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1.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(1): 36-52, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748461

RESUMO

Exploring psychophysiological changes during hypnosis can help to better understand the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon by characterizing its influence on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), in addition to its central brain effects. Hypnosis is thought to induce a relaxation response, yet studies using objective psychophysiological measures alongside hypnosis protocols show various results. We review this literature and clarify the effects of hypnosis on psychophysiological indices of ANS activity and more specifically of the stress/relaxation response, such as heart rate variability and electrodermal activity. Studies reporting psychophysical measures during hypnosis were identified by a series of Pubmed searches. Data was extracted with an interest for the influence of hypnotizability and effects of specific suggestions or tasks on the findings. We found 49 studies comprising 1315 participants, 45 concerning healthy volunteers and only 4 on patients. Sixteen compared high vs. low hypnotizable people; 30 measured heart rate, 18 measured heart rate variability, 25 electrodermal activity, and 23 respiratory signals as well as other physiological parameters. Globally, results converge to show reductions in sympathetic responses and/or increases in parasympathetic tone under hypnosis. Several methodological limitations are underscored, such as older studies (N = 16) using manual analyses, small sample sizes (<30, N = 31), as well as uncontrolled multiple comparisons. Nevertheless, we confirm that hypnosis leads to a physiological relaxation response and highlight promising avenues for this research. Suggestions are made for guiding future work in this field.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Psicofisiologia , Sugestão
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(11): 1037-1049, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major negative life events, such as trauma exposure, can play a key role in igniting or exacerbating psychopathology. However, few disorders are diagnosed with respect to precipitating events, and the role of these events in the unfolding of new psychopathology is not well understood. The authors conducted a multisite transdiagnostic longitudinal study of trauma exposure and related mental health outcomes to identify neurobiological predictors of risk, resilience, and different symptom presentations. METHODS: A total of 146 participants (discovery cohort: N=69; internal replication cohort: N=77) were recruited from emergency departments within 72 hours of a trauma and followed for the next 6 months with a survey, MRI, and physiological assessments. RESULTS: Task-based functional MRI 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision identified four clusters of individuals based on profiles of neural activity reflecting threat reactivity, reward reactivity, and inhibitory engagement. Three clusters were replicated in an independent sample with a variety of trauma types. The clusters showed different longitudinal patterns of posttrauma symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a novel characterization of heterogeneous stress responses shortly after trauma exposure, identifying potential neuroimaging-based biotypes of trauma resilience and psychopathology.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Transtornos Mentais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Variação Biológica Individual , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Desencadeantes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Psicofisiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/classificação , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
3.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 169: 34-43, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509571

RESUMO

The fast reaction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to an emotional challenge (EC) is the result of a functional coupling between parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) branches. This coupling can be characterized by measures of cross-correlations between electrodermal activity (EDA) (under the influence of the SNS) and the RR interval (the interval between R peaks) (under the influence of the PNS and the SNS). Significant interindividual variability has previously been reported in SNS-PNS coupling in emotional situations, and the present study aimed to identify interindividual cross-correlation variability in ANS reactivity. We therefore studied EDA and the RR interval in 62 healthy subjects, recorded during a 24-minute EC. A Gaussian Mixture Model was used to cluster tonic EDA-RR cross-correlations during the EC. This identified two clusters that were characterized by significant or non-significant cross-correlations (SCC and NCC clusters, respectively). The SCC cluster reported higher negative emotion after the EC, while the NCC cluster reported higher scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. The latter finding suggests that NCC is a pathological mood pattern with altered negative perception. Furthermore, a machine learning model that included three parameters indexing the functionality of both branches of the ANS, measured at baseline, predicted cluster membership. Our results are a first step in detecting dysfunctional ANS reactivity in general population.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Emoções , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Psicofisiologia
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202277

RESUMO

This study proposed a plan for implementing a pleasant and healthy indoor landscape in subway station space. To this end, it established a 3D landscape model of the subway interior by reviewing previous studies on indoor landscape and the greenness index of indoor spaces. Moreover, it investigated and analyzed psychophysiological responses of users to environmental indoor landscape design in subway station space. Subway stations were classified as underground subway stations and ground subway stations according to the presence of natural light inflow. The greenness index of indoor spaces was also divided into four types of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Through this process, eight 3D landscape models of the subway interior were implemented. In addition, this study investigated psychophysiological responses of 60 male and female adults in their 20 s and 30 s using the models implemented. The investigation result was analyzed based on a frequency analysis, the χ2 test, T-test, one-way analysis of variance, and multidimensional scaling, which were performed in SPSS Statistics 25. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, physiological responses of research subjects were analyzed based on their prefrontal α wave asymmetric values. The analytic result showed that the environment where interior landscape was adopted produced more positive effects than the environment where interior landscape was not adopted. Second, psychological responses of research subjects were examined based on their greenness index preference, awareness of interior landscape area, attention restoration effect, and space images. The analytic result indicated that, among eight 3D landscape models of the subway interior, they preferred the model with the greenness index of 15% for underground subway stations. In addition, they preferred the model with the greenness index of 10% the most for ground subway stations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ferrovias , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofisiologia
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The reliability of low-cost mobile systems for recording Electrocardiographic (ECG) data is mostly unknown, posing questions regarding the quality of the recorded data and the validity of the extracted physiological parameters. The present study compared the BITalino toolkit with an established medical-grade ECG system (BrainAmp-ExG). METHODS: Participants underwent simultaneous ECG recordings with the two instruments while watching pleasant and unpleasant pictures of the "International Affective Picture System" (IAPS). Common ECG parameters were extracted and compared between the two systems. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and the Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement (LoA) method served as criteria for measurement agreement. RESULTS: All but one parameter showed an excellent agreement (>80%) between both devices in the ICC analysis. No criteria for Bland-Altman LoA and bias were found in the literature regarding ECG parameters. CONCLUSION: The results of the ICC and Bland-Altman methods demonstrate that the BITalino system can be considered as an equivalent recording device for stationary ECG recordings in psychophysiological experiments.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Psicofisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207927

RESUMO

The use of heart rate variability (HRV) in research has been greatly popularized over the past decades due to the ease and affordability of HRV collection, coupled with its clinical relevance and significant relationships with psychophysiological constructs and psychopathological disorders. Despite the wide use of electrocardiograms (ECG) in research and advancements in sensor technology, the analytical approach and steps applied to obtain HRV measures can be seen as complex. Thus, this poses a challenge to users who may not have the adequate background knowledge to obtain the HRV indices reliably. To maximize the impact of HRV-related research and its reproducibility, parallel advances in users' understanding of the indices and the standardization of analysis pipelines in its utility will be crucial. This paper addresses this gap and aims to provide an overview of the most up-to-date and commonly used HRV indices, as well as common research areas in which these indices have proven to be very useful, particularly in psychology. In addition, we also provide a step-by-step guide on how to perform HRV analysis using an integrative neurophysiological toolkit, NeuroKit2.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Psicofisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13911, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230503

RESUMO

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used aiming to boost exercise performance and inconsistent findings have been reported. One possible explanation is related to the limitations of the so-called "conventional" tDCS, which uses large rectangular electrodes, resulting in a diffuse electric field. A new tDCS technique called high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) has been recently developed. HD-tDCS uses small ring electrodes and produces improved focality and greater magnitude of its aftereffects. This study tested whether HD-tDCS would improve exercise performance to a greater extent than conventional tDCS. Twelve endurance athletes (29.4 ± 7.3 years; 60.15 ± 5.09 ml kg-1 min-1) were enrolled in this single-center, randomized, crossover, and sham-controlled trial. To test reliability, participants performed two time to exhaustion (TTE) tests (control conditions) on a cycle simulator with 80% of peak power until volitional exhaustion. Next, they randomly received HD-tDCS (2.4 mA), conventional (2.0 mA), or active sham tDCS (2.0 mA) over the motor cortex for 20-min before performing the TTE test. TTE, heart rate (HR), associative thoughts, peripheral (lower limbs), and whole-body ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every minute. Outcome measures were reliable. There was no difference in TTE between HD-tDCS (853.1 ± 288.6 s), simulated conventional (827.8 ± 278.7 s), sham (794.3 ± 271.2 s), or control conditions (TTE1 = 751.1 ± 261.6 s or TTE2 = 770.8 ± 250.6 s) [F(1.95; 21.4) = 1.537; P = 0.24; η2p = 0.123]. There was no effect on peripheral or whole-body RPE and associative thoughts (P > 0.05). No serious adverse effect was reported. A single session of neither HD-tDCS nor conventional tDCS changed exercise performance and psychophysiological responses in athletes, suggesting that a ceiling effect may exist.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Appl Ergon ; 96: 103436, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087703

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of participant-selected (PSel) and researcher-selected (RSel) music on urban driving behaviour in young men (N = 27; Mage = 20.6 years, SD = 1.9 years). A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was used with four simulated driving conditions: PSel fast-tempo music, PSel slow-tempo music, RSel music and an urban traffic-noise control. The between-subjects variable of personality (introverts vs. extroverts) was explored. The presence of PSel slow-tempo music and RSel music optimised affective valence and arousal for urban driving. NASA Task Load Index scores indicated that the urban traffic-noise control increased mental demand compared to PSel slow-tempo music. In the PSel slow-tempo condition, less use was made of the brake pedal. When compared to extroverts, introverts recorded lower mean speed and attracted lower risk ratings under PSel slow-tempo music. The utility of PSel slow-tempo and RSel music was demonstrated in terms of optimising affective state for simulated urban driving.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Música , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Physiol Behav ; 238: 113483, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychophysiological response during takeoff, landing, air-air attack and air-ground attack maneuvers. METHODS: A total of 11 expert pilots (age=33.36 (5.37)) from the Spanish Air Force participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants had to complete in a flight simulator the following missions: 1) takeoff; 2) Air-air attack; 3) Air-Ground attack, and 4) Landing. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were collected during all these maneuvers. RESULTS: Significant higher values of theta (during takeoff, air-air attack and air-ground attack) EEG power spectrum were obtained when compared to baseline. Significant difference in the P3 scalp location was observed between landing and takeoff maneuvers in the beta EEG power spectrum. Furthermore, significant lower values of HRV were obtained during takeoff, landing, air-air attack and air-ground attack when compared to baseline values. Also, landing showed a higher sympathetic response when compared to takeoff maneuver. CONCLUSION: Takeoff, landing, air-air attack or air-ground attack maneuvers performed in a flight simulator produced significant changes in the electroencephalographic activity and autonomic modulation of professional pilots. Beta EEG power spectrum modifications suggest that landing maneuvers induced more attentional resources than takeoff. In the same line, a reduced HRV during landing was obtained when compared to takeoff. These results should be considered to training purposes.


Assuntos
Militares , Pilotos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Psicofisiologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12543, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131193

RESUMO

Interpersonal physiological synchrony has been shown to play important roles in social activities. While most studies have shed light on the effects of physiological synchrony on recognition of the group state, such as cohesion or togetherness, the effect of physiological synchrony on the recognition of emotional experience has not been adequately researched. In this study, we examined how physiological synchrony is associated with first- and third-person emotion recognition during a joint task. Two participants played a cooperative block-stacking game (Jenga), alternating their roles as player and adviser, while their heart rates were recorded. The participants evaluated their own emotional experience for each turn. Bystanders watched the game to evaluate the players' emotions. Results showed that the players' subjective excitement increased not only with their own heart rate, but also with increased heart rate synchrony with their adviser. Heart rate synchrony between player and adviser also related to increased intensity in perceived excitement from the bystanders. Given that both first- and third-person emotion recognition can have cumulative impacts on a group, the relationship between physiological synchrony and emotion recognition observed in the present study will help deepen understanding of the psychophysiological mechanisms underlying larger group phenomena such as crowd excitement.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Emoções/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13184, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162959

RESUMO

Facial identity matching ability varies widely, ranging from prosopagnosic individuals (who exhibit profound impairments in face cognition/processing) to so-called super-recognizers (SRs), possessing exceptional capacities. Yet, despite the often consequential nature of face matching decisions-such as identity verification in security critical settings-ability assessments tendentially rely on simple performance metrics on a handful of heterogeneously related subprocesses, or in some cases only a single measured subprocess. Unfortunately, methodologies of this ilk leave contributions of stimulus information to observed variations in ability largely un(der)specified. Moreover, they are inadequate for addressing the qualitative or quantitative nature of differences between SRs' abilities and those of the general population. Here, therefore, we sought to investigate individual differences-among SRs identified using a novel conservative diagnostic framework, and neurotypical controls-by systematically varying retinal availability, bandwidth, and orientation of faces' spatial frequency content in two face matching experiments. Psychophysical evaluations of these parameters' contributions to ability reveal that SRs more consistently exploit the same spatial frequency information, rather than suggesting qualitatively different profiles between control observers and SRs. These findings stress the importance of optimizing procedures for SR identification, for example by including measures quantifying the consistency of individuals' behavior.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto , Aptidão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação/métodos , Psicofisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253509, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185792

RESUMO

Cognitive reappraisal and acceptance strategies have been shown to be effective in reducing pain experience and increasing pain tolerance. However, no systematic reviews have focused on the relationship between the use of these two strategies and peripheral physiological correlates when pain is experimentally induced. This systematic review aims to summarize the existing literature that explores the relationship between emotion regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal and acceptance) and peripheral correlates of the autonomic nervous system and facial electromyography, such as affect-modulated responses and corrugator activity, on laboratory tasks where pain is induced. The systematic review identifies nine experimental studies that meet our inclusion criteria, none of which compare these strategies. Although cognitive reappraisal and acceptance strategies appear to be associated with decreased psychological responses, mixed results were found for the effects of the use of both strategies on all the physiological correlates. These inconsistencies between the studies might be explained by the high methodological heterogeneity in the task designs, as well as a lack of consistency between the instructions used in the different studies for cognitive reappraisal, acceptance, and the control conditions.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Regulação Emocional , Manejo da Dor , Dor , Humanos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Psicofisiologia
15.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 167: 30-37, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157337

RESUMO

Effectiveness of various emotion regulation (ER) strategies have received much attention in recent research. Among the most studied ER strategies are cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. However, the evidence of their effectiveness is controversial and depends on the measures used. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies of ER via different measures such as self-report, facial expressions (zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii electromyography), and physiological assessment (skin conductance response and heart rate deceleration). Participants were presented with intensely unpleasant or neutral pictures and performed ER tasks. We expected that the implementation of ER strategies would reduce negative emotions, and cognitive reappraisal would produce greater reduction in negative emotions compared to expressive suppression. Self-report data showed that reappraisal had a greater effect on the reduction of negative emotions compared to suppression. There was no difference between reappraisal and suppression assessed with skin conductance response and electromyography. Curiously, heart rate deceleration increased while participants tried to suppress their emotional expressions, which could reflect efforts exerted in the attempt to suppress. The ER strategies reduced negative emotions during the presentation of unpleasant pictures partially in skin conductance response and heart rate deceleration. Overall, reappraisal is more effective in changing subjective experience, whereas the physiological reactions do not differ substantially between the two ER strategies explored. We therefore recommend that the assessment of ER strategies in the laboratory should accommodate more than one type of measures to come to more reliable conclusions.


Assuntos
Emoções , Psicofisiologia , Cognição , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Autorrelato
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12030, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103543

RESUMO

Successful responding to acutely threatening situations requires adequate approach-avoidance decisions. However, it is unclear how threat-induced states-like freezing-related bradycardia-impact the weighing of the potential outcomes of such value-based decisions. Insight into the underlying computations is essential, not only to improve our models of decision-making but also to improve interventions for maladaptive decisions, for instance in anxiety patients and first-responders who frequently have to make decisions under acute threat. Forty-two participants made passive and active approach-avoidance decisions under threat-of-shock when confronted with mixed outcome-prospects (i.e., varying money and shock amounts). Choice behavior was best predicted by a model including individual action-tendencies and bradycardia, beyond the subjective value of the outcome. Moreover, threat-related bradycardia (high-vs-low threat) interacted with subjective value, depending on the action-context (passive-vs-active). Specifically, in action-contexts incongruent with participants' intrinsic action-tendencies, stronger bradycardia related to diminished effects of subjective value on choice across participants. These findings illustrate the relevance of testing approach-avoidance decisions in relatively ecologically valid conditions of acute and primarily reinforced threat. These mechanistic insights into approach-avoidance conflict-resolution may inspire biofeedback-related techniques to optimize decision-making under threat. Critically, the findings demonstrate the relevance of incorporating internal psychophysiological states and external action-contexts into models of approach-avoidance decision-making.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Congelamento , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Bradicardia , Comportamento de Escolha , Conflito Psicológico , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Negociação , Psicofisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125863

RESUMO

In recent decades reported findings regarding gender differences in reading achievement, cognitive abilities and maturation process in boys and girls are conflicting. As reading is one of the most important processes in the maturation of an individual, the aim of the study was to better understand gender differences between primary school students. The study evaluates differences in Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Electroencephalography (EEG), Electrodermal Activities (EDA) and eye movement of participants during the reading task. Taking into account that colour may affect reading skills, in that it affects the emotional and physiological state of the body, the research attempts to provide a better understanding of gender differences in reading through examining the effect of colour, as applied to reading content. The physiological responses of 50 children (25 boys and 25 girls) to 12 different background and overlay colours of reading content were measured and summarised during the reading process. Our findings show that boys have shorter reading duration scores and a longer Saccade Count, Saccade Duration Total, and Saccade Duration Average when reading on a coloured background, especially purple, which could be caused by their motivation and by the type of reading task. Also, the boys had higher values for the Delta band and the Whole Range of EEG measurements in comparison to the girls when reading on coloured backgrounds, which could reflect the faster maturation of the girls. Regarding EDA measurements we did not find systematic differences between groups either on white or on coloured/overlay background. We found the most significant differences arose in the HRV parameters, namely (SDNN (ms), STD HR (beats/min), RMSSD (ms), NN50 (beats), pNN50 (%), CVRR) when children read the text on coloured/overlay backgrounds, where the girls showed systematically higher values on HRV measurements in comparison to the boys, mostly with yellow, red, and orange overlay colours.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Cor , Leitura , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofisiologia/instrumentação , Psicofisiologia/métodos , Psicofisiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(2): 463-484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057081

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease, which seriously affects the behavior, cognition, and memory of patients. Studies have shown that sensory stimulation can effectively improve the cognition and memory of AD patients, and its role in brain plasticity and neural regulation is initially revealed. This paper aims to review the effect of various sensory stimulation and multisensory stimulation for AD, and to explain the possible mechanism, so as to provide some new ideas for further research in this field. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases (from 2000 to October 27, 2020) for literature on the treatment of AD with sensory and multisensory stimulation, including music therapy, aromatherapy, rhythmic (e.g., visual or acoustic) stimulation, light therapy, multisensory stimulation, and virtual reality assisted therapy, then conducted a systematic analysis. Results show these sensory and multisensory stimulations can effectively ameliorate the pathology of AD, arouse memory, and improve cognition and behaviors. What's more, it can cause brain nerve oscillation, enhance brain plasticity, and regulate regional cerebral blood flow. Sensory and multisensory stimulation are very promising therapeutic methods, and they play an important role in the improvement and treatment of AD, but their potential mechanism and stimulation parameters need to be explored and improved.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Doença de Alzheimer , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia
19.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102426, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022509

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine changes in psychophysiological arousal from baseline to a stressor phase (reactivity) and from the stressor phase to a second resting phase (recovery) in patients with anxiety disorders. Fifty adult patients with DSM-5 anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social anxiety disorder) and 28 healthy control (HC) participants underwent psychophysiological monitoring including electrocardiogram, respiration rate, electrodermal activity, gastrocnemius electromyograph, and end-tidal CO2 for a 3-min resting phase, a 6-min mild stressor phase, and a 3-min recovery phase. Anxious patients then went on to receive naturalistic cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a specialty outpatient clinic. Results for the reactivity phase indicated that compared to HCs, patients with social anxiety disorder exhibited heightened psychophysiological reactivity while patients with panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder exhibited attenuated reactivity. Results for physiological recovery (return to baseline after the stressor was withdrawn) were mixed, but provided some support for slower autonomic recovery in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder compared to HCs. Participants with all anxiety disorders exhibited diminished change in high frequency heart rate variability compared to HCs. Generally, psychophysiological reactivity and recovery were not associated with CBT outcome, though exploratory analyses indicated that greater respiration rate reactivity and stronger respiration rate recovery were associated with better CBT outcomes in patients with panic disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno de Pânico , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Psicofisiologia
20.
Mod Trends Psychiatry ; 32: 1-11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031292

RESUMO

The theme of this monograph reflects the growing research interest in the contribution of the microbiome-gut-brain axis to mental health. This chapter introduces readers to the study of the microbiome in psychiatric research and emphasises how research into the gut microbiome has had a significant impact on our understanding of mental health. A brief summary of the historical background for microbiome research in mental health is followed by examples of evidence linking gut microorganisms to changes in brain function. As novel technological developments have played a major role in providing the evidence for microbiome modulation of brain function, an overview of modern techniques and technologies is then provided. These have broadened our understanding of the range of microorganisms, in addition to bacteria, which contribute to the changes initiated by the microbiome. In addition, common experimental models are reviewed in light of the important role that animal studies, particularly in germ-free rodents, have played in establishing microbiome-gut-brain interactions. This introduction concludes with a summary of the challenges for future microbiome research, providing a forward-thinking perspective echoed in many of the following chapters.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais , Animais , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Psicofisiologia
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