vinca alkaloids still have a prominent role in clinical practice. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the mechanisms of action, current role and future directions of microtubule targeting agents; we focus on investigational agents in phase I and II clinical trials. EXPERT OPINION: Chemotherapy maintains a pivotal role in the treatment of NSCLC. New generation agents that have the potential to overcome the mechanisms of resistance to the available drugs may provide new therapeutic opportunities. Predictive biomarkers derived from combination strategies and phase III studies are necessary going forward.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Tubulina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Desenho de Drogas , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(15): 1840-1853, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in China and around the world. Advanced CRC (ACRC) patients suffer from a low cure rate though treated with targeted therapies. The response rate is about 50% to chemotherapy and cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and used for ACRC with wild-type KRAS. It is important to identify more predictors of cetuximab efficacy to further improve precise treatment. Autophagy, showing a key role in the cancer progression, is influenced by the EGFR pathway. Whether autophagy can predict cetuximab efficacy in ACRC is an interesting topic. AIM: To investigate the effect of autophagy on the efficacy of cetuximab in colon cancer cells and ACRC patients with wild-type KRAS. METHODS: ACRC patients treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy, with detailed data and tumor tissue, at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 1, 2005, to October 1, 2015, were studied. Expression of autophagy-related proteins [Beclin1, microtubule-associated protein 1A/B-light chain 3 (LC3), and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1)] was examined by Western blot in CRC cells and by immunohistochemistry in cancerous and normal tissues. The effect of autophagy on cetuximab-treated cancer cells was confirmed by MTT assay. The associations between Beclin1, LC3, and 4E-BP1 expression in tumor tissue and the efficacy of cetuximab-based therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: In CACO-2 cells exposed to cetuximab, LC3 and 4E-BP1 were upregulated, and P62 was downregulated. Autophagosome formation was observed, and autophagy increased the efficacy of cetuximab. In 68 ACRC patients, immunohistochemistry showed that Beclin1 levels were significantly correlated with those of LC3 (0.657, P < 0.001) and 4E-BP1 (0.211, P = 0.042) in ACRC tissues. LC3 was significantly overexpressed in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues (P < 0.001). In 45 patients with wild-type KRAS, the expression levels of these three proteins were not related to progression-free survival; however, the expression levels of Beclin1 (P = 0.010) and 4E-BP1 (P = 0.005), pathological grade (P = 0.002), and T stage (P = 0.004) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). CONCLUSION: The effect of cetuximab on colon cancer cells might be improved by autophagy. LC3 is overexpressed in tumor tissues, and Beclin1 and 4E-BP1 could be significant predictors of OS in ACRC patients treated with cetuximab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Autofagia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(15): 1854-1864, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most common and deadly malignancies worldwide. Despite recent medical progress, the 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer is still unsatisfactory. 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) is one of the first-line antineoplastic treatments for gastric cancer, as it can effectively induce cancer cell apoptosis. However, the effect of 5-Fu is limited due to drug resistance of the malignant tumor. Previous studies have reported that Sotetsuflavone from Cycas revoluta Thunb. can markedly suppress lung cancer cell proliferation by apoptosis, though its effect on gastric cancer remains unknown. AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Cycas revoluta Thunb. and to determine whether it can overcome gastric cancer cell drug resistance to 5-Fu. METHODS: Cell viability was examined to determine whether the natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. induced gastric cancer cell death. The half-maximal effective concentration and the half-maximal lethal concentration were calculatede. Wound-healing and transwell assays were performed to examine gastric cancer cell motility. Clonogenic assays were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of Cycas revoluta Thunb. with 5-Fu, and apoptotic bodies were detected by Hoechst staining. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of related proteins and to investigate the molecular mechanism of Cycas revoluta Thunb.-induced cancer cell apoptosis. The expressions of proteins, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p-AKT, were detected in different combinations of treatments for 48 h, then analyzed by ECL detection. RESULTS: Gastric cancer cells were more sensitive to the natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. compared to normal gastric epithelial cells, and the extract effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. The extract improved the anti-cancer effect of 5-Fu by enhancing the chemosensitization of gastric cancer cells. Extract plus 5-Fu further reduced the expression of the drug-resistance-related proteins p-AKT and mTOR after 48 h compared to 5-Fu alone. Compared to 5-Fu treatment alone, mTOR and p-AKT expression was significantly reduced by about 50% and 75%, respectively. We also found that the natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. further increased 5-Fu-induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. Expression of apoptosis-related protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and apoptosis inducing factor were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, in the 5-Fu-resistant gastric cancer line SGC-7901/R treated with extract plus 5-Fu, while the expression of survivin did not change. CONCLUSION: The natural extract of Cycas revoluta Thunb. effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and enhanced the anti-cancer effect of 5-Fu through the AKT-mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cycas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 422, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinomas presenting homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), which is observed in about 50% of cases, are more sensitive to platinum and PARP inhibitor therapies. Although platinum resistant disease has a low chance to be responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy, a set of patients is retreated with platinum and some of them are responsive. In this study, we evaluated copy number alterations, HR gene mutations and HR deficiency scores in ovarian cancer patients with prolonged platinum sensitivity. METHODS: In this retrospective study (2005 to 2014), we selected 31 patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer retreated with platinum therapy. Copy number alterations and HR scores were evaluated using the OncoScan® FFPE platform in 15 cases. The mutational profile of 24 genes was investigated by targeted-NGS. RESULTS: The median values of the four HRD scores were higher in responders (LOH = 15, LST = 28, tAI = 33, CS = 84) compared with non-responders (LOH = 7.5, LST = 17.5, tAI = 23, CS = 47). Patients with high LOH, LST, tAI and CS scores had better response rates, although these differences were not statistically significant. Response rate to platinum retreatment was 22% in patients with CCNE1 gains and 83.5% in patients with no CCNE1 gains (p = 0.041). Furthermore, response rate was 54.5% in patients with RB1 loss and 25% in patients without RB1 loss (p = 0.569). Patients with CCNE1 gains showed a worse progression free survival (PFS = 11.1 months vs 3.7 months; p = 0.008) and a shorter overall survival (OS = 39.3 months vs 7.1 months; p = 0.007) in comparison with patients with no CCNE1 gains. Patients with RB1 loss had better PFS (9.0 months vs 2.6 months; p = 0.093) and OS (27.4 months vs 3.6 months; p = 0.025) compared with cases with no RB1 loss. Four tumor samples were BRCA mutated and tumor mutations were not associated with response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: HR deficiency was found in 60% of our cases and HRD medium values were higher in responders than in non-responders. Despite the small number of patients tested, CCNE1 gain and RB1 loss discriminate patients with tumors extremely sensitive to platinum retreatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Ciclina E/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Compostos de Platina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 760-776, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are heterogeneous aggressive tumors with low rates of response to treatment at advanced stages. We screened a large panel of liver cancer cell lines (LCCLs) to identify agents that might be effective against HCC and markers of therapeutic response. METHODS: We performed whole-exome RNA and microRNA sequencing and quantification of 126 proteins in 34 LCCLs. We screened 31 anticancer agents for their ability to decrease cell viability. We compared genetic, RNA, and protein profiles of LCCLs with those of primary HCC samples and searched for markers of response. RESULTS: The protein, RNA and mutational signatures of the LCCLs were similar to those of the proliferation class of HCC, which is the most aggressive tumor type. Cell lines with alterations in genes encoding members of the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway and that required fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 signaling via FGF receptor 4 for survival were more sensitive to trametinib than to FGF receptor 4 inhibitors. Amplification of FGF19 resulted in increased activity of FGF19 only in tumor cells that kept a gene expression pattern of hepatocyte differentiation. We identified single agents and combinations of agents that reduced viability of cells with features of the progenitor subclass of HCC. LCCLs with inactivating mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 were sensitive to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin, and cells with inactivating mutations in TP53 were sensitive to the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib. Amplification of MET was associated with hypersensitivity to cabozantinib and the combination of sorafenib and inhibitors of MAP kinase 1 and MAP kinase2 had a synergistic antiproliferative effect. CONCLUSION: LCCLs can be screened for drugs and agents that might be effective for treatment of HCC. We identified genetic alterations and gene expression patterns associated with response to these agents. This information might be used to select patients for clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
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