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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599811

RESUMO

Many countries are taking strict quarantine policies to prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) around the world, such as city lockdown. Cities in China and Italy were locked down in the early stage of the pandemic. The present study aims to examine and compare the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on individuals' psychological states in China and Italy. We achieved the aim by (1) sampling Weibo users (geo-location = Wuhan, China) and Twitter users (geo-location = Lombardy, Italy); (2) fetching all the users' published posts two weeks before and after the lockdown in each region (e.g., the lockdown date of Wuhan was 23 January 2020); (3) extracting the psycholinguistic features of these posts using the Simplified Chinese and Italian version of Language Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) dictionary; and (4) conducting Wilcoxon tests to examine the changes in the psycholinguistic characteristics of the posts before and after the lockdown in Wuhan and Lombardy, respectively. Results showed that individuals focused more on "home", and expressed a higher level of cognitive process after a lockdown in both Wuhan and Lombardy. Meanwhile, the level of stress decreased, and the attention to leisure increased in Lombardy after the lockdown. The attention to group, religion, and emotions became more prevalent in Wuhan after the lockdown. Findings provide decision-makers timely evidence on public reactions and the impacts on psychological states in the COVID-19 context, and have implications for evidence-based mental health interventions in two countries.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicolinguística , Quarentena , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Emoções , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais
2.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 40-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520667

RESUMO

Monitoring tasks have long been employed in psycholinguistics, and the end-of-clause effect is possibly the better-known result of using this technique in the study of parsing. Recent results with the tone-monitoring task suggest that tone position modulates cognitive load, as reflected in reaction times (RTs): the earlier the tone appears in a sentence, the longer the RTs. In this study, we show that verb position is also an important factor. In particular, changing the time/location at which verb-noun(s) dependencies are computed during the processing of a sentence has a clear effect on cognitive load and, as a result, on the resources that can be devoted to monitoring and responding to a tone. This study is based on two pieces of evidence. We first report the acceptability ratings of six word orders in Spanish and then present monitoring data with three of these different word orders. Our results suggest that RTs tend to be longer if the verb is yet to be processed, pointing to the centrality of a sentence's main verb in parsing in general.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística/métodos , Semântica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569322

RESUMO

Linguistic negation acts by inhibiting the representation of information under its scope, often leading to the representation of positive alternative states of affairs. Motivational direction refers to approach/avoidance intentionality in our interactions with environmental stimuli expressed by means of verbs (e.g., "accept" vs "reject"). We consider it plausible that negation interacts with direction to represent the true motivation of the protagonist in sentence understanding (e.g., if an approach action is negated it is represented as avoidance). In the first study, we examine this interaction offline by asking participants to judge approach or avoidance meaning of affirmative (e.g., "he/she included/excluded meat") and negative sentences ("he/she did not include/exclude meat"). Results support that negation reversed participants' interpretation of sentence motivational direction. In a further study, we carried out two probe recognition experiments to examine the interaction during sentence comprehension; in both, the critical probe was the word referring to the target of the action (e.g., "meat"). In the first experiment, participants had to recognize the probe word presented 1500 milliseconds after sentence offset, while for the second one, the delay was 500 milliseconds. Results showed that at 1500 ms, target recognition took significantly more time for negated avoidance sentences than for the other conditions. Therefore, representing negated avoidance sentences seems to imply more complex processing, as avoidance verbs would be implicitly negative. By contrast, at the 500 ms delay, negation impaired target recognition for both approach and avoidance sentences, suggesting an unspecific inhibitory effect of negation at that sentence processing stage. Implication of these results for both research on negation and in action understanding are discussed.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Motivação , Psicolinguística , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neurology ; 94(10): e1062-e1072, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand whether the clinical phenotype of nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) could present differences depending on the patient's native language. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed connected speech samples in monolingual English (nfvPPA-E) and Italian speakers (nfvPPA-I) who were diagnosed with nfvPPA and matched for age, sex, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Patients also received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. All patients and 2 groups of age-matched healthy controls underwent an MRI scan with 3D T1-weighted sequences. Connected speech measures and the other cognitive features were compared between patient groups. MRI variables, in terms of gray matter volume, were compared between each patient group and the corresponding controls. RESULTS: Compared to nfvPPA-E, nfvPPA-I had fewer years of education and shorter reported disease duration. The 2 groups showed similar regional atrophy compatible with clinical diagnosis. Patients did not differ in nonlanguage domains, comprising executive scores. Connected speech sample analysis showed that nfvPPA-E had significantly more distortions than nfvPPA-I, while nfvPPA-I showed reduced scores in some measures of syntactic complexity. On language measures, Italian speakers performed more poorly on syntactic comprehension. CONCLUSIONS: nfvPPA-E showed greater motor speech impairment than nfvPPA-I despite higher level of education and comparable disease severity and atrophy changes. The data also suggest greater grammatical impairment in nfvPPA-I. This study illustrates the need to take into account the possible effect of the individual's spoken language on the phenotype and clinical presentation of primary progressive aphasia variants.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Testes de Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicolinguística , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0221138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-Back Pain (LBP) is a common public health problem that is often worsened by maladaptive beliefs and disability. Thus, necessitating the need for availability of outcome measures to assess these sequelae among patients with chronic LBP. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Yoruba version of the ODI (ODI-Y). METHODS: The ODI-Y was cross-culturally adapted following the process involving forward translation, synthesis, backward translation, expert review, and pilot testing. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the ODI-Y were determined using the Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation. Other psychometric properties explored included the factor structure, convergent validity, standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic LBP took part in the validation of the ODI-Y; 86 of these individuals took part in the test-retest reliability (within 1-week interval) of the translated instrument. The mean age of the respondents was 50.5±10.6years. The ODI-Y showed a high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha (α) of 0.81. Test-retest of the Yoruba version of the ODI within 1-week interval yielded an Intra-Class Correlation coefficient of 0.89. The ODI-Y yielded a three-factor structure which accounted for 61.56% of the variance. Correlation of ODI-Y with the visual analogue scale was moderate (r = 0.30; p = 0.001). The standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change of the ODI-Y were 2.0 and 5.5. CONCLUSIONS: The ODI was adapted into the Yoruba language and proved to have good psychometric properties that replicated the results of other obtainable versions. We recommend it for use among Yoruba speaking patients with LBP.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Psicolinguística , Psicometria , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(1): 139-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898267

RESUMO

Taboo words represent a potent subset of natural language. It has been hypothesized that "tabooness" reflects an emergent property of negative valence and high physiological arousal of word referents. Many taboo words (e.g., dick, shit) are indeed consistent with this claim. Nevertheless, American English is also rife with negatively valenced, highly arousing words the usage of which is not socially condemned (e.g., cancer, abortion, welfare). We evaluated prediction of tabooness of single words and novel taboo compound words from a combination of phonological, lexical, and semantic variables (e.g., semantic category, word length). For single words, physiological arousal and emotional valence strongly predicted tabooness with additional moderating contributions from form (phonology) and meaning (semantic category). In Experiment 2, raters judged plausibility for combinations of common nouns with taboo words to form novel taboo compounds (e.g., shitgibbon). A mixture of formal (e.g., ratio of stop consonants, length) and semantic variables (e.g., ± receptacle, ± profession) predicted the quality of novel taboo compounding. Together, these studies provide complementary evidence for interactions between word form and meaning and an algorithmic prediction of tabooness in American English. We discuss applications for models of taboo word representation.


Assuntos
Emoções , Idioma , Tabu/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain Cogn ; 138: 105509, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855702

RESUMO

Though well established for languages acquired in infancy, the role of embodied mechanisms remains poorly understood for languages learned in middle childhood and adulthood. To bridge this gap, we examined 34 experiments that assessed sensorimotor resonance during processing of action-related words in real and artificial languages acquired since age 7 and into adulthood. Evidence from late bilinguals indicates that foreign-language action words modulate neural activity in motor circuits and predictably facilitate or delay physical movements (even in an effector-specific fashion), with outcomes that prove partly sensitive to language proficiency. Also, data from newly learned vocabularies suggest that embodied effects emerge after brief periods of adult language exposure, remain stable through time, and hinge on the performance of bodily movements (and, seemingly, on action observation, too). In sum, our work shows that infant language exposure is not indispensable for the recruitment of embodied mechanisms during language processing, a finding that carries non-trivial theoretical, pedagogical, and clinical implications for neurolinguistics, in general, and bilingualism research, in particular.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Atividade Motora , Multilinguismo , Psicolinguística , Criança , Humanos
10.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci ; 11(1): e1515, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454182

RESUMO

Developmental sociolinguistics is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary framework that builds upon theoretical and methodological contributions from multiple disciplines (i.e., sociolinguistics, language acquisition, the speech sciences, developmental psychology, and psycholinguistics). A core assumption of this framework is that language is by its very nature variable, and that much of this variability is informative, as it is (probabilistically) governed by a variety of factors-including linguistic context, social or cultural context, the relationship between speaker and addressee, a language user's geographic origin, and a language user's gender identity. It is becoming increasingly clear that consideration of these factors is absolutely essential to developing realistic and ecologically valid models of language development. Given the central importance of language in our social world, a more complete understanding of early social development will also require a deeper understanding of when and how language variation influences children's social inferences and behavior. As the cross-pollination between formerly disparate fields continues, we anticipate a paradigm shift in the way many language researchers conceptualize the challenge of early acquisition. This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Linguistic Theory Linguistics > Language Acquisition Neuroscience > Development Psychology > Language.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Fala , Criança , Humanos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento
11.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(4): 204-2010, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833742

RESUMO

Introduction: The process of auditory closure is defined as the ability to complete distorted or missing parts of the acoustic signal and recognize the message in its entirety, is executed daily and should be intact in adolescents. Objectives: To determine the possible alteration of auditory closure according to central auditory processing tests and the psycholinguistic skills in adolescents and; to analyze the relation between the academic performance with central auditory processing tests and psycholinguistic abilities. Methods: A descriptive and transversal study was carried out. 235 adolescents were assessed with normal hearing and without added pathologies. Central auditory processing (CAP) tests from Neustadt et al. and the Illinois Psycholinguistic Aptitude Test (IPAT) to assess psycholinguistic skills (HP). Results: No association was found (p> 0.05) between the specific tests that evaluate the auditory closure (monosyllables with noise and filtered speech of CAP and auditory integration of HP). Regarding academic performance, a statistically significant association was observed (p> 0.05) with three of four psycholinguistic abilities: auditory association, sequential memory and grammatical integration. In turn, there was a significant association between academic performance and one of the four CAP tests: SSW. Conclusion: This research presents an approach on the interrelation between audiological and linguistic tests to detect early alterations in auditory closure in order to arrive at an integral look that contributes to the therapeutics of the problem in adolescents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Audiometria , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226647, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856230

RESUMO

Several dictionary websites are available on the web to access semantic, synonymous, or spelling information about a given word. During nine years, we systematically recorded all the entered letter sequences from a French web dictionary. A total of 200 million orthographic forms were obtained allowing us to create a large-scale database of spelling errors that could inform psychological theories about spelling processes. To check the reliability of this big data methodology, we selected from this database a sample of 100 frequently misspelled words. A group of 100 French university students had to perform a spelling-to-dictation test on this list of words. The results showed a strong correlation between the two data sets on the frequencies of produced spellings (r = 0.82). Although the distributions of spelling errors were relatively consistent across the two databases, the proportion of correct responses revealed significant differences. Regression analyses allowed us to generate possible explanations for these differences in terms of task-dependent factors. We argue that comparing the results of these large-scale databases with those of standard and controlled experimental paradigms is certainly a good way to determine the conditions under which this big data methodology can be adequately used for informing psychological theories.


Assuntos
Alfabetização/normas , Vocabulário , Processamento de Texto/normas , Redação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização/psicologia , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774874

RESUMO

It is widely acknowledged that phonemic segments are primary phonological units, processed serially, in spoken word production of Germanic languages. However, evidence for a behavioural effect of single-segment overlap on Chinese spoken word production is lacking. The current study adopted the form-preparation paradigm to investigate the effects of segment predictability and segment repetition separately, which were mixed in previous studies. Native Mandarin Chinese speakers named pictures in the following conditions: predictable, unpredictable, and no segment repetition. Different positions in words (i.e., the onset and the rhyme) were examined at the same time. Results revealed a facilitation effect of onset predictability masked by an inhibition tendency of onset repetition, indicating Chinese speakers' ability to prepare the predictable onset. In contrast, rhyme predictability showed a non-significant effect. This pattern of results did not change no matter whether the conditions of unpredictable onset repetition and unpredictable rhyme repetition were mixed in the same context (Experiment 1) or extracted from different blocked contexts (Experiment 2). The finding provides essential support to the claim that phonemic segments are functionally engaged in Chinese spoken word production, and thus adds original evidence to the universal aspect of spoken word production.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Idioma , Fonética , Psicolinguística , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Child Lang ; 46(6): 1169-1201, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603401

RESUMO

We select three word segmentation models with psycholinguistic foundations - transitional probabilities, the diphone-based segmenter, and PUDDLE - which track phoneme co-occurrence and positional frequencies in input strings, and in the case of PUDDLE build lexical and diphone inventories. The models are evaluated on caregiver utterances in 132 CHILDES corpora representing 28 languages and 11.9 m words. PUDDLE shows the best performance overall, albeit with wide cross-linguistic variation. We explore the reasons for this variation, fitting regression models to performance scores with linguistic properties which capture lexico-phonological characteristics of the input: word length, utterance length, diversity in the lexicon, the frequency of one-word utterances, the regularity of phoneme patterns at word boundaries, and the distribution of diphones in each language. These properties together explain four-tenths of the observed variation in segmentation performance, a strong outcome and a solid foundation for studying further variables which make the segmentation task difficult.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Fala
15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596888

RESUMO

How various types of focus differ with respect to exhaustivity has been a topic of enduring interest in language studies. However, most of the theoretical work explicating such associations has done so cross-linguistically, and little research has been done on how people process and respond to them during language comprehension. This study therefore investigates the associations between the concept of exhaustivity and three focus types in Chinese (wh, cleft, and only foci) using a trichotomous-response design in two experiments: a forced-choice judgment and a self-paced reading experiment, both with adult native speakers. Its results show that, whether engaged in conscious decision-making or an implicit comprehension process, the participants distinguished only-focus and cleft-focus from wh-focus clearly, and also that there are specific differences between only-focus and cleft-focus in conscious decision-making. This implies that, in terms of the relationship between exhaustivity and the focus types under investigation, cleft-focus and only-focus behave very similarly during language comprehension despite the existence of some fine distinctions between them. In other words, the potential linguistic levels that exhaustivity encodes in Chinese cleft-focus render it more similar to only-focus than to wh-focus. These results are broadly in line with the semantic account that distinguishes cleft from only-focus, i.e., that cleft encodes exhaustivity in not-at-issue presupposition and only-focus encodes exhaustivity in at-issue assertion, while both express semantically encoded exhaustivity, triggering robust language-processing patterns that differ from patterns of wh-focus in Chinese.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 501-512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602657

RESUMO

In the last decades, a series of studies has explored the role of morphological awareness on reading comprehension. Path analysis studies performed in English have shown that morphological awareness benefits reading comprehension both directly and indirectly, through word decoding. This issue has seldom been explored in Spanish. The aim of this study was to replicate in Spanish the results previously found in English. We used path analysis to assess three alternative models of the relationship between morphological awareness, word decoding and reading comprehension in 4th grade Spanish-speaking children. Contrary to English, we found that morphological awareness benefits reading comprehension only directly. We conclude that in Spanish, in which accurate and fluent pronunciation of written words can be achieved through grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules, morphological awareness does not help the correct pronunciation of words. Thus, morphological awareness is not relevant for word decoding in Spanish but is related to reading comprehension since this type of morphological knowledge provides access to the semantic and syntactic information of new words.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Argentina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(12): 3143-3153, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576421

RESUMO

An impressive number of theoretical proposals and neurobiological studies argue that perceptual processing is not strictly feedforward but rather operates through an interplay between bottom-up sensory and top-down predictive mechanisms. The present EEG study aimed to further determine how prior knowledge on auditory syllables may impact speech perception. Prior knowledge was manipulated by presenting the participants with visual information indicative of the syllable onset (when), its phonetic content (what) and/or its articulatory features (how). While when and what predictions consisted of unnatural visual cues (i.e., a visual timeline and a visuo-orthographic cue), how prediction consisted of the visual movements of a speaker. During auditory speech perception, when and what predictions both attenuated the amplitude of N1/P2 auditory evoked potentials. Regarding how prediction, not only an amplitude decrease but also a latency facilitation of N1/P2 auditory evoked potentials were observed during audiovisual compared to unimodal speech perception. However, when and what predictability effects were then reduced or abolished, with only what prediction reducing P2 amplitude but increasing latency. Altogether, these results demonstrate the influence of when, what and how visually induced predictions at an early stage on cortical auditory speech processing. Crucially, they indicate a preponderant predictive role of the speaker's articulatory gestures during audiovisual speech perception, likely driven by attentional load and focus.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Gestos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(12): 3155-3163, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583433

RESUMO

The precision of speech production is strongly influenced by the auditory feedback of our voice. Studies have demonstrated that when speakers receive perturbed auditory feedback, they spontaneously change their articulation to reduce the difference between the intended sound and what was heard. For controlling the accuracy of vowel and consonant production, this corrective behavior reflects the intended sound's category represented in the mind. This in turn suggests that sounds that are not represented as a category would be controlled differently. The current study investigated the effect of linguistic status on controlling the production of a sound. Participants used an apparatus to produce a bistable sound, which could be heard either as a vowel or an acoustic buzz depending on the instructions. During the production of the target sound, their auditory feedback was perturbed and the change in acoustics in response to the perturbation was measured. The results showed that the group producing a linguistic target exhibited an error-reducing behavior similar to what was reported in natural vowel production, whereas the group producing a non-linguistic acoustic target exhibited an error-amplifying behavior, even when the majority in this group had noticed the perturbation and consciously tried to counteract it. Our findings indicate that access to a stable representation differentiates the perceptual organization of auditory feedback, and consequently changes how the production of the sound is controlled.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fala/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Voz , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483826

RESUMO

To test the effectiveness of the Internet-based instrument PsyToolkit for use with complex choice tasks, a replicability study was conducted wherein an existing psycholinguistic paradigm was utilised to compare results obtained through the Internet-based implementation of PsyToolkit with those obtained through the laboratory-based implementation of E-Prime 3.0. The results indicated that PsyToolkit is a viable method for conducting both general and psycholinguistic specific experiments that utilise complex response time tasks, with effects found to replicate for both response choice and response time.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Internet , Laboratórios , Psicolinguística/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103460, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenotype of Down syndrome (DS) is usually characterized by relative strengths in visual skills and severe deficits in auditory processing; this has consequences for language and communication. To date, it is not known whether this pattern characterizes the psycholinguistic profile of young adults with DS. AIMS: This study aimed to assess whether, relative to their cognitive level, young adults with DS present a specific and homogeneous phenotype for both auditory and visual psycholinguistic skills. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fifty young adults with DS and 50 peers with other intellectual disability (ID) were equated in chronological age and nonverbal cognition and were compared regarding their performance in auditory and visual psycholinguistic functions. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Participants with DS showed more phenotypic-specific deficits in auditory psycholinguistic skills than in those involved in visual processing. However, phenotypic-specific impairments in visual psycholinguistic skills were also observed, while no significant between-group differences were found for some auditory psycholinguistic skills. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The psycholinguistic pattern of young adults with DS is not homogeneous with respect to auditory and visual processing. The profile of specific deficits suggests that the educative support for young adults with DS may need to be specific.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Transtornos da Comunicação , Síndrome de Down , Deficiência Intelectual , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Cognição , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Comunicação/etiologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Fonética , Psicolinguística , Fala , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
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