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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMO

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia/história , Ergonomia , Psicologia Comparada , Psicologia Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervoso
2.
Behav Processes ; 159: 65-79, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611849

RESUMO

Dr. Marcia Spetch is a Canadian experimental psychologist who specializes in the study of comparative cognition. Her research over the past four decades has covered many diverse topics, but focused primarily on the comparative study of small-scale spatial cognition, navigation, decision making, and risky choice. Over the course of her career Dr. Spetch has had a profound influence on the study of these topics, and for her work she was named a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science in 2012, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2017. In this review, I provide a biographical sketch of Dr. Spetch's academic career, and revisit her contributions to the study of small-scale spatial cognition in two broad areas: the use of environmental geometric cues, and how animals cope with cue conflict. The goal of this review is to highlight the contributions of Dr. Spetch, her students, and her collaborators to the field of comparative cognition and the study of small-scale spatial cognition. As such, this review stands to serve as a tribute and testament to Dr. Spetch's scientific legacy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cognição , Psicologia Comparada/história , Memória Espacial , Animais , Canadá , Sinais (Psicologia) , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
3.
Anim Cogn ; 21(1): 21-35, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234898

RESUMO

In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.


Assuntos
Cognição , Resolução de Problemas , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Psicologia Comparada , Comportamento Espacial
4.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 80: 201-209, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501552

RESUMO

In the quest to bridge the gulf between the fields of linguistics and animal communication, interest has recently been drawn to turn-taking behavior in social interaction. Vocal turn-taking is the core form of language usage in humans, and has been examined in numerous species of birds and primates. Recent studies on great apes have shown that they engage in a bodily form, gestural turn-taking, to achieve mutual communicative goals. However, most studies on turn-taking neglected the fact that signals are prevalently perceived and produced in a multimodal format. Here, I propose that research on animal communication may benefit a more holistic and dynamic approach: studying turn-taking using a multimodal, conservation-analytic framework. I will discuss recent comparative research that implemented this approach via a specific set of parameters. In sum, I argue that a conversation-analytic framework might help substantially to pinpoint the ways in which crucial components of language are embodied in the 'human interaction engine'.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Comunicação , Psicologia Comparada , Animais , Humanos
5.
Learn Behav ; 45(3): 209-210, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378304

RESUMO

Two recent studies have shown that pigeons and baboons can discriminate written English words from nonwords, and these findings were interpreted as demonstrating that orthographic processing is possible in absence of linguistic knowledge. Here, I emphasize a different idea, which is that these studies also inform comparative psychologists on the evolutionary history of statistical learning in nonhuman animals, and on its pervasiveness and flexibility.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Aprendizagem , Papio papio , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Animais , Psicologia Comparada
6.
Learn Behav ; 45(4): 323-324, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411303

RESUMO

Martinho and Kacelnik (2016) imprinted newly hatched ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) with a moving pair of either same or different objects, and following only one session, the ducklings accurately transferred the same/different relationship to novel object pairs that maintained the training relationship. This rapid learning and transfer of the concepts same and different far outstrips the more gradual learning of these basic concepts by animals in associative-learning tasks in which reinforcement is given for correct responses.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Formação de Conceito , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia) , Animais , Fixação Instintiva (Psicologia) , Psicologia Comparada
7.
Memorandum ; 32: 33-57, abr. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-914191

RESUMO

Com o crescente número de produções científicas, alguns temas e autores acabam sendo pouco conhecidos devido não receberem atenção (e citações) suficientes. Um exemplo deste fenômeno é a obra de Norman Maier (1900-1977), psicólogo experimental norte americano com publicações que antecipam temas atuais em tópicos como criatividade, recombinação de repertórios, controle aversivo e psicologia organizacional. O presente artigo faz um resgate da obra de Maier, apresentando um resumo de suas principais contribuições experimentais e conceituais, além de suas relações com pesquisas atuais. Ao final, é feita da Lei de Maier, que, entre outras coisas, descreve duas práticas que, segundo o autor, são comuns no fazer científico da Psicologia: dar novos nomes a fenômenos já relatados na literatura, e omitir citações controversas. Conclui-se que o legado, e o tratamento dado ao trabalho de Maier, atualmente, exemplificam sua própria Lei.(AU)


Scientific publications keep growing, and some themes and authors fail to get enough attention (and citations). One example of this phenomenon is the work of Norman Maier, a North American experimental psychologist with more than two hundred publications that anticipate parallel findings in recent topics such as creativity, interconnection of repertoires, aversive control and organizational psychology. The present essay is a brief presentation of Maier?s work, detailing some of his experimental and conceptual contributions, relating it to contemporary trends of research. At the end, one curious chapter of the authors work is presented, the Maier?s Law, which, among other things, postulate two practices that in the authors view are common in the scientific community of psychologists: to give new names to old phenomena, and to omit citations that spark controversy. It is concluded that the legacy and the current treatment of Maier?s work exemplify his law.(AU)


Assuntos
Desamparo Aprendido , Psicologia , Psicologia Comparada
8.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 50(2): 429-455, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078688

RESUMO

Responding to stimuli as same and different can be considered a critical component of a variety of language and academic repertoires. Whereas responding to "sameness" and generalized identity matching (i.e., coordination) have been studied extensively, there appears to be a significant gap in behavior analytic research and educational programs with regard to nonmatching relations or relations of difference. We review research on difference relations from a variety of domains, including comparative psychology, as well as experimental, and translational behavior analysis. We examine a range of studies, including research on the perception of difference and oddity responding, as well as investigations on establishing relational frames of distinction. We present suggestions for future research and describe potential methods for teaching skills related to relations of difference.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Linguagem , Psicologia Comparada , Pesquisa , Animais , Humanos
9.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 66: 24-32, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27288849

RESUMO

A whole organism, network approach can help explain the adaptive purpose of stress-induced changes in immune function. In insects, mediators of the stress response (e.g. stress hormones) divert molecular resources away from immune function and towards tissues necessary for fight-or-flight behaviours. For example, molecules such as lipid transport proteins are involved in both the stress and immune responses, leading to a reduction in disease resistance when these proteins are shifted towards being part of the stress response system. Stress responses also alter immune system strategies (i.e. reconfiguration) to compensate for resource losses that occur during fight-or flight events. In addition, stress responses optimize immune function for different physiological conditions. In insects, the stress response induces a pro-inflammatory state that probably enhances early immune responses.


Assuntos
Hormônios/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade , Insetos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Psicologia Comparada , Vertebrados
10.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 28(4): 442-447, nov. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-157802

RESUMO

Background: The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. Method: This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Results: Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. Conclusions: The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia (AU)


Antecedentes: la planta Stevia rebaudiana se convertirá en una de las principales fuentes de edulcorantes debido al crecimiento del consumo de productos naturales en el mercado. S. rebaudiana contiene distintos glucósidos diterpenoides, pero los que proporcionan dulzor son el rebaudiosido A y el esteviosido. Estos dos compuestos tienen perfiles farmacocinéticos y metabólicos similares en ratas y humanos. Por otro lado, hay estudios que muestran la existencia de distintos patrones de ingesta voluntaria de edulcorantes en los mamíferos. Método: se realizaron series de la prueba de libre elección entre dos botellas. Comparamos la ingesta de un rango de concentraciones de edulcorantes frente al agua y frente a sacarina. Resultados: las ratas Wistar prefieren el extracto de estevia y el rebaudiosido A (concentraciones desde 0,001% hasta 0,3%) frente al agua, la ingesta máxima fue a la concentración de 0,1%. También prefieren las soluciones preparadas con el producto comercial Truvia (rebaudiósido A y eritritol) frente al agua, la ingesta máxima fue a la concentración de 2%. Conclusiones: nuestro trabajo proporciona nueva información sobre la preferencia gustativa de las ratas Wistar por distintos compuestos de estevia. Estos resultados ayudarán al diseño de estudios centrados en los efectos comportamentales y fisiológicos del consumo de estevia (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Stevia/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar/psicologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Eritritol/metabolismo , Eritritol/farmacologia , Eritritol/uso terapêutico , Edulcorantes/uso terapêutico , Stevia/metabolismo , Psicologia Experimental/instrumentação , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Psicologia Comparada/métodos , Análise de Variância
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27643957

RESUMO

Charles Darwin and C. Lloyd Morgan forward two influential principles of cognitive ethological inference that yield conflicting results about the extent of continuity in the cognitive traits of humans and other animals. While these principles have been interpreted as reflecting commitments to different senses of parsimony, in fact, both principles result from the same vera causa inferential strategy, according to which "We ought to admit no more causes of natural things, than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances". Instead, the conflict stems from Darwin's and Morgan's views about the true causes of human psychology. Darwin holds a thoroughly Humean philosophy of the human mind, from which he infers significant continuity between human and animal minds. In contrast, Morgan argues that Humean cognitive mechanisms cannot account for a class of uniquely human behaviors, and therefore, he concludes that there is a significant discontinuity between human and animal cognition. This historical debate is informative for current controversies in comparative psychology.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Psicologia Comparada/história , Cognição , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Reino Unido
12.
J Comp Psychol ; 130(3): 187-91, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27512822

RESUMO

The study of animal cognition is rife with controversy, and among the most long-standing and most intensely debated controversies in the field is the question of the extent to which the behavior of nonhuman animals can be fully understood on the basis of purely associative principles, or whether some behaviors exhibited by animals necessitate the assumption of inferential capacities in animals that defy an associative explanation. Remarkably, the continuing debate on the topic seems to be spawning little genuine progress in terms of substantial accumulation of new, generally accepted insights. As an introduction to a special section of the Journal of Comparative Psychology on the topic, the present article outlines a number of reasons for the stalemate and suggests ways to refertilize the debate. In particular, we claim that progress will not come from the adoption of general principles like Morgan's canon or the primacy of prediction over postdiction. Instead, emphasis should be placed on a careful analysis of what it is that different sides in the debate do and do not agree on and an increased willingness to engage in adversarial collaboration, in the spirit of a shared interest in furthering our understanding of animal behavior.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Cognição , Psicologia Comparada , Pensamento , Animais , Comportamento Animal
13.
J Comp Psychol ; 130(3): 241-8, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27512825

RESUMO

The debate about whether or not one could/should ascribe reasoning abilities to animals has deep historical roots and seems very up-to-date in the light of the immense body of new empirical data originating from various species and research paradigms. Associative learning (AL) seems to be a ubiquitous low-level contender for any cognitive interpretation of animal behavior, mostly because of the assumed mechanistic simplicity and phylogenetic prevalence. However, the implicit assumption that AL is simple and therefore the most parsimonious mechanism to describe seemingly complex behavior can and must be questioned on various grounds. Using recent empirical findings with chimpanzees as an example, I argue that at times inferential reasoning might be the most likely candidate to account for performance differences between experimental and control conditions. Finally, a general conclusion drawn from the current debate(s) in the field of comparative psychology could be that a dichotomist battle of 2 conceptual camps-each of which is lacking a clear and homogeneous theoretical framework-is a scientific deadlock. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Psicologia Comparada , Pensamento , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cognição , Condicionamento Clássico , Filogenia
14.
Psychol Sci ; 27(9): 1181-91, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27388917

RESUMO

Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Informação/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Animais , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Psicologia Comparada/métodos , Recompensa
15.
Learn Behav ; 44(2): 118-21, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27068300

RESUMO

A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.


Assuntos
Culinária , Pan troglodytes , Psicologia Comparada , Animais
16.
J Comp Psychol ; 130(3): 226-40, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986019

RESUMO

Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Comportamento Animal , Psicologia Comparada , Reforço (Psicologia) , Animais , Cognição , Condicionamento Clássico , Aprendizagem , Pensamento
17.
Learn Behav ; 44(2): 109-15, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007910

RESUMO

We recently reported a study (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015) examining whether chimpanzees possess several cognitive capacities that are critical to engage in cooking. In a subsequent commentary, Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, and Brosnan Learning & Behavior (2015) asserted that our paper has several flaws. Their commentary (1) critiques some aspects of our methodology and argues that our work does not constitute evidence that chimpanzees can actually cook; (2) claims that these results are old news, as previous work had already demonstrated that chimpanzees possess most or all of these capacities; and, finally, (3) argues that comparative psychological studies of chimpanzees cannot adequately address questions about human evolution, anyway. However, their critique of the premise of our study simply reiterates several points we made in the original paper. To quote ourselves: "As chimpanzees neither control fire nor cook food in their natural behavior, these experiments therefore focus not on whether chimpanzees can actually cook food, but rather whether they can apply their cognitive skills to novel problems that emulate cooking" (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015, p. 2). Furthermore, the methodological issues they raise are standard points about psychological research with animals-many of which were addressed synthetically across our 9 experiments, or else are orthogonal to our claims. Finally, we argue that comparative studies of extant apes (and other nonhuman species) are a powerful and indispensable method for understanding human cognitive evolution.


Assuntos
Culinária , Aprendizagem , Psicologia Comparada , Animais , Cognição , Pan troglodytes
18.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 105(1): 14-22, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26781049

RESUMO

In recent years, robotic animals and humans have been used to answer a variety of questions related to behavior. In the case of animal behavior, these efforts have largely been in the field of behavioral ecology. They have proved to be a useful tool for this enterprise as they allow the presentation of naturalistic social stimuli whilst providing the experimenter with full control of the stimulus. In interactive experiments, the behavior of robots can be controlled in a manner that is impossible with real animals, making them ideal instruments for the study of social stimuli in animals. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the field and considers the impact that the use of robots could have on fundamental questions related to comparative psychology: namely, perception, spatial cognition, social cognition, and early cognitive development. We make the case that the use of robots to investigate these key areas could have an important impact on the field of animal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Psicologia Comparada/instrumentação , Robótica , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Psicologia Comparada/métodos , Robótica/métodos , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado Social , Percepção Social , Aprendizagem Espacial
19.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 26(5): 869-76, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26723168

RESUMO

Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/fisiopatologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Modelos Neurológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Psicologia Comparada/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Animal , Terapia Combinada , Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/terapia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Terminologia como Assunto
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