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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 287, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars display orange or yellow background skin, whereas some cultivars are particularly preferred by consumers because of their red blushed skin on the background. RESULTS: In this study, two blushed ('Jianali' and 'Hongyu') and two nonblushed ('Baixing' and 'Luntaixiaobaixing') cultivars were used to investigate the formation mechanism of blushed skin in apricots. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the blushed cultivars accumulated higher cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and peonidin-3-O-rutinoside levels during fruit ripening than the nonblushed cultivars. Based on coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), a putative anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB, PaMYB10, and seven structural genes were identified from transcriptome data. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaMYB10 clustered in the anthocyanin-related MYB clade. Sequence alignments revealed that PaMYB10 contained a bHLH-interaction motif ([DE]Lx2[RK]x3Lx6Lx3R) and an ANDV motif. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PaMYB10 was a nuclear protein. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and seven genes responsible for anthocyanin synthesis were significantly higher in blushed than in nonblushed apricots, which was consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin. In addition, bagging significantly inhibited the transcript levels of PaMYB10 and the structural genes in 'Jianali' and blocked the red coloration and anthocyanin accumulation. Transient PaMYB10 overexpression in 'Luntaixiaobaixing' fruits resulted in the red blushed skin at the maturation stage. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data reveal that three anthocyanins are responsible for the blushed skin of apricots, identify PaMYB10 as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apricots, and demonstrate that blush formation depends on light.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosídeos/genética , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
2.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 45, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taste and aroma, which are important organoleptic qualities of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruit, undergo rapid and substantial changes during ripening. However, the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to identify candidate genes for flavor compound metabolism and to construct a regulatory transcriptional network. RESULTS: We characterized the transcriptome of the 'Jianali' apricot cultivar, which exhibits substantial changes in flavor during ripening, at 50 (turning), 73 (commercial maturation) and 91 (full ripe) days post anthesis (DPA) using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that four of 19 modules correlated highly with flavor compound metabolism (P < 0.001). From them, we identified 1237 differentially expressed genes, with 16 intramodular hubs. A proposed pathway model for flavor compound biosynthesis is presented based on these genes. Two SUS1 genes, as well as SPS2 and INV1 were correlated with sugar biosynthesis, while NADP-ME4, two PK-like and mitochondrial energy metabolism exerted a noticeable effect on organic acid metabolism. CCD1 and FAD2 were identified as being involved in apocarotenoid aroma volatiles and lactone biosynthesis, respectively. Five sugar transporters (Sweet10, STP13, EDR6, STP5.1, STP5.2), one aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT9) and one ABCG transporter (ABCG11) were associated with the transport of sugars, organic acids and volatiles, respectively. Sixteen transcription factors were also highlighted that may also play regulatory roles in flavor quality development. CONCLUSIONS: Apricot RNA-Seq data were obtained and used to generate an annotated set of predicted expressed genes, providing a platform for functional genomic research. Using network analysis and pathway mapping, putative molecular mechanisms for changes in apricot fruit taste and aroma during ripening were elucidated.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Olfato , Paladar , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Solubilidade , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 25, 2018 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes. RESULTS: Here, we have characterized the global apricot transcriptome response to PPV-D infection identifying six PPVres locus genes (ParP-1 to ParP-6) differentially expressed in resistant/susceptible cultivars. Two of them (ParP-3 and ParP-4), that encode MATHd proteins, appear clearly down-regulated in resistant cultivars, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Concurrently, variant calling was performed using whole-genome sequencing data of 24 apricot cultivars (10 PPV-resistant and 14 PPV-susceptible) and 2 wild relatives (PPV-susceptible). ParP-3 and ParP-4, named as Prunus armeniaca PPVres MATHd-containing genes (ParPMC), are the only 2 genes having allelic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance. ParPMC1 has 1 nsSNP, while ParPMC2 has 15 variants, including a 5-bp deletion within the second exon that produces a frameshift mutation. ParPMC1 and ParPMC2 are adjacent and highly homologous (87.5% identity) suggesting they are paralogs originated from a tandem duplication. Cultivars carrying the ParPMC2 resistant (mutated) allele show lack of expression in both ParPMC2 and especially ParPMC1. CONCLUSIONS: Accordingly, we hypothesize that ParPMC2 is a pseudogene that mediates down-regulation of its functional paralog ParPMC1 by silencing. As a whole, results strongly support ParPMC1 and/or ParPMC2 as host susceptibility genes required for PPV infection which silencing may confer PPV resistance trait. This finding may facilitate resistance breeding by marker-assisted selection and pave the way for gene edition approaches in Prunus.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Transcriptoma , Genômica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/virologia
4.
J Exp Bot ; 68(18): 5069-5078, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036710

RESUMO

S-RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread prezygotic reproductive barrier in flowering plants. In the Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae gametophytic SI is controlled by the pistil-specific S-RNases and the pollen S-locus F-box proteins but non-S-specific factors, namely modifiers, are also required. In apricot, Prunus armeniaca (Rosaceae), we previously mapped two pollen-part mutations that confer self-compatibility in cultivars Canino and Katy at the distal end of chromosome 3 (M-locus) unlinked to the S-locus. Here, we used high-resolution mapping to identify the M-locus with an ~134 kb segment containing ParM-1-16 genes. Gene expression analysis identified four genes preferentially expressed in anthers as modifier gene candidates, ParM-6, -7, -9 and -14. Variant calling of WGS Illumina data from Canino, Katy, and 10 self-incompatible cultivars detected a 358 bp miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertion in ParM-7 shared only by self-compatible apricots, supporting ParM-7 as strong candidate gene required for SI. ParM-7 encodes a disulfide bond A-like oxidoreductase protein, which we named ParMDO. The MITE insertion truncates the ParMDO ORF and produces a loss of SI function, suggesting that pollen rejection in Prunus is dependent on redox regulation. Based on phylogentic analyses we also suggest that ParMDO may have originated from a tandem duplication followed by subfunctionalization and pollen-specific expression.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Pólen/enzimologia , Prunus armeniaca/enzimologia , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Dissulfetos , Loci Gênicos/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mutação com Perda de Função , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(37): 8203-8212, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812349

RESUMO

Polyphenol oxidase from apricot (Prunus armeniaca) (PaPPO) was purified in its latent form (L-PaPPO), and the molecular weight was determined to be 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE. L-PaPPO was activated in the presence of substrate at low pH. The activity was enhanced by CuSO4 and low concentrations (≤ 2 mM) of SDS. PaPPO has its pH and temperature optimum at pH 4.5 and 45 °C for catechol as substrate. It showed diphenolase activity and highest affinity toward 4-methylcatechol (KM = 2.0 mM) and chlorogenic acid (KM = 2.7 mM). L-PaPPO was found to be spontaneously activated during storage at 4 °C, creating a new band at 38 kDa representing the activated form (A-PaPPO). The mass of A-PaPPO was determined by mass spectrometry as 37 455.6 Da (Asp102 → Leu429). Both L-PaPPO and A-PaPPO were identified as polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known PaPPO sequence (UniProt O81103 ) by means of peptide mass fingerprinting.


Assuntos
Catecol Oxidase/química , Catecol Oxidase/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Prunus armeniaca/enzimologia , Catecol Oxidase/genética , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/química , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 82, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) exhibits a gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system and it is mostly considered as a self-incompatible species though numerous self-compatible exceptions occur. These are mainly linked to the mutated S C-haplotype carrying an insertion in the S-locus F-box gene that leads to a truncated protein. However, two S-locus unlinked pollen-part mutations (PPMs) termed m and m' have also been reported to confer self-compatibility (SC) in the apricot cultivars 'Canino' and 'Katy', respectively. This work was aimed to explore whether other additional mutations might explain SC in apricot as well. RESULTS: A set of 67 cultivars/accessions with different geographic origins were analyzed by PCR-screening of the S- and M-loci genotypes, contrasting results with the available phenotype data. Up to 20 S-alleles, including 3 new ones, were detected and sequence analysis revealed interesting synonymies and homonymies in particular with S-alleles found in Chinese cultivars. Haplotype analysis performed by genotyping and determining linkage-phases of 7 SSR markers, showed that the m and m' PPMs are linked to the same m 0-haplotype. Results indicate that m 0-haplotype is tightly associated with SC in apricot germplasm being quite frequent in Europe and North-America. However, its prevalence is lower than that for S C in terms of frequency and geographic distribution. Structures of 34 additional M-haplotypes were inferred and analyzed to depict phylogenetic relationships and M 1-2 was found to be the closest haplotype to m 0. Genotyping results showed that four cultivars classified as self-compatible do not have neither the S C- nor the m 0-haplotype. CONCLUSIONS: According to apricot germplasm S-genotyping, a loss of genetic diversity affecting the S-locus has been produced probably due to crop dissemination. Genotyping and phenotyping data support that self-(in)compatibility in apricot relies mainly on the S- but also on the M-locus. Regarding this latter, we have shown that the m 0-haplotype associated with SC is shared by 'Canino', 'Katy' and many other cultivars. Its origin is still unknown but phylogenetic analysis supports that m 0 arose later in time than S C from a widely distributed M-haplotype. Lastly, other mutants putatively carrying new mutations conferring SC have also been identified deserving future research.


Assuntos
Prunus armeniaca/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Genótipo , Mutação , Filogeografia , Pólen/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia
7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 73(10): 2163-2173, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, two vectors with short-length chimeric transgenes were used to produce Prunus rootstocks resistant to crown gall disease through RNA-interference-mediated gene silencing of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes ipt and iaaM. RESULTS: Transgenic plum and apricot lines were produced with efficiencies of up to 7.7 and 1.1% respectively. An in vitro evaluation method allowed identification of susceptible lines and reduction in the number of lines to be evaluated in the greenhouse. Five transgenic plum lines, expressing transgene-derived small interfering RNA (siRNA) and low levels of transgene hairpin RNA (hpRNA), showed a significant reduction in the development of the disease after infection with Agrobacterium strains C58 and A281 under greenhouse conditions. However, unexpectedly, all transgenic apricot lines were gall susceptible. The infection of apricot plants with a binary vector containing only the 6b oncogene demonstrated that the expression of this gene is involved in the induction of tumours in the apricot species. CONCLUSION: RNAi-mediated gene silencing can be used for inducing crown gall resistance in plum rootstocks. These could be used to graft non-genetically modified commercial fruit cultivars reducing, or eliminating, the disease symptoms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência à Doença , Inativação Gênica , Tumores de Planta/microbiologia , Prunus armeniaca/microbiologia , Prunus domestica/microbiologia , Oncogenes/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus domestica/genética
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 72, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A complete and hardened endocarp is a typical trait of drupe fruits. However, the 'Liehe' (LE) apricot cultivar has a thin, soft, cleavable endocarp that represents 60.39% and 63.76% of the thickness and lignin content, respectively, of the 'Jinxihong' (JG) apricot (with normal hardened-endocarp). To understand the molecular mechanisms behind the LE apricot phenotype, comparative transcriptomes of Prunus armeniaca L. were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2500. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 63,170 unigenes including 15,469 genes >1000 bp and 25,356 genes with Gene Function annotation. Pathway enrichment and expression patterns were used to characterize differentially expression genes. The DEGs encoding key enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were significantly down-regulated in LE apricot. For example, CAD gene expression levels, encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, were only 1.3%, 0.7%, 0.2% and 2.7% in LE apricot compared with JG cultivar at 15, 21, 30, 49 days after full bloom (DAFB). Furthermore, transcription factors regulating secondary wall and lignin biosynthesis were identified. Especially for SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (NST 1), its expression levels in LE apricot were merely 2.8% and 9.3% compared with JG cultivar at 15 and 21 DAFB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our comparative transcriptome analysis was used to understand the molecular mechanisms underlie the endocarp-cleaving phenotype in LE apricot. This new apricot genomic resource and the candidate genes provide a useful reference for further investigating the lignification during development of apricot endocarp. Transcription factors such as NST1 may regulate genes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and affect development and lignification of the endocarp.


Assuntos
Frutas/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia
9.
Biochem Genet ; 55(3): 234-243, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188445

RESUMO

In this study, promising candidates of six apricot genotypes were compared with our local and major cultivar (Hacihaliloglu) based on their phenological, pomological, and biochemical characteristics. Fruit weight, stone weight, flesh firmness, flesh fruit/stone ratio, TSS (Total soluble solids), glucose, fructose, sucrose, total phenols, total antioxidant activity (FRAP and ABTS assays) and bud break, first bloom, full bloom, and harvesting date of apricot cultivar candidates were compared with cultivar Hacihaliloglu 'HH.' According to the obtained results, the higher content of total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity was determined in the N95 genotype (96.87 µmol TE/g) fruit, whereas the 'HH' cultivar was characterized by the lower value (94.6 µmol TE/g) especially determined by FRAP method. Individual sugars and the soluble solids content of fruit differed between selected genotypes and 'HH' cultivar. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents were higher in all selected genotypes than in Hacihaliloglu cultivar.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Prunus armeniaca/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Flores/genética , Genótipo , Minerais/análise , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Fenótipo , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(2): 516-522, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943676

RESUMO

Marzipan is a confectionary which is mostly offered in form of filled chocolate, pralines, or pure. According to the German guidelines for oil seeds only almonds, sugar and water are admitted ingredients of marzipan. A product very similar in taste is persipan which is used in the confectionary industry because of its stronger flavor. For persipan production almonds are replaced by debittered apricot or peach kernels. To guarantee high quality products for consumers, German raw paste producers have agreed a limit of apricot kernels in marzipan raw paste of 0.5%. Different DNA-based methods for quantitation of persipan contaminations in marzipan are already published. To increase the detection specificity compared to published intercalation dye-based assays, the present work demonstrate the utilization of a multiplex real-time PCR based on the Plexor technology. Thus, the present work enables the detection of at least 0.1% apricot DNA in almond DNA or less. By analyzing DNA mixtures, the theoretical limit of quantification of the duplex PCR for the quantitation of persipan raw paste DNA in marzipan raw paste DNA was determined as 0.05%.


Assuntos
Doces/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Primers do DNA , Prunus dulcis/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Mol Ecol ; 25(19): 4712-29, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27480465

RESUMO

Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus armeniaca/virologia , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Domesticação , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Doenças das Plantas/virologia
12.
Biochem Genet ; 54(6): 854-885, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465591

RESUMO

Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), which is a highly promising technique for molecular breeding, has been implemented in apricots, including Turkish, European, and Plum Pox Virus-resistant accessions. DNA samples were digested with the ApeKI restriction enzyme to construct a genome-complexity-reduced 90-plex GBS library. After filtering the raw sequences, approximately 28 G of clean data were generated, and 17,842 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were discovered. A total of 561 SNP loci with 0 or 1 missing reads for the 90 accessions produced 1162 markers that were used for the cluster and population structure analysis of the same collection. The results of the SNP analysis indicated that the relation of the European accessions with the western Turkish apricots was accurately positioned. The resistant accessions from different sources were clustered together, confirming the previous finding that SEO/Harlayne-type resistance probably originated from the same source. The Malatya accessions produce most of the world's dried apricots and are likely to be a genetically distinct group. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and self-incompatibly (SI) locus characterization of the accessions was also included. SI genotyping supported the SNP findings, demonstrating both the reliability of SNP genotyping and the usefulness of SI genotyping for understanding the history of apricot breeding. The SSR genotyping revealed a characterization similar to that of SNP genotyping with a slightly lower resolution in the dendrogram. In conclusion, the GBS approach was validated in apricots, with the discovery of a large number of SNPs, and was demonstrated to be reliable by fingerprinting the accessions in a more informative manner.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Filogenia
13.
New Phytol ; 209(2): 773-84, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356603

RESUMO

In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/patogenicidade , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus armeniaca/virologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144670, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26658051

RESUMO

RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/imunologia , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus domestica/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Pleiotropia Genética , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/genética , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/imunologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Vírus Eruptivo da Ameixa/patogenicidade , Prunus armeniaca/imunologia , Prunus armeniaca/virologia , Prunus domestica/imunologia , Prunus domestica/virologia , Ribonuclease III/genética , Ribonuclease III/imunologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia
15.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(3): 9722-9, 2015 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26345904

RESUMO

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity among 22 sweet kernel apricot accessions and 12 cultivars in China to provide information on how to improve the utilization of kernel apricot germplasms. The results showed that 10 pairs of SSR primers screened from 40 primer pairs amplified 43 allelic variants, all of which were polymorphic (100%), and 9 ISSR primers selected from 100 primers amplified 67 allelic variants with 50 polymorphic bands (74.63%). There was a relatively distant genetic relationship between the 34 samples, where their genetic similarity coefficient was between 0.62 and 0.99. The UPGMA dendrogram constructed using combined data of the two marker systems separated the genotypes into three main clusters.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Prunus armeniaca/classificação , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético
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