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2.
Neurosci Lett ; 743: 135568, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347969

RESUMO

Orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) refers to the letter position of a word at which it is distinguishable from other lexical items in the language. Previous findings of OUP effects have been mixed and mainly demonstrated in native readers of alphabetic languages. The current study investigated whether OUP effects could be shown among non-native readers in a visual repetition detection task. The experiment tested three OUP conditions (early, mid, late) in native English readers and proficient non-native English readers whose native scripts were Japanese or Korean. Results revealed main effects of OUP on N170 amplitude, where early OUP words elicited more negative N170 and late OUP words elicited marginally less negative N170 than mean activation for both native and non-native readers. There was no indication that non-linearity or non-alphabetic nature of one's native script influenced OUP effects. Results were consistent with a parallel letter processing account in single word reading.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Proficiência Limitada em Inglês , Multilinguismo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística/métodos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239050, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915905

RESUMO

Recent years have seen a growing amount of research effort directed toward what positive media psychologists refer to as self-transcendent emotions, such as awe, admiration, elevation, gratitude, inspiration, and hope. While these emotions are invaluable to promote greater human connectedness, prosociality, and human flourishing, researchers are constrained in terms of analyzing self-transcendent emotions as expressed in spoken and written languages. Drawing upon the word-counting approach of the text analysis paradigm, this project aimed at constructing a dictionary tool-Self-Transcendent Emotion Dictionary (STED)-which can be uploaded into mainstream, text analytic software (e.g., LIWC) to identify and analyze self-transcendent emotions in large corpora. This dictionary tool was then refined and validated via three studies, where individual words were first rated with regard to their fitness into the proposed construct (Step 1), and then used to analyze essays written to reflect the corresponding construct (Step 2). Finally, the refined dictionary was applied to examine words used in nearly 4,000 human-coded New York Times articles (Step 3). Results indicated that the final dictionary, consisting of 351 lexicons and phrases, exhibits acceptable face and construct validity, and possesses a reasonable level of external validity and applicability. Despite its shortcoming in accounting for the rhetorical techniques ingrained in natural human language, the STED could be instrumental for social scientific inquiry of positive emotions in textual narratives.


Assuntos
Dicionários como Assunto , Emoções , Idioma , Mineração de Dados , Esperança , Humanos , Narração , Jornais como Assunto , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Software , Redação
4.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(3): 138-147, jul.-sept. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194982

RESUMO

Knowledge of two languages has several psychological and linguistic consequences for bilingual speakers. Some of them have been widely explored, such as lexical storage or phonological transfer between languages, whereas others, related to the impact of the languages in higher cognitive processes, have been barely studied. In this article, a review of the theories of lexical storage and lexical access of the bilingual speaker is presented. This review emphasises the evolution of the research methodologies through time, and how they have affected the construction and testing of theoretical proposals. With this paper, we intend to set the basis for deeper insights into bilingualism and its psycholinguistic features


Conocer 2 idiomas tiene diversas consecuencias psicológicas y lingüísticas para los hablantes bilingües. Algunas de ellas han sido ampliamente exploradas, como el almacenamiento léxico o la transferencia fonológica, mientras otras, relacionadas con el impacto de las lenguas en procesos cognitivos superiores, apenas han sido estudiadas. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de las teorías de almacenamiento y acceso al léxico en hablantes bilingües. La revisión enfatiza la evolución de las metodologías de investigación en el tiempo, y el impacto que estas han tenido en la elaboración y en la comprobación de dichos modelos. Con este artículo se sientan las bases de futuras investigaciones que profundicen en el bilingüismo y sus características psicolingüísticas


Assuntos
Psicolinguística , Multilinguismo , Teoria da Mente , Modelos Biológicos
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(10): 1029-1038, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778801

RESUMO

If the structure of language vocabularies mirrors the structure of natural divisions that are universally perceived, then the meanings of words in different languages should closely align. By contrast, if shared word meanings are a product of shared culture, history and geography, they may differ between languages in substantial but predictable ways. Here, we analysed the semantic neighbourhoods of 1,010 meanings in 41 languages. The most-aligned words were from semantic domains with high internal structure (number, quantity and kinship). Words denoting natural kinds, common actions and artefacts aligned much less well. Languages that are more geographically proximate, more historically related and/or spoken by more-similar cultures had more aligned word meanings. These results provide evidence that the meanings of common words vary in ways that reflect the culture, history and geography of their users.


Assuntos
Cultura , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Geografia , Humanos
6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(10): 1021-1028, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747806

RESUMO

Cultural stereotypes such as the idea that men are more suited for paid work and women are more suited for taking care of the home and family, may contribute to gender imbalances in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, among other undesirable gender disparities. Might these stereotypes be learned from language? Here we examine whether gender stereotypes are reflected in the large-scale distributional structure of natural language semantics. We measure gender associations embedded in the statistics of 25 languages and relate these to data on an international dataset of psychological gender associations (N = 656,636). People's implicit gender associations are strongly predicted by gender associations encoded in the statistics of the language they speak. These associations are further related to the extent that languages mark gender in occupation terms (for example, 'waiter'/'waitress'). Our pattern of findings is consistent with the possibility that linguistic associations shape people's implicit judgements.


Assuntos
Associação , Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599811

RESUMO

Many countries are taking strict quarantine policies to prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) around the world, such as city lockdown. Cities in China and Italy were locked down in the early stage of the pandemic. The present study aims to examine and compare the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on individuals' psychological states in China and Italy. We achieved the aim by (1) sampling Weibo users (geo-location = Wuhan, China) and Twitter users (geo-location = Lombardy, Italy); (2) fetching all the users' published posts two weeks before and after the lockdown in each region (e.g., the lockdown date of Wuhan was 23 January 2020); (3) extracting the psycholinguistic features of these posts using the Simplified Chinese and Italian version of Language Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) dictionary; and (4) conducting Wilcoxon tests to examine the changes in the psycholinguistic characteristics of the posts before and after the lockdown in Wuhan and Lombardy, respectively. Results showed that individuals focused more on "home", and expressed a higher level of cognitive process after a lockdown in both Wuhan and Lombardy. Meanwhile, the level of stress decreased, and the attention to leisure increased in Lombardy after the lockdown. The attention to group, religion, and emotions became more prevalent in Wuhan after the lockdown. Findings provide decision-makers timely evidence on public reactions and the impacts on psychological states in the COVID-19 context, and have implications for evidence-based mental health interventions in two countries.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicolinguística , Quarentena , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Emoções , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais
8.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 40-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520667

RESUMO

Monitoring tasks have long been employed in psycholinguistics, and the end-of-clause effect is possibly the better-known result of using this technique in the study of parsing. Recent results with the tone-monitoring task suggest that tone position modulates cognitive load, as reflected in reaction times (RTs): the earlier the tone appears in a sentence, the longer the RTs. In this study, we show that verb position is also an important factor. In particular, changing the time/location at which verb-noun(s) dependencies are computed during the processing of a sentence has a clear effect on cognitive load and, as a result, on the resources that can be devoted to monitoring and responding to a tone. This study is based on two pieces of evidence. We first report the acceptability ratings of six word orders in Spanish and then present monitoring data with three of these different word orders. Our results suggest that RTs tend to be longer if the verb is yet to be processed, pointing to the centrality of a sentence's main verb in parsing in general.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística/métodos , Semântica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569322

RESUMO

Linguistic negation acts by inhibiting the representation of information under its scope, often leading to the representation of positive alternative states of affairs. Motivational direction refers to approach/avoidance intentionality in our interactions with environmental stimuli expressed by means of verbs (e.g., "accept" vs "reject"). We consider it plausible that negation interacts with direction to represent the true motivation of the protagonist in sentence understanding (e.g., if an approach action is negated it is represented as avoidance). In the first study, we examine this interaction offline by asking participants to judge approach or avoidance meaning of affirmative (e.g., "he/she included/excluded meat") and negative sentences ("he/she did not include/exclude meat"). Results support that negation reversed participants' interpretation of sentence motivational direction. In a further study, we carried out two probe recognition experiments to examine the interaction during sentence comprehension; in both, the critical probe was the word referring to the target of the action (e.g., "meat"). In the first experiment, participants had to recognize the probe word presented 1500 milliseconds after sentence offset, while for the second one, the delay was 500 milliseconds. Results showed that at 1500 ms, target recognition took significantly more time for negated avoidance sentences than for the other conditions. Therefore, representing negated avoidance sentences seems to imply more complex processing, as avoidance verbs would be implicitly negative. By contrast, at the 500 ms delay, negation impaired target recognition for both approach and avoidance sentences, suggesting an unspecific inhibitory effect of negation at that sentence processing stage. Implication of these results for both research on negation and in action understanding are discussed.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Motivação , Psicolinguística , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nature ; 582(7813): 539-544, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555461

RESUMO

Coordinated skills such as speech or dance involve sequences of actions that follow syntactic rules in which transitions between elements depend on the identities and order of past actions. Canary songs consist of repeated syllables called phrases, and the ordering of these phrases follows long-range rules1 in which the choice of what to sing depends on the song structure many seconds prior. The neural substrates that support these long-range correlations are unknown. Here, using miniature head-mounted microscopes and cell-type-specific genetic tools, we observed neural activity in the premotor nucleus HVC2-4 as canaries explored various phrase sequences in their repertoire. We identified neurons that encode past transitions, extending over four phrases and spanning up to four seconds and forty syllables. These neurons preferentially encode past actions rather than future actions, can reflect more than one song history, and are active mostly during the rare phrases that involve history-dependent transitions in song. These findings demonstrate that the dynamics of HVC include 'hidden states' that are not reflected in ongoing behaviour but rather carry information about prior actions. These states provide a possible substrate for the control of syntax transitions governed by long-range rules.


Assuntos
Canários/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Canto/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Canários/anatomia & histologia , Canários/genética , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Psicolinguística , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(4): e16470, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma related to schizophrenia is considered to be the primary focus of antistigma campaigns. Accurate and efficient detection of stigma toward schizophrenia in mass media is essential for the development of targeted antistigma interventions at the population level. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the psycholinguistic characteristics of schizophrenia-related stigma on social media (ie, Sina Weibo, a Chinese microblogging website), and then to explore whether schizophrenia-related stigma can be distinguished from stigma toward other mental illnesses (ie, depression-related stigma) in terms of psycholinguistic style. METHODS: A total of 19,224 schizophrenia- and 15,879 depression-related Weibo posts were collected and analyzed. First, a human-based content analysis was performed on collected posts to determine whether they reflected stigma or not. Second, by using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software (Simplified Chinese version), a number of psycholinguistic features were automatically extracted from each post. Third, based on selected key features, four groups of classification models were established for different purposes: (a) differentiating schizophrenia-related stigma from nonstigma, (b) differentiating a certain subcategory of schizophrenia-related stigma from other subcategories, (c) differentiating schizophrenia-related stigma from depression-related stigma, and (d) differentiating a certain subcategory of schizophrenia-related stigma from the corresponding subcategory of depression-related stigma. RESULTS: In total, 26.22% of schizophrenia-related posts were labeled as stigmatizing posts. The proportion of posts indicating depression-related stigma was significantly lower than that indicating schizophrenia-related stigma (χ21=2484.64, P<.001). The classification performance of the models in the four groups ranged from .71 to .92 (F measure). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study have implications for the detection and reduction of stigma toward schizophrenia on social media.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Psicolinguística/métodos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Estigma Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mídias Sociais
13.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(3): 536-543, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128719

RESUMO

Speech recognition is improved when the acoustic input is accompanied by visual cues provided by a talking face (Erber in Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12(2), 423-425, 1969; Sumby & Pollack in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 26(2), 212-215, 1954). One way that the visual signal facilitates speech recognition is by providing the listener with information about fine phonetic detail that complements information from the auditory signal. However, given that degraded face stimuli can still improve speech recognition accuracy (Munhall, Kroos, Jozan, & Vatikiotis-Bateson in Perception & Psychophysics, 66(4), 574-583, 2004), and static or moving shapes can improve speech detection accuracy (Bernstein, Auer, & Takayanagi in Speech Communication, 44(1-4), 5-18, 2004), aspects of the visual signal other than fine phonetic detail may also contribute to the perception of speech. In two experiments, we show that a modulating circle providing information about the onset, offset, and acoustic amplitude envelope of the speech does not improve recognition of spoken sentences (Experiment 1) or words (Experiment 2). Further, contrary to our hypothesis, the modulating circle increased listening effort despite subjective reports that it made the word recognition task seem easier to complete (Experiment 2). These results suggest that audiovisual speech processing, even when the visual stimulus only conveys temporal information about the acoustic signal, may be a cognitively demanding process.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 119(1): 7-22, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077734

RESUMO

Language provides an ever-present context for our cognitions and has the ability to shape them. Languages across the world can be gendered (language in which the form of noun, verb, or pronoun is presented as female or male) versus genderless. In an ongoing debate, one stream of research suggests that gendered languages are more likely to display gender prejudice than genderless languages. However, another stream of research suggests that language does not have the ability to shape gender prejudice. In this research, we contribute to the debate by using a Natural Language Processing (NLP) method which captures the meaning of a word from the context in which it occurs. Using text data from Wikipedia and the Common Crawl project (that contains text from billions of publicly facing websites) across 45 world languages, covering the majority of the world's population, we test for gender prejudice in gendered and genderless languages. We find that gender prejudice occurs more in gendered rather than genderless languages. Moreover, we examine whether genderedness of language influences the stereotypic dimensions of warmth and competence utilizing the same NLP method. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Psicolinguística , Sexismo , Humanos
15.
Psychol Sci ; 31(2): 115-128, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913768

RESUMO

Gender stereotypes influence subjective beliefs about the world, and this is reflected in our use of language. But do gender biases in language transparently reflect subjective beliefs? Or is the process of translating thought to language itself biased? During the 2016 United States (N = 24,863) and 2017 United Kingdom (N = 2,609) electoral campaigns, we compared participants' beliefs about the gender of the next head of government with their use and interpretation of pronouns referring to the next head of government. In the United States, even when the female candidate was expected to win, she pronouns were rarely produced and induced substantial comprehension disruption. In the United Kingdom, where the incumbent female candidate was heavily favored, she pronouns were preferred in production but yielded no comprehension advantage. These and other findings suggest that the language system itself is a source of implicit biases above and beyond previously known biases, such as those measured by the Implicit Association Test.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Política , Sexismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
16.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(1): 139-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898267

RESUMO

Taboo words represent a potent subset of natural language. It has been hypothesized that "tabooness" reflects an emergent property of negative valence and high physiological arousal of word referents. Many taboo words (e.g., dick, shit) are indeed consistent with this claim. Nevertheless, American English is also rife with negatively valenced, highly arousing words the usage of which is not socially condemned (e.g., cancer, abortion, welfare). We evaluated prediction of tabooness of single words and novel taboo compound words from a combination of phonological, lexical, and semantic variables (e.g., semantic category, word length). For single words, physiological arousal and emotional valence strongly predicted tabooness with additional moderating contributions from form (phonology) and meaning (semantic category). In Experiment 2, raters judged plausibility for combinations of common nouns with taboo words to form novel taboo compounds (e.g., shitgibbon). A mixture of formal (e.g., ratio of stop consonants, length) and semantic variables (e.g., ± receptacle, ± profession) predicted the quality of novel taboo compounding. Together, these studies provide complementary evidence for interactions between word form and meaning and an algorithmic prediction of tabooness in American English. We discuss applications for models of taboo word representation.


Assuntos
Emoções , Idioma , Tabu/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neuropsychologia ; 138: 107354, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972230

RESUMO

Verbal fluency test, a type of word generation task, is a commonly used neuropsychological assessment. Among the healthy population, it has been used to assess verbal ability, but also executive functions. In the clinical field, verbal fluency has been used to support the diagnoses of a number of neuropsychological disorders. However, existing evidence do not allow for clear conclusions on whether such nonlinguistic uses of verbal fluency test are justified. The present study therefore investigated the involvement of domain-general cognitive functions in word production using functional magnetic resonance imaging, assessing verbal fluency, response inhibition, and working memory updating brain activations in the same set of participants. Results showed that response inhibition and working memory updating do play a role in verbal-fluency-type word production tasks, although language-specific regions are also required. Furthermore, domain-general and language-specific areas are closely neighboring subregions within the same broad brain regions. Additionally, a neural network for Chinese lexical production was observed, which corroborate neural bases for production in alphabetic languages, indicating that there is a core network for lexical production, regardless of language, production mode, or cue stimulus type, with other additional areas involved under some production conditions. Given that most previous research only investigated alphabetic languages, these results help gain a better understanding of language production mechanisms across languages.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicolinguística , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Brain Res ; 238(2): 453-463, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953698

RESUMO

Pronouncing nouns or verbs while grasping distinctly alters movement. Changes in hand speed and final position occur according to the meaning of the words spoken. These results are typically found when executing a single movement paired with a single word. For example, pronouncing the word 'fast' increased the speed of the hand when reaching to grasp. Our objective was to compare how verb and noun fluency tasks interact with grasping behaviour in a grasp-to-construct task. Because previous imaging research shows that verb and noun production activates distinct neural areas, we reasoned that grasping outcomes would differ according to the category of word produced by participants. Specifically, we hypothesized that verb pronunciation would distinctly affect grasping behaviour compared to producing nouns. We recruited 38 young adults who performed a grasp-to-construct task and two different verbal fluency tasks. Participants completed each task (grasp, verb fluency, and noun fluency) separately as control conditions, and the grasping and each speaking task simultaneously for dual-task conditions. We found that during the dual-task condition, when generating nouns and grasping, participants made significantly more grasping errors (inaccurate grasps) compared to the control and verb dual-task conditions. Moreover, our results revealed a relationship between the number of verbs generated and grasping performance. Participants who generated more verbs were faster and more accurate during the motor component of the dual-task condition. This relationship was not observed when nouns were produced, indicating a unique relationship between verb production and functional grasping. The result is a facilitation effect, diminishing the negative outcome on motor control associated with increased cognitive load (as observed during noun pronunciation).


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 138: 107343, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952981

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia is known to involve dysfunctions in multiple brain regions; however, a clear understanding of the brain networks behind this disorder is still lacking. The present study examined the functional network connectivity in Chinese dyslexic children with resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. EEG data were recorded from 27 dyslexic children and 40 age-matched controls, and a minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis was performed to examine the network connectivity in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. The results show that, compared to age-matched controls, Chinese dyslexic children had global network deficiencies in the beta band, and the network topology was more path-like. Moderate correlations are observed between MST degree metric and rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness tests. These observations, together with the findings in alphabetic languages, show that brain network deficiency is a common neural underpinning of dyslexia across writing systems.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Criança , China , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Descanso
20.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(2): 379-384, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950457

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of phonology in the processing of morphologically complex words in a masked priming experiment. An English stem word target was preceded by either its derived form, sharing the phonological information with its stem (P+; healer-HEAL), or its derived form with a phonological change from the stem (P-; health-HEAL). Interestingly, both P+ and P- conditions showed comparable priming, suggesting that phonological information does not play a crucial role at least at early stages of morphological decomposition. This finding does not support the distributed connectionist approach of morphological processing, that maintains that morphemes are patterns of activation distributed across spelling, sound, and meaning. In fact, our results suggest that morphemes are explicitly represented as discrete units in the mental lexicon.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Adulto , Humanos , Fonética
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