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1.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(1): 24-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529208

RESUMO

Anne Treisman investigated many aspects of perception, and in particular the roles of different forms of attention. Four aspects of her work are reviewed here, including visual search, set mean perception, perception in special populations, and binocular rivalry. The importance of the breakthrough in each case is demonstrated. Search is easy or slow depending on whether it depends on the application of global or focused attention. Mean perception depends on global attention and affords simultaneous representation of the means of at least two sets of elements, and then of comparing them. Deficits exhibited in Balint's or unilateral neglect patients identify basic sensory system mechanisms. And, the ability to integrate binocular information for stereopsis despite simultaneous binocular rivalry for color, demonstrates the division of labor underlying visual system computations. All these studies are related to an appreciation of the difference between perceiving the gist of a scene, its elements or objects, versus perceiving the details of the scene and its components. This relationship between Anne Treisman's revolutionary discoveries and the concept of gist perception is the core of the current review.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia/história , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Percepção de Profundidade , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Disparidade Visual , Visão Binocular
3.
J Hist Neurosci ; 28(4): 416-436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454293

RESUMO

Wilder Penfield is justly famous for his contributions to our understanding of epilepsy and of the structure-function relationship of the brain. His theory on the relationship of the brain and mind is less well known. Based on the effects of the electrical stimulation of the cortex in conscious patients, Penfield believed that consciousness and mind are functions of what he referred to as the centrencephalic integrating system. This functional system comprised bidirectional pathways between the upper brainstem, the thalami, and the cerebral cortex of both hemispheres, and was the physical substrate from which memory, perception, initiative, will, and judgment arose. It was the source of the stream of consciousness and the physical basis of mind. This paper reviews how Penfield arrived at this conception of the mind-brain relationship. Although Penfield ultimately felt that he had failed in his attempt to unify brain and mind, his work shed new light on the relationship of memory to the mesial temporal structures and to the temporal cortex; and his association of consciousness and the brainstem preceded the conceptualization of the reticular activating system by a generation. In these, as in so many aspects of neurobiology, Penfield was prescient.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Epilepsia/história , Neurobiologia/história , Neurofisiologia/história , Canadá , Estado de Consciência , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ilustração Médica , Memória , Percepção , Psicofisiologia/história , Formação Reticular
4.
J Hist Neurosci ; 28(1): 23-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475661

RESUMO

Different models of emotional lateralization, advanced since the first clinical observations raised this issue, will be reviewed following their historical progression. The clinical investigations that have suggested a general dominance of the right hemisphere for all kinds of emotions and the experimental studies that have proposed a different hemispheric specialization for positive vs. negative emotions (valence hypothesis) or for approach vs. withdrawal tendencies (motivational hypothesis) will be reviewed first and extensively. This historical review will be followed by a short discussion of recent anatomo-clinical and activation studies that have investigated (a) emotional and behavioral disorders of patients with asymmetrical forms of fronto-temporal degeneration and (b) laterality effects in specific brain structures (amygdala, ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, and anterior insula) playing a critical role in different components of emotions. Overall, these studies support the hypothesis of a right hemisphere dominance for all components of the emotional system.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/história , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Hist Psychiatry ; 29(4): 456-469, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101605

RESUMO

This book on ancient medicine offers a unique resource for historians of medicine, historians of psychology, and classicists - and also cultural historians and historians of art. The Hippocratic texts and other contemporary medical sources have often been overlooked when it comes to their approaches to psychology, which are considered more mechanical and less elaborated than contemporary poetic and philosophical representations, but also than later medical works, notably Galenic. This book aims to do justice to early medical accounts by illustrating their richness and sophistication, their links with contemporary cultural products, and the indebtedness of later medicine to their observations. The ancient sources are read not only as archaeological documents, but also in the light of methodological discussions that are fundamental in the history of psychiatry and the history of psychology.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria/história , Psicologia/história , Psicofisiologia/história , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos
10.
Rev Neurol ; 66(10): 353-356, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749596

RESUMO

The Argentine neuropsychological school is born of the hand of the European school and is part of the beginning of the Experimental Psychology. In 1896 Horacio Pinero creates the first Department of Psychology at the University of Buenos Aires and in 1898 the first laboratory of Experimental Psychology is annexed. Jose Ingeniero, psychiatrist, neurologist, politician and above all sociologist publishes in France his work about the musical aphasia, the first neuropsychological work with international significance. In the same redeems to Charcot instead of to Knoblauch like the first one to describe the amusias, it speaks of an intelligence instead of a musical language and proposes a new classification and a methodology of assessment with a neurological-psychiatric integrative perspective. This article gave rise to this book in French on the musical language and its hysterical alterations awarded by the Academy of Medicine of Paris.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/história , Música , Neuropsicologia/história , Afasia de Broca/fisiopatologia , Apraxias/história , Apraxias/fisiopatologia , Argentina , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/psicologia , Dislexia/história , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Psicofisiologia/história , Transtornos das Sensações/história , Transtornos das Sensações/fisiopatologia , Transtornos das Sensações/psicologia , Canto
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483350

RESUMO

This brief opinion contribution reflects on the application of Anokhin's functional systems theory in the development of models of temperament in Russian differential psychophysiology. It points to the benefits of using an activity-specific approach in temperament theory. This approach suggests separating traits related to physical, communicative and mental aspects of behaviour.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Individualidade , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicofisiologia/classificação , Teoria de Sistemas , Temperamento/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia/história , Federação Russa , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483355

RESUMO

Throughout the last 2500 years, the classification of individual differences in healthy people and their extreme expressions in mental disorders has remained one of the most difficult challenges in science that affects our ability to explore individuals' functioning, underlying psychobiological processes and pathways of development. To facilitate analyses of the principles required for studying individual differences, this theme issue brought together prominent scholars from diverse backgrounds of which many bring unique combinations of cross-disciplinary experiences and perspectives that help establish connections and promote exchange across disciplines. This final paper presents brief commentaries of some of our authors and further scholars exchanging perspectives and reflecting on the contributions of this theme issue.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Individualidade , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicofisiologia/classificação , Temperamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia/história , Terminologia como Assunto
17.
Cortex ; 86: 123-131, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939397

RESUMO

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) introduced a new theory of mind and brain at the end of the eighteenth century, which he referred to as organology, dealing with mental functions and their cortical localizations. Gall wrote that observations regarding the verbal learning capacities of his schoolmates brought about his new way of thinking. This widely accepted view, however, requires qualification. Although Gall's experiences and observations as a schoolboy were relevant, especially for his craniology, these childhood memories might have been recalled and reinterpreted after he had started to think about the faculties of mind-specifically after he had met Bianchi, a 5-year-old girl with a special talent for music.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/história , Craniologia/história , Psicofisiologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Música
18.
Explore (NY) ; 12(4): 256-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27209240

RESUMO

Swiss geologist Albert Heim is well known for his pioneering contributions to several aspects of geology, and for his role in establishing the breeding of different kinds of Swiss mountain dogs. In the field of near-death research, it is also recognized that he performed a pioneering study into near-death states of falling mountaineers. It seems hardly known, however, that Heim also influenced suggestion therapy significantly-in particular, the treatment of warts by suggestion. This article provides an overview of Heim's contribution in the latter field of study.


Assuntos
Morte , Terapias Mente-Corpo/história , Parapsicologia/história , Psicofisiologia/história , Ciência/história , Sugestão , Acidentes por Quedas/história , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Animais , Cruzamento/história , Cães , Geologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Montanhismo , Pesquisa/história , Suíça , Verrugas/história , Verrugas/terapia
19.
Hist Psychol ; 19(2): 93-104, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27100925

RESUMO

James J. Gibson's (1962) now-classic "Observations on Active Touch" demonstrated the superiority of active over passive touch in object discrimination tasks and thereby exposed the paradigmatic limits of preceding research. Before Gibson, according to the received view, the sense of touch had been treated as a mere receptive channel, ignoring the hand's explorative movements. This article challenges this common narrative by juxtaposing Gibson's article with research published in the German-speaking parts of Europe between the early 19th and mid-20th centuries. The concept of "active touch" did not originate from Gibson's paper alone, nor should earlier appearances of the term be treated simply as exceptional cases. On the contrary, throughout the 19th century, the concept facilitated fundamental theoretical, cross-disciplinary discussions and ultimately evolved into an object of experimental study on its own.


Assuntos
Psicofisiologia/história , Tato , Áustria , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Suíça
20.
Rev Neurol ; 62(4): 179-88, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26860723

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published his immortal work Don Quixote of La Mancha in a time of crisis and decadence in Spain that occurred during the transition between the 16th and 17th centuries. AIMS: In 2016 we commemorate the fourth centenary of the death of our distinguished man of letters, and thus in this article we analyse the status of Hispanic neuroscience, both in the Quixote itself and in other works by the most significant contemporary writers of that time. DEVELOPMENT: Despite the adverse historical circumstances, the shift from the Renaissance to the Baroque periods, in the Crown of Castile, was a flourishing period for literature (Spanish Golden Age) and other Hispanic arts (painting, sculpture, architecture and music), as well as bearing witness to a prodigious creativity in the field of neuroscience, including the field of natural philosophy. In his book Antoniana Margarita the physician Gomez Pereira laid the foundations for brain mechanism and the concept of conditioned reflexes several decades ahead of his time. The apothecary Miguel Sabuco also anticipated the concept of neurotransmission centuries ahead of his time in his New Philosophy. The physician Juan Huarte de San Juan was the founder of neuropsychology and experimental psychology, and his Examination of Men's Wits has been one of the most influential and widely translated scientific texts of all times. Its concepts are clearly reflected in Cervantes' Quixote. CONCLUSION: This analysis of Cervantes' work within the cultural setting of the book is intended as a homage to the immortal figure of our 'Prince of Wits' in the fourth centenary of his death.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura , Neurociências/história , Filosofia/história , Psicofisiologia/história , Delusões/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Literatura Moderna , Transtornos Mentais/história , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Neuroanatomia/história , Valores Sociais , Espanha
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