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2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 313-329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705502

RESUMO

With vigorous researches related to novel treatment in psychiatric field, paradigm shift is emerging with its design and assessment. Comprehension of the psychiatric phenomenon expanded beyond disease model, with dimensional approach. Assessment of patients' clinical state includes subjective reports related to problematic symptoms, functional change, and quality of life. They also include objective findings collected from mobile e-wearable monitoring system and advanced neuroimaging modalities. Novel treatment protocols are not just limited to pharmacology itself or psychotherapy itself, but the approach is integrated with stratification; pharmacological treatment enhanced by cognitive behavioral management and psychotherapeutic intervention has been emerged and studied for its impact. Numerous studies were conducted to understand placebo response and to differentiate this phenomenon with novel treatments. Trials to draw good adherence to research protocol with good compliance to treatment in real are strengthened by integrated approach, so-called psychopharmacology. With these paradigm shifts observed from recent researches, it is promising for great advance in quality of life and our mental health.


Assuntos
Psicofarmacologia , Psicoterapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Psicotrópicos , Qualidade de Vida , Pesquisa
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 565-581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705514

RESUMO

Psychobiotics are live bacteria that directly and indirectly produce positive effects on neuronal functions by colonizing into the intestinal flora. Preliminary studies, although in limited numbers, have found that these bacteria have anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. No research has yet been published on the antipsychotic efficacy of psychobiotics. However, these preliminary studies have opened up new horizons and raised the idea that a new class is emerging in psychopharmacology. About 70 years have passed since the discovery of chlorpromazine, and while the synaptic transmission is understood in almost all details, there seems to be a paradigm shift in psychopharmacology. In recent years, the perspective has shifted from synapse to intestinal microbiota. In this respect, germ-free and conventional animal experiments and few human studies were examined in a comprehensive manner. In this article, after a brief look at the history of contemporary psychopharmacology, the mechanisms of the gut-brain relationship and the evidence of metabolic, systemic, and neuropsychiatric activities of psychobiotics were discussed in detail. In conclusion, psychobiotics seem to have the potential for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in the future. However, there are many questions and we do not know the answers yet. We anticipate that the answer to these questions will be given in the near future.


Assuntos
Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/metabolismo , Psicofarmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos
5.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 47(5): 190-201, sept.-oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185171

RESUMO

El trastorno esquizoafectivo (TEA) es un trastorno psicótico que ha entrañado cierta controversia nosológica, junto a esta dificultad encontramos muy pocos estudios que aborden su tratamiento como una entidad diferente a la esquizofrenia. Estas dos dificultades dan como resultado la falta de evidencia específica sobre el tratamiento. Actualmente, el mismo, se basa principalmente en el empleo de antipsicóticos, aunque no existen guías específicas de manejo terapéutico. Esta revisión tiene el objetivo de conocer cuáles son los fármacos que actualmente cuentan con estudios de mayor calidad científica que avalen su empleo según variables clínicas de efectividad, seguridad, adherencia y tolerancia, así como su papel en los diferentes subtipos de TEA y situaciones clínicas. Para ello, se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de estudios experimentales y observacionales que incluyeran pacientes con diagnóstico de TEA. Se concluyó que son necesarios más ensayos clínicos realizados en pacientes con diagnóstico exclusivo de TEA. La paliperidona, el único fármaco con uso autorizado en el TEA es el fármaco que cuenta con mayor cantidad y calidad de estudios que avalen su uso. Risperidona, olanzapina, aripiprazol y ziprasidona también tienen ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que apoyan su eficacia y seguridad. En pacientes refractarios, hay estudios observacionales que señalan la utilidad de la clozapina. Así mismo, hay evidencia de estudios observacionales que señalan la utilidad de litio y carbamazepina durante la fase de mantenimiento. Es necesario establecer el papel del tratamiento combinado con regula-dores del humor y/o antidepresivos


Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) is a psychotic disorder which has presented a certain nosological controversy. Apart from these difficulties, very few studies focused in SAD as a distinct condition from schizophrenia have been found. This lack of specifical studies on SAD results in a lack of specific evidence about treatment. Currently, its treatment is based mainly on the use of antipsychotics, although there are no specific treatment guidelines for SAD. The objective of this review is to establish which are the most recommended treatments according to evidence avail-able, considering clinical variables such as efficacy, safety, adherence, and tolerance as well as the role of these factors in different subtypes of SAD. This exhaustive review exam-ines experimental and observational studies involving patients with a diagnosis of SAD. It was concluded that more clinical trials performed exclusively on patients affected by SAD are needed. Paliperidone, the only drug with authorized use in SAD, is the one that has the highest quality of studies to support its use. Risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole and ziprasidone also have randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy and safety. In treatment-refractory patients, there are observational studies indicating the usefulness of clozapine. Like-wise, there is evidence from observational studies showing the usefulness of lithium and carbamazepine during the treatment maintenance phase. It is necessary to establish the role of combined treatment with mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Psicofarmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Aripiprazol/uso terapêutico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico
7.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 47(4): 149-157, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185165

RESUMO

Introducción. El manejo clínico de los pacientes con trastornos psicóticos (TPs) es particularmente complejo si se lleva a cabo en el contexto de los servicios de psiquiatría de enlace e interconsulta (PEI) de un hospital general. Sin embargo, disponemos de pocos estudios que hayan investigado de forma específica los procedimientos asistenciales de tratamiento agudo para estos pacientes en entornos PEI. Objetivos. Examinar las características de una muestra de pacientes hospitalizados que presentan un TPs primario, que son remitidos a un servicio de PEI durante un período de 10 años y comparar las características clínicas de este subgrupo con respecto a los pacientes con otros diagnósticos (OD). Material y métodos. Estudio observacional y descriptivo llevado a cabo durante un período de 10 años (2005-2014), evaluando prospectivamente pacientes adultos ingresados en unidades no psiquiátricas del Hospital Clínico Universitario de Barcelona, que fueron remitidos de forma consecutiva a nuestro servicio de PEI. Realizamos un análisis post-hocpara comparar las características clínicas entre el subgrupo de pacientes con TPs y el resto de pacientes que cumplían los criterios para OD. Resultados. Se recibieron 393 interconsultas referentes a pacientes que presentaban un diagnóstico de TPs primario y 9.415 derivaciones de pacientes con OD. Nuestros resulta-dos mostraron que los pacientes con TPs eran más jóvenes que los pacientes con OD, tenían una mayor prevalencia de enfermedades somáticas relacionadas con un estilo de poco saludable (como enfermedades infecciosas, endocrinas o metabólicas), una menor frecuencia de cáncer y una necesidad de recibir asistencia psiquiátrica de forma más intensiva. Conclusiones. Los pacientes hospitalizados con TPs que son remitidos a los servicios de PEI tienen diferentes características clínicas en comparación con aquellos que cumplen con los criterios para OD. Se trata de un grupo complejo, con necesidades específicas en cuanto a la atención psiquiátrica


Introduction. The clinical management of patients with psychotic disorders (PDs) can be particularly complex if it takes place in the context of consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) services within a general hospital. However, there are few studies specifically investigating the acute treatment procedures for these patients in CLP settings. Objectives. To examine the characteristics of a sample of inpatients with a primary PD referred to a CLP service over a 10-year period and to compare the clinical features of this subgroup with patients with other diagnoses (ODs).Materials and methods. Observational and descriptive study over a 10-year period (2005-2014) assessing prospectively adult inpatients admitted to non-psychiatric units of the University Clinical Hospital of Barcelona who were consecutively referred to our CLP service. We performed a post-hoc analysis to compare the clinical features between the subgroup of patients with PDs and the rest of patients who meet the criteria for ODs. Results. We requested 393 consultations for patients who either already had the diagnosis of a primary PD and 9,415 for patients with ODs. Our results showed that patients with PDs were younger than the patients with ODs, had a higher prevalence of somatic illnesses related with an unhealthy lifestyle (such as infectious, endocrine, or metabolic diseases), less frequency of cancer, and a need to receive a more intensive psychiatric care. Conclusions. Inpatients with PDs referred to CLP have different clinical features compared with those who met the criteria for ODs. They are a highly complex group with specific psychiatric care needs


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicofarmacologia
8.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2295-2305, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273400

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Psychopharmacology needs novel quantitative measures and theoretical approaches based on computational modelling that can be used to help translate behavioural findings from experimental animals to humans, including patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVES: This brief review exemplifies this approach when applied to recent published studies of the effects of manipulating central dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in rodents and marmoset monkeys, and possible comparisons with healthy human volunteers receiving systemic agents or patients with depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: Behavioural effects of central depletions of dopamine or serotonin in monkeys in probabilistic learning paradigms are characterised further by computational modelling methods and related to rodent and human data. RESULTS: Several examples are provided of the power of computational modelling to derive new measures and reappraise conventional explanations of regional neurotransmitter depletion and other drug effects, whilst enhancing construct validation in patient groups. Specifically, effects are shown on such parameters as 'stimulus stickiness' and 'side stickiness', which occur over and above effects on standard parameters of reinforcement learning, reminiscent of some early innovations in data analysis in psychopharmacology. CONCLUSIONS: Computational modelling provides a useful methodology for further detailed analysis of behavioural mechanisms that are affected by pharmacological manipulations across species and will aid the translation of experimental findings to understand the therapeutic effects of medications in neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as facilitating future drug discovery.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Psicofarmacologia/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Animais , Biologia Computacional/tendências , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Psicofarmacologia/tendências , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
9.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 27(4): 299-300, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355665

RESUMO

In this special issue, we highlight recent human and rodent psychopharmacology research in a series of original reports and reviews on cannabis and cannabis derivatives. This work represents a broad cross-section of current cannabis related research; however, more work in this area is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Animais , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Psicofarmacologia
10.
Med Clin North Am ; 103(4): 629-650, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078197

RESUMO

The use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breastfeeding remains a controversial topic. There are several reasons for the controversy, ranging from the misperception that pregnancy is protective against mental illness, to the notion that women should be "pure" during pregnancy and avoid all extraneous substance use, and finally, to the stigma and misunderstanding of psychiatric illness and underestimation of how serious it can be. Fortunately, the currently available data are reassuring for most psychiatric medications-properly controlled studies indicate little to no risk for most (but not all) psychiatric medications.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Psicofarmacologia/normas , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento do Lactente/efeitos dos fármacos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Puerperais/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
11.
Acad Psychiatry ; 43(4): 411-416, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychopharmacology requires practitioners to continually upgrade knowledge and skills, but attendance at live continuing medical education events presents many barriers. In addition, technology has generated new learning approaches. In response, a videoconference-based course on psychopharmacology was developed and evaluated for feasibility and acceptability. Specific goals included whether learners would engage and whether the technology would work well for both learners and instructors. Additional aims included providing guideline-concordant psychopharmacology training, enhancing patient safety, and fostering case discussion. METHODS: The course used BlueJeans® videoconferencing technology. Each of the six weekly sessions was taught by a facilitator and a speaker. Every class incorporated a 1-h interactive didactic presentation, followed by 1 h for case reviews. Topics included six major psychiatric disorders, managing key drug interactions, and pharmacogenomics. Three types of online self-report evaluations were conducted-individual session evaluation, overall evaluation, and faculty speaker evaluation. RESULTS: Nineteen participants enrolled, with 85% of respondents reporting course objectives were met as "very good" or "excellent." Moreover, 92% of respondents rated the course as "very good" or "excellent." Sixty percent of the faculty were "somewhat satisfied" and 40% were "extremely satisfied" with the videoconferencing tool. Qualitative responses from both participants and faculty were positive overall. CONCLUSIONS: This course provides preliminary evidence that an online, live longitudinal course in psychopharmacology is both acceptable and effective, both for CME learners and teachers. The authors plan to disseminate this model of CME to other institutions while extending the reach of the present course to more diverse practitioners.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Psiquiatria/educação , Psicofarmacologia/educação , Videoconferência , Interações de Medicamentos , Educação Médica Continuada , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(1): 22-30, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-983715

RESUMO

Resumen Justificación: existe una alta comorbilidad entre las enfermedades médico-quirúrgicas y la depresión. No hay parámetros sistematizados que guíen la selección individualizada del tratamiento farmacológico en estas circunstancias. Objetivo: analizar la concordancia entre los psiquiatras costarricenses que no aplican y sí aplican el algoritmo de razonamiento psicofarmacológico para la elección de los antidepresivos, en 3 casos clínicos de pacientes deprimidos y con una enfermedad médico-quirúrgica. Metodología: se distribuyó de forma aleatoria en dos grupos a los participantes, y se les presentó tres casos clínicos reales y anónimos de personas deprimidas y con una enfermedad médico-quirúrgica. El grupo A eligió el antidepresivo según sus criterios personales, mientras que el grupo B realizó la elección del tratamiento basándose en la implementación del algoritmo de razonamiento psicofarmacológico. Resultados: no hubo concordancia respecto al fármaco entre los 22 psiquiatras del grupo que solo aplicó el criterio clínico (kappa= -0,0154, p= 0,3851), mientras que la concordancia sí fue estadísticamente significativa en el grupo de los 24 psiquiatras que aplicó el algoritmo de razonamiento psicofarmacológico (kappa=0,016, p<0,01). La concordancia entre ambos grupos fue del 25 % en el caso 1, el 16,67% en el caso 2 y el 20,83% en el caso 3. Los psiquiatras que emplearon el algoritmo de razonamiento psicofarmacológico lo consideran útil (87,50%), aplicable (83,33%) y con posible impacto clínico (91,67%). Conclusiones: el algoritmo de razonamiento psicofarmacológico aumentó la concordancia entre los psiquiatras para la selección de los antidepresivos en tres casos clínicos de pacientes deprimidos con enfermedades médico-quirúrgicas, en comparación con el criterio personal. La concordancia entre los grupos A y B fue muy baja. El algoritmo de razonamiento psicofarmacológico es una herramienta considerada útil, aplicable y de posible impacto en la práctica clínica.


Abstract There is a high comorbidity between medical surgical diseases and depression. There is no current systematic approach to guide how to select an individualized treatment under these circumstances. Objective: to analyze the concordance between psychiatrist that do not use and those who use the Psychopharmacological Reasoning Algorithm to choose the treatment for 3 clinical cases of depression and medical surgical diseases. Methodology: Three case vignettes of anonymous real depressed patients with medical surgical diseases were presents to both groups. Group A made the selection of the antidepressant using their personal criteria; group B made the selection applying the Psychopharmacological Reasoning Algorithm. Results: There was no concordance on the drug among the 22 psychiatrists in the group that only applied the clinical criterion (kappa = -0.0154, p = 0.3851), whereas concordance was statistically significant in the group of 24 psychiatrists who applied the Psychopharmacological Reasoning Algorithm (kappa = 0.016, p <0.01). The concordance between groups A and B was 25% in the case 1, 16.67% in the case 2 and 20.83% in the case 3. The biggest majority of the psychiatrist that used the PPRA considers it useful (87.50%), applicable (83.33%) and with the possibility of impact the clinical practice (91.67%). Conclusion: The Psychopharmacological Reasoning Algorithm increased the concordance in the selection of antidepressants made by Costa Rican psychiatrists in 3 clinical vignettes of depressed patients with a medical surgical disease, when compared to personal criteria. The concordance in the selection of the antidepressants in the 3 cases between both groups is low. The Psychopharmacological Reasoning Algorithm is a tool considered useful, applicable and with a possible impact in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicofarmacologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos , Costa Rica
14.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (235): 61-69, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183987

RESUMO

En los últimos años se ha ido cuestionando con cada vez mayor asiduidad la práctica psiquiátrica habitual en los pacientes ancianos con o sin demencia, institucionalizados o no institucionalizados. El motivo de ese cuestionamiento es el empleo frecuente de medidas de restricción física y de psicofármacos en estos pacientes, práctica que con frecuencia constituye lo que se denomina sujeción física o química. Este artículo se focaliza en la medida de sujeción más desconocida, que es la sujeción química, debido al empleo inadecuado de psicofármacos. Se repasarán causas, dinámicas y soluciones propuestas con respecto al empleo de sujeciones, así como los usos de psicofármacos que pueden ser considerados sujeción química. Además, se resumirán aspectos importantes del proyecto CHROME, pionero en España en sistematizar el abordaje de las sujeciones químicas


The usual psychogeriatric clinical practice regarding elderly patients with or without dementia living at home or in an institution has been questioned in recent years. The reason is the frequent use of physical and chemical restraints in this population. This article focusses on chemical restraints, the most unknown measure of them, when an inappropriate use of psychoactive drugs occurs. We review reasons, dynamics and solutions for restraints `s use and when the use of a drug can be considered a chemical restraint. In addition, we summarize the most important aspects of the CHROME criteria, the first initiative in Spain to systematize the chemical restraints use


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Projetos , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Psicofarmacologia/normas , Desprescrições , Psiquiatria Geriátrica , Psicofarmacologia/ética , Psicofarmacologia/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 50, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for pharmacological treatments of major depression with specific comorbid psychiatric conditions are lacking. METHOD: The French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology and the fondation FondaMental developed expert consensus guidelines for the management of depression based on the RAND/UCLA Appropriatneness Method. Recommendations for lines of treatment are provided by the scientific committee after data analysis and interpretation of the results of a survey of 36 psychiatrist experts in the field of major depression and its treatments. RESULTS: The expert guidelines combine scientific evidence and expert clinician's opinion to produce recommendations for major depression with comorbid anxiety disorders, personality disorders or substance use disorders and in geriatric depression. CONCLUSION: These guidelines provide direction addressing common clinical dilemmas that arise in the pharmacologic treatment of major depression with comorbid psychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Biológica/normas , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Prova Pericial/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Psiquiatria/normas , Psicofarmacologia/normas , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Psiquiatria Biológica/métodos , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Prova Pericial/métodos , Feminino , Fundações/normas , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicofarmacologia/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(10): 2899-2907, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726515

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Since substance use disorders have few or no effective pharmacotherapies, researchers have developed vaccines as immune-therapies against nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and opioids including fentanyl. OBJECTIVES: We focus on enhancing antibody (AB) production through stimulation of toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) during active vaccination. The stimulating adjuvant is Entolimod, a novel protein derivative of flagellin. We review the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Entolimod's actions on TLR5. RESULTS: Entolimod shows excellent efficacy for increasing AB levels to levels well beyond those produced by anti-addiction vaccines alone in animal models and humans. These ABs also significantly block the behavioral effects of the targeted drug of abuse. The TLR5 stimulation involves a wide range of immune cell types such as dendritic, antigen presenting, T and B cells. Entolimod binding to TLR5 initiates an intracellular signaling cascade that stimulates cytokine production of tumor necrosis factor and two interleukins (IL-6 and IL-12). While cytokine release can be catastrophic in cytokine storm, Entolimod produces a modulated release with few side effects even at doses 30 times greater than doses needed in these vaccine studies. Entolimod has markedly increased AB responses to all of our anti-addiction vaccines in rodent models, and in normal humans. CONCLUSIONS: Entolimod and TLR5 stimulation has broad application to vaccines and potentially to other psychiatric disorders like depression, which has critical inflammatory contributions that Entolimod could reduce.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/agonistas , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Neuroimunomodulação/imunologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Psicofarmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/imunologia , Vacinas/farmacologia
17.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 40(3): 260-267, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640555

RESUMO

As the demand for Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioners (PMHNPs) continues to grow, innovative teaching strategies that can enhance competency learning with skill transfer into the clinical setting is essential. Educational programs must adequately prepare the student for the complexity of the clinical environment. Simulation is an educational approach that replicates aspects of the real world in a safe environment so that learners can engage in an interactive manner. High-fidelity simulation (HFS) has been identified as an effective teaching strategy and mechanism to transfer knowledge and skills learned in the classroom to the clinical setting. HFS uses a human patient simulator to immerse the learner in a contextual learning environment by engaging in a realistic clinical scenario to develop cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills through deliberate practice. This article describes the theoretical foundation, development process, case scenarios, and implementation of HFS, an innovative teaching pedagogy, in a Psychopharmacology didactic course for PMHNP.


Assuntos
Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Simulação de Paciente , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/educação , Psicofarmacologia/educação , Humanos , Manequins
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