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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 23(1): 14-29, jan.-jun. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1356767

RESUMO

RESUMO O presente estudo objetiva discutir as principais temáticas emergentes em grupos reflexivos sobre adoção desenvolvidos por meio de um projeto de pesquisa e extensão universitária. Realizamos observação participante em três ciclos grupais para pretendentes à adoção e três ciclos para mães e pais por adoção. Nos processos grupais realizados, foram encontradas cinco principais temáticas nos grupos com pretendentes e cinco com mães e pais por adoção. Foi possível perceber os receios dos pretendentes em relação ao que esperar dos(as) futuros(as) filhos(as), ao passo que as mães e pais já estavam vivenciando e enfrentando dificuldades relacionadas à convivência. O trabalho grupal pode ser uma forma profícua de trabalhar as demandas específicas dos pretendentes, mães e pais.


ABSTRACT This study aims to discuss the main emerging themes in reflective groups on adoption developed through a research project and university extension program. We carried out participant observation in three group cycles for prospective adopters and three cycles for adoptive mothers and fathers. In the groups' meetings, we found five main themes with prospective adopters and five with adoptive mothers and fathers. It was possible to perceive the fears of the prospective adopters regarding what to expect from their future children, while the mothers and fathers were already experiencing and facing difficulties related to living together. Group work can be a fruitful way of working with the specific demands of prospective adopters, mothers, and fathers.


RESUMEN Este estudio tiene como objetivo discutir los principales temas emergentes de grupos reflexivos sobre la adopción desarrollados a través de un proyecto de investigación y extensión universitaria. Realizamos observación participante en tres ciclos grupales para solicitantes de adopción y tres ciclos para madres y padres por adopción. En los procesos grupales realizados, se encontraron cinco temas principales en los grupos con pretendientes y cinco con madres y padres. Se pudo percibir los temores de los solicitantes sobre qué esperar de sus futuros hijos e hijas, mientras que las madres y padres ya estaban experimentando y enfrentando dificultades relacionadas con la convivencia. El trabajo grupal puede ser una forma fructífera de trabajar con las demandas específicas de pretendientes, madres y padres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adoção , Psicologia Forense , Processos Grupais
2.
An. psicol ; 38(2): 307-315, may. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202891

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La credibilidad del testimonio en Abuso Sexual Infantil (ASI) es un reto para la psicología forense por falta de otras pruebas que ayuden a determinar judicialmente la ocurrencia del abuso. Existen diferentes enfoques para valorar la credibilidad del testimonio, aunque la mayoría presenta limitaciones. El propósito de esta investigación es explorar la existencia de indicadores psicosociales asociados a la credibilidad del testimonio en ASI para complementar las valoraciones periciales. Método: La muestra se compone de 99 casos de ASI evaluados como Creíbles (C) o No Creíbles (NC) con una edad que osciló entre los 4-17 años (M = 11.31, DT = 3.92) y de los que 87 (85.9%) fueron niñas. El grupo C contenía 68 casos y el NC 31. Se examinó la relación entre el dictamen pericial (C/NC) y factores psicosociales mediante tablas de contingencia y análisis de chi-cuadrado. Resultados: Encontramos diferencias significativas en variables como la presencia de desajustes sexuales y emocionales, una dinámica familiar disfuncional, el litigio entre progenitores o la denuncia contra un familiar. Conclusiones: Se identifican variables presentes de forma habitual en el grupo NC como la presencia de sintomatología de índole sexual, dinámicas disfuncionales, padres divorciados, presencia de litigio entre los progenitores o la denuncia contra el padre biológico.(AU)


Background:Credibility assessment in Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) poses a major challenge for forensic psychology. The lack of evidence sup-porting the determination of the real occurrence of the abuse requires ad-ditional approaches to assess credibility. The purpose of this research is to explore the existence of psychosocial factors associated with testimony credibility in CSA. Method:Ninety-nine CSA cases characterized as Credible (C) or Not Credible (NC) were evaluated. The age range of the group spanned 4 to 17 years (M= 11.31, SD= 3.92) with 87 (85.9%) cases corre-sponding to females. Group C incuded 68 cases and NC group the remain-ing 31. The relationship between the expert opinion (C/NC) and psycho-social factors was evaluated using contingency tables and chi-square analy-sis. Results:Significant differences in variables such as the presence of sexu-al and emotional imbalances, dysfunctional family dynamics, parent litiga-tion, or legal actions against a relative were found. Conclusions:Certain vari-ables were commonly present in the NC group, such as symptoms of a sexual nature, dysfunctional familiar dynamics, divorced parents, presence of litigation between parents, or legal actions against the biological father.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Ciências da Saúde , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Impacto Psicossocial , Psicologia Forense , Emoções , Sintomas Afetivos
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262800, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061853

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the speaker-discriminatory potential of a set of speech timing parameters while probing their suitability for forensic speaker comparison applications. The recordings comprised of spontaneous dialogues between twin pairs through mobile phones while being directly recorded with professional headset microphones. Speaker comparisons were performed with twins speakers engaged in a dialogue (i.e., intra-twin pairs) and among all subjects (i.e., cross-twin pairs). The participants were 20 Brazilian Portuguese speakers, ten male identical twin pairs from the same dialectal area. A set of 11 speech timing parameters was extracted and analyzed, including speech rate, articulation rate, syllable duration (V-V unit), vowel duration, and pause duration. Three system performance estimates were considered for assessing the suitability of the parameters for speaker comparison purposes, namely global Cllr, EER, and AUC values. These were interpreted while also taking into consideration the analysis of effect sizes. Overall, speech rate and articulation rate were found the most reliable parameters, displaying the largest effect sizes for the factor "speaker" and the best system performance outcomes, namely lowest Cllr, EER, and highest AUC values. Conversely, smaller effect sizes were found for the other parameters, which is compatible with a lower explanatory potential of the speaker identity on the duration of such units and a possibly higher linguistic control regarding their temporal variation. In addition, there was a tendency for speech timing estimates based on larger temporal intervals to present larger effect sizes and better speaker-discriminatory performance. Finally, identical twin pairs were found remarkably similar in their speech temporal patterns at the macro and micro levels while engaging in a dialogue, resulting in poor system discriminatory performance. Possible underlying factors for such a striking convergence in identical twins' speech timing patterns are presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Fala , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia , Adulto , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Gravação em Fita , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202856

RESUMO

Background:Investigators often use maps in forensic interviews to verify a route that was taken by a suspect to obtain additional information, and to assess credibility.Method: We examined the effects of the level of map richness on the elicitation of information and cues to deceit. A total of 112 participants completed a mock secret mission and were asked to tell the truth (to a friendly agent) or to lie (to a hostile agent) about it in an interview. In phase 1 of the interview, all participants provided a verbal free recall of the mission. In phase 2, half of the participants were given a detailed map that included all street names and landmarks of the city where they completed the mission (zoomed in to 80%), and the other half were given a less detailed map that included the names of only major streets and landmarks (zoomed in to 60%). All participants were asked to verbally describe the mission and the route taken while sketching on the map. Results: Compared to lie tellers, truth tellers provided more location, action, temporal, and object details and complications in phase 1, and new person, location, action, and object details and complications in phase 2. Map richness did not have an effect on the amount of information elicited and had an equal effect on truth tellers and lie tellers. Conclusions: This initial experiment in this research area suggests that investigators do not have to worry about the exact level of map detailedness when introducing maps in interviews.


Antecedentes: Los investigadores utilizan a menudo mapas en las entrevistas forenses para verificar el camino seguido por un sospechoso para obtener más información y para valorar la credibilidad. Método: Analizamos los efectos del nivel de riqueza del mapa en la obtención de información e indicios de engaño. Un total de 112 participantes simularon participar en una misión secreta, pidiéndoseles que, en una entrevista, dijeran la verdad (a un agente amistoso) o mintieran (a un agente hostil) sobre la misión. En la fase 1 de la entrevista se recabó de los participantes un recuerdo libre de la misión y en la fase 2 se facilitó a la mitad un mapa detallado con los nombres de las calles y puntos de referencia de la ciudad en la que habían llevado a cabo la misión (ampliado hasta el 80%) y a la otra mitad se les dio un mapa menos detallado solo con los nombres de las calles y puntos de referencia principales (ampliado hasta el 60%). Se pidió a los participantes que describieran verbalmente la misión y el camino seguido al tiempo que la proyectaban en el mapa. Resultados: En comparación con los participantes instruidos para mentir, los instruidos para contar la verdad daban más detalles sobre ubicación, acciones, tiempo y objetos y complicaciones en la fase 1 y detalles nuevos sobre personas, ubicaciones, acciones y objetos y complicaciones en la fase 2. La riqueza del mapa no influía en el volumen de información producida y tenía el mismo efecto, tanto en los instruidos para contar la verdad como una mentira. Conclusiones: Este primer experimento en esta área de investigación sugiere que los investigadores no deben preocuparse por el nivel exacto de detalle del mapa cuando introduzcan estos en las entrevistas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciências da Saúde , Psicologia Forense/instrumentação , Psicologia Forense/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e232807, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1356581

RESUMO

Embora a presença da psicologia no campo das políticas públicas sociais já esteja em processo de consolidação, a inserção do psicólogo na avaliação dessas políticas é ainda recente e a produção acadêmica sobre essa temática praticamente inexiste. Neste artigo, discutimos a atuação do psicólogo na avaliação de políticas sociais e serviços, tendo como base o trabalho desenvolvido por esse profissional no Ministério Público de São Paulo. Considera-se que as políticas sociais - e as instituições que as efetivam - são ambivalentes, posto que visam atender as necessidades básicas dos cidadãos, mas também atuam como mecanismos de controle e apaziguamento dos conflitos sociais. Dessa forma, nos processos avaliativos, o psicólogo deve ter como foco os processos de subjetivação engendrados pelas políticas sociais e pelas instituições que as consubstanciam - seja nas pessoas atendidas, nos próprios efetivadores da política (técnicos e demais funcionários), nas comunidades onde estão inseridas, nos grupos sociais que sentem seus efeitos e na sociedade como um todo -, evidenciando assim a dimensão subjetiva dos fenômenos sociais e concorrendo para a efetivação de políticas e serviços que amparem as reais necessidades dos atendidos e que contribuam com a transformação social e com a produção de subjetividades emancipadas.(AU)


Although the presence of psychology in the field of social public policies is already in the process of consolidation, the insertion of this professional in the evaluation of these policies is still recent and academic production on this topic is practically non-existent. In this article, we discuss the performance of psychologist in evaluating social policies and services, based on the work developed by this professional in the Public Prosecution Office of São Paulo. Social policies - and the institutions that enforce them - are considered as ambivalent, since they aim to meet the basic needs of citizens but can act as mechanisms for control and appeasement of social conflicts. Thus, in the evaluation processes, the psychologist must focus on the processes of subjectivation engendered by social policies and the institutions that embody them - be it in the people assisted, in the policy enforcers themselves (technicians and other employees), in the communities where they are inserted, in the social groups that feel their effects, and in society as a whole -, thus evidencing the subjective dimension of social phenomena and running for the implementation of policies and services that meet the real needs of those they serve and that contribute to social transformation and to the production of emancipated subjectivities.(AU)


Aunque la presencia de la psicología en el campo de las políticas públicas sociales ya está en proceso de consolidación, la inserción de los psicólogos en la evaluación de estas políticas es aún reciente, y la producción académica sobre este tema es prácticamente inexistente. En este artículo, discutimos el rol del psicólogo en la evaluación de políticas y servicios sociales, en base al trabajo desarrollado por este profesional en el Ministerio Público de São Paulo. Las políticas sociales, y las instituciones que las implementan, se consideran ambivalentes, ya que visan satisfacer las necesidades básicas de los ciudadanos, pero pueden actuar como mecanismos para controlar y apaciguar los conflictos sociales. Por lo tanto, en los procesos de evaluación, el psicólogo debe enfocarse en los procesos de subjetivación engendrados por las políticas sociales y las instituciones que las sustentan, ya sea en las personas atendidas, en los mismos formuladores de políticas (técnicos y otros empleados), en las comunidades donde operan, en los grupos sociales que sienten sus efectos y en la sociedad en su conjunto, destacando así la dimensión subjetiva de los fenómenos sociales y contribuyendo a la implementación de políticas y servicios que satisfagan las necesidades reales de aquellos atendidos y que contribuyan a la transformación y producción social y a la producción de subjetividades emancipadas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Política , Psicologia Social , Política Pública , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Ministério Público , Psicologia Forense , Fenômenos Psicológicos , Psicologia , Serviço Social , Trabalho , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Pessoas
6.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 39: e190178, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1375416

RESUMO

The psychological assessment of recidivism and dangerousness aims to provide subsidies to legal operators on the possibility of an individual to repeat criminal offenses. In the present study, a systematic review of Portuguese-language articles was carried out in the "SciELO", "Lilacs" and "Periódicos Capes" databases to identify available instruments to carry out this assessment in Brazilian populations and their predictive capacity. It was found that the Brazilian scientific production is too scarce, only nine empirical studies have been published on the subject and only one instrument with this objective is suitable for use in forensic practice. Six other instruments have been studied, but none are suitable for practical implementation. These results point to the need for scientific production on psychological assessment of recidivism and dangerousness to provide psychologists with the necessary instruments for their performance in Legal Psychology.


A avaliação psicológica de reincidência e periculosidade tem por objetivo fornecer subsídios aos operadores do Direito sobre a possibilidade de um indivíduo reincidir. No presente trabalho foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de artigos em português nas bases de dados "SciELO", "Lilacs" e "Periódicos Capes" para identificar instrumentos disponíveis para realizar esta avaliação em populações brasileiras e qual a sua capacidade preditiva. Descobriu-se que a produção científica brasileira é demasiado escassa, apenas nove trabalhos empíricos foram publicados no tema e somente um instrumento com este objetivo está apto para uso na prática profissional. Seis outros instrumentos foram estudados, mas nenhum está apto para utilização na prática. Estes resultados apontam a necessidade de produção científica sobre avaliação psicológica de reincidência e periculosidade para munir psicólogos com os instrumentos necessários para sua atuação nesta área da Psicologia Jurídica.


Assuntos
Psicologia Criminal , Reincidência , Psicologia Forense
7.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 14(spe): 1-20, dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1350790

RESUMO

Neste artigo, realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura para levantamento de estudos sobre instrumentos que auxiliam na identificação da Alienação Parental e na prática de profissionais que atuam em perícias psicológicas no sistema jurídico brasileiro. Portanto, foi feita uma busca, sem delimitação por ano, em sete bases de dados eletrônicas, na qual, após as etapas de exclusão, 14 artigos compuseram esta revisão. Os dados foram agrupados a partir da indexação nas seguintes categorias: ano de publicação, publicação por países, por autores e por periódicos, metodologia dos artigos, nome dos instrumentos, público-alvo e objetivos. Ademais, analisou-se a possibilidade de utilização dos instrumentos no contexto legal e o emprego de ferramentas adicionais em cada pesquisa. Dentre alguns resultados, foi constatado que ainda há poucos estudos a respeito da temática, a qual ainda é recente, e que mais pesquisas necessitam ser desenvolvidas, especialmente as de validação desses instrumentos para o contexto brasileiro.


In this article a systematic literature review was conducted to find studies that assist in the identification of Parental Alienation and in the practice of professionals who act in expertise psychological evaluation in the Brazilian legal system. A search was performed without delimitation per year in seven electronic databases, where, after the exclusion stages, 14 articles composed this review. Data were grouped from indexing in the following categories: year of publication, publication by countries, by authors and by periodicals, articles methodology, name of the instruments, target audience and goals. We analyzed the possibility of using the instruments in the legal context and the use of additional tools in each research. Studies about the subject are recent, and more research must be developed, especially those of validation of these instruments for the Brazilian context.


Assuntos
Alienação Social , Psicologia Social , Relações Familiares , Psicologia Forense
8.
Rev. crim ; 63(3): [215-228], 20211201.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369295

RESUMO

La violación sexual múltiple gesta en la víctima alteraciones que se traducen en secuelas de daño y sufrimiento a la psique y a las estructuras mentales. El objetivo del presente estudio versa en visibilizarlas e identificarlas para enriquecer el estudio de alteraciones psicológicas de la victimización y con ello contribuir con evidencias y nuevos hallazgos al escenario del trauma psicológico y el manejo e intervención en el pos escenario violento. El método que se plantea es una investigación cualitativa, de tipo exploratorio, descriptiva e interpretativa, en la cual se retoma la narrativa testimonial de tres mujeres víctimas directas. Los resultados arrojan alteraciones en términos de sobre estimulación, disminución, deprivación o confusión respecto a las huellas de dolor y sufrimiento, amenaza suspendida, proxémica rota, redisparadores del miedo y en el sistema de ataque de huida se aprecia que estas cinco alteraciones tienen como base común el miedo extremo. Se concluye que se deben incluir estos hallazgos en los tratamientos terapéuticos con el fin de mitigar las alteraciones de la victimización y a su vez contribuir con el neuroderecho al visibilizar estas consecuencias en su psiquis y en las estructuras mentales; con ello se busca darle mayor relevancia legal a la contundencia de los daños y la necesidad del acompañamiento terapéutico victimológico, que conceda el paso no solo a la recuperación y bienestar de las mujeres, sino también a restituir la integridad personal que les fue arrebatada.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Violência contra a Mulher , Psicologia Forense
9.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 2060-2066, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260063

RESUMO

The authors present an unusual criminal case of delusionally motivated, serial intrafamilial killings by a psychotic offender. Because the offender retained instrumental rationality and killed his victims by stealth, viz. surreptitious poisoning, the killing of his first victims went undetected. Persecutory delusions of being poisoned not uncommonly result in defensive violence, whereas in this case, religious delusions resulted in the mentally ill person killing others by poisoning them. Here, the psychotic offender killed his victims by means of poisoning based upon motivation driven by religious delusions. This case illustrates the importance of index of suspicion and appropriate investigation of mysterious deaths, and careful forensic psychiatric assessment to distinguish delusional versus extreme overvalued belief-motivated killings in addressing the insanity defense.


Assuntos
Família , Homicídio/psicologia , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia , Tálio/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1797-1804, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254683

RESUMO

This article adds to the growth in data-driven analyses seeking to compare samples of violent extremists with other violent populations of interest. While lone-actor terrorists and public mass murderers are frequently treated as distinct offender types, both engage (or attempt to engage) in largely public and highly publicized acts of violence and often use similar weapons. This article investigates the (dis)similarities between both offender types. We use a series of bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses to compare demographic, psychologic and behavioral variables across 71 lone-actor terrorists and 115 public mass murderers. The results show little distinction in sociodemographic profiles, but significant differences in (a) the degree to which they interact with co-ideologues (b) antecedent event behaviors and (c) the degree to which they leak information before the attack. Overall, our data inform the emerging idea that lone-actor terrorists and public mass shooters are not distinct offender types. There is more that unites them than divides them. Although the over-arching focus of our results are on the few variables that distinguish them, the vast majority (80%+), of the 180+ variables showed no significant difference. We discuss implications for threat assessment and management in the context of these results.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Terrorismo/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Psychol Assess ; 33(11): 1050-1064, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323548

RESUMO

We evaluated competing measurement models for the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), one of the most widely used assessment instruments of psychopathy, which applies to clinical, forensic, and community samples. With four all-male community and forensic samples collected in Germany and the United States (nTotal = 853), we evaluated several measurement models of the PCL:SV, including correlated factor models, higher-order models, and bifactor models, on numerous psychometric criteria including model fit, factor saturation, and predictive utility. Across the samples, we found that a bifactor model had better fit to the data and explained comparable or more variance in measures of fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and characteristics of antisocial personality disorder relative to the four correlated factors model. The best bifactor structure model differed between forensic and community samples. With both populations, in addition to a g factor which loaded on all items, a nested factor representing the lifestyle and antisocial facets was also modeled. With the forensic sample, an additional orthogonal nested factor representing the interpersonal facet was needed. We conclude that there is strong communality across the 12 PCL:SV items, which is best captured by a bifactor structure. However, the specific nesting structure differs due to whether or not the sample includes a forensic or community population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Lista de Checagem , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Psicologia Forense , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos
12.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(2): 124-137, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two studies examined 4-7-year-old maltreated children's "I don't know" (IDK) responses to wh- questions after receiving various interview instructions. HYPOTHESES: We predicted (H1) children would be less inclined to give IDK responses and more inclined to guess to color/number questions compared to other wh- questions; (H2) IDK instructions would increase children's IDK responding compared to no instructions, with an increase in accuracy; but (H3) instructions would be less effective in reducing guessing for color/number questions than other wh- questions. In Study 1, we predicted that (H4) verbalizing a commitment to answer IDK would be particularly effective. In Study 2, we predicted that (H5) IDK instructions would reduce children's accurate corrective responses, but that (H6) the negative effect of IDK instructions on corrective responses would be alleviated by a "correct the interviewer" instruction. METHOD: Across 2 studies, 301 four- to seven-year-old (M = 5.60, SD = 1.09) maltreated children viewed videos and answered wh- questions about true and false details. Both studies included a within-subjects manipulation of wh- types (color/number & wh- detail) and a between-subjects manipulation of instructions (Study 1: IDK practice, IDK practice/verbalize, control; Study 2: IDK, correct me, IDK + correct me, control). RESULTS: In both studies, (a) color/number questions elicited more guessing than wh- detail questions, (b) IDK instructions decreased inaccurate responses, but they also decreased accurate responses, including accurate corrective responses, and (c) IDK instructions had a larger effect on wh- detail questions, reducing accurate corrective responses. In Study 1, verbalization failed to enhance the effect of instructions. In Study 2, the negative effect of IDK instructions on accurate corrective responses was not alleviated by instructions to correct the interviewer. CONCLUSIONS: Among young maltreated children, color/number questions elicit higher rates of guessing than other wh- questions. IDK instructions reduced inaccurate responses, but also reduced accurate responses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Psicologia Forense , Entrevistas como Assunto , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Generalização da Resposta , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental
13.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(2): 138-151, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed recent policy recommendations to collect eyewitnesses' confidence statements in witnesses' own words as opposed to numerically. We conducted an experiment to test whether eyewitnesses' free-report verbal confidence statements are as diagnostic of eyewitness accuracy as their numeric confidence statements and whether the diagnostic utility of eyewitnesses' verbal and numeric confidence statements varies across witnessing conditions. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that eyewitnesses' verbal and numeric confidence statements are both significantly associated with identification accuracy among choosers and that their diagnostic utility holds across varying witnessing conditions. METHOD: In the first phase of the experiment, eyewitnesses (N = 4,795 MTurkers; 48.8% female; 50.8% male; .3% other; age M = 36.9) viewed a videotaped mock-crime and made an identification decision from a culprit-present or culprit-absent lineup. We manipulated witnessing conditions at encoding and retrieval to obtain varied levels of memory performance. In the second phase of the experiment, evaluators (N = 456 MTurkers; 35.5% female; 62.7% male .4% other; age M = 36.5) translated witnesses' verbal confidence statements to a numeric estimate and we used calibration and confidence-accuracy characteristic analyses to compare the diagnosticity of witnesses' verbal and numeric confidence statements across the two levels of memory performance. RESULTS: Witnesses' verbal and numeric confidence statements were significantly and nondifferentially diagnostic of eyewitness accuracy for both choosers and nonchoosers, and their diagnostic utility held across variations in witnessing conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the applied utility of collecting either verbal or numeric confidence statements from eyewitnesses immediately following an identification decision. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento de Identidade , Memória , Autoimagem , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto , Feminino , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1805-1817, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156091

RESUMO

Fifteen cases of Fetal Abduction by Maternal Evisceration (FAMAE) reported to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children during 1987-2011 outline the findings from a review of the forensic psychiatric considerations and legal course of each of the cases. Most offenders confessed to law enforcement within a short time of being placed under arrest in statements reflecting a continued effort to manage impressions and minimize culpability. Psychiatric assessment is invariably central to the legal disposition of FAMAE cases, as the defendant's goal is to diminish the perception of culpability/criminal responsibility and mitigate sentencing. Of those sentenced in the United States, nine defendants received life without parole, two received the death penalty (one executed), and one received a minimum of 30 years. Two abductors committed suicide and were not sentenced. Proffered diagnoses at trial included psychogenic amnesia, pseudocyesis, dissociative disorder, and delusional disorder; however, these rarely stood up to court scrutiny. Psychiatric experts showed the greatest variance in diagnosis over what to call the feigned pregnancy. In addition to delusional disorder and dissociative disorder, pseudocyesis, factitious disorder/pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, schizophrenia, and PTSD were among the various diagnoses proposed. A differential diagnosis for many FAMAE offenders may also include borderline personality disorder. Future research accounting for those women claiming false pregnancy who do not become homicidal will clarify whether FAMAE is the extreme endpoint of a fertility identity disorder.


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/psicologia , Feto , Gestantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Assess ; 33(7): 581-595, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014750

RESUMO

Many forensic assessment measures are developed and validated under research conditions but applied in the field, where professionals or paraprofessionals have varied training, unknown fidelity to administration procedures, and contextual pressures related to their institutions or legal system. Yet few studies examine the generalizability of psychometric properties of these scales as actually applied in field settings. This study examined 4,433 individuals assessed by probation officers on the Static-99R or STABLE-2007 sexual recidivism risk scales in British Columbia, Canada. Sexual, violent, and any recidivism were examined. Static-99R and STABLE-2007 had moderate accuracy in discriminating recidivists from non-recidivists, and both scales added incrementally in predicting all three outcomes (with Static-99R demonstrating higher accuracy). Organizing the items into constructs, sexual criminality, general criminality, and youthful stranger aggression incrementally predicted all three outcomes. For violent and any recidivism, the incremental effect of sexual criminality was in the negative direction (i.e., high sexual criminality was associated with relatively lower rates of violent and any recidivism). Calibration analyses indicated that recidivism rates were lower than what would be predicted by the norms for the scales. The current study also presented a meta-analysis of 15 field validity studies of Static-99R and 4 field validity studies of STABLE-2007. Results of the current study and meta-analysis support the field application of Static-99R and STABLE-2007, while emphasizing the importance of training and proper implementation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Testes Psicológicos , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Reincidência/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos
16.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 2041-2047, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955548

RESUMO

As part of a larger project on contextual factors of mass murder, this paper identifies and discusses four cases that quite clearly suggest, based on the content of perpetrators' personal communications and/or reports from those who knew them, that the perpetrators purposely planned and experienced their attacks as desired leisure experience. Leisure science, while consistent with the multidisciplinary roots of forensic behavioral science, has not yet been applied to better understand cases of mass violence. Together with traditional forensic behavioral science approaches, leisure theory may produce insights in cases of mass violence that are uncoerced, largely intrinsically motivated, and committed for personal enjoyment.


Assuntos
Homicídio/psicologia , Motivação , Adolescente , Feminino , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(4): 1201-1209, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032278

RESUMO

Over 50,000 defendants are referred for competency to stand trial evaluations each year in the United States (Psychological evaluations for the courts: A handbook for mental health professionals and lawyers, New York, NY: The Guildford Press; 2018). Approximately 20% of those individuals are found by courts to be incompetent and are referred for "restoration" or remediation (Psychological evaluations for the courts: A handbook for mental health professionals and lawyers, 4th edn. New York, NY: The Guildford Press; 2018; Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1991;19:63-9). The majority of those incompetent defendants meet criteria for psychotic illnesses (J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2007;35:34-43). Forensic mental health professionals frequently have such patients/defendants decline recommended treatment with psychotropic medication. For a significant minority of defendants diagnosed with psychotic disorders, treatment with medication is thought to be necessary to restore their competency to stand trial. Without psychiatric intervention to restore competency, defendants may be held for lengthy and costly hospitalizations while criminal proceedings are suspended. In these situations, clinicians are guided by the Supreme Court decision, Sell v. United States (2003). The Sell opinion describes several clinical issues courts must consider when determining whether a defendant can be treated involuntarily solely for the purpose of restoring his/her competency. This paper offers some guidance to clinicians and evaluators who are faced with making recommendations or decisions about involuntary treatment. Using a question and answer format, the authors discuss data that support a decision to request, or not request, court authorization for involuntary treatment. Specifically, eight questions are posed for forensic evaluators to consider in determining the prognosis or viability of successful treatment and restoration. Finally, a clinical vignette is also presented to highlight important factors to consider in Sell-related evaluations.


Assuntos
Tratamento Involuntário/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia , Estados Unidos
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1829-1840, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895999

RESUMO

Juveniles referred for adjudicative competence evaluations make up a subset of youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Among those referred for adjudicative competence evaluations, a significant number involve youth with current or past charges for sexual offenses. This study examines the profiles of youth with sexual offense charges who have been referred for competence evaluations at a state psychiatric hospital for children and adolescents. Differences between the characteristics of youth with and without sexual offenses were explored, and predictors of competence opinions were examined among the subset of youth with current or prior sexual charges (juveniles with sexual offenses, or JSOs). Findings indicated that youth with sexual offenses have several demographic, cognitive, clinical, and legal differences from youth without sexual offenses. Although youth with sexual offenses were less likely to be opined competent, presence of a sexual offense was not a predictor of competence opinions after controlling for other factors. Predictors of competence among JSOs were found to be similar to those among youth referred for competence evaluations in general. Primary diagnosis of an autism-related disorder was a unique predictor of being opined not competent among the JSO subgroup, but not the overall sample. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed.


Assuntos
Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(1, Supl): 154-179, jan-abr.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337877

RESUMO

O Depoimento Especial de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual vem sendo realizado por psicólogos judiciários. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir um modelo de avaliação psicológica prévia ao depoimento, voltada à ocorrência de danos psíquicos ou revitimização a ele associados. Para tanto, apresenta-se síntese reflexiva da experiência profissional dos autores em processos criminais envolvendo violência contra crianças e adolescentes, debatida à luz da literatura especializada nas áreas da Avaliação Psicológica e Psicologia Forense. Na dimensão intrapsíquica do dano, sugere-se a avaliação de fantasias, ansiedades e mecanismos de defesa da criança associados ao depor. Na dimensão intersubjetiva, aprecia-se seu nível de desenvolvimento cognitivo, raciocínio moral e vinculação ao entrevistador. Observou-se a aplicabilidade das técnicas projetivas temáticas ­ CAT-A, TAT e Procedimento de Desenhos-Estórias ­ para avaliar tais constructos, utilizando-se vinhetas clínico-forenses para ilustrar o raciocínio avaliativo. Conclui-se qu


The Special Inquiry of child and adolescent sexually assaulted has been discharged by forensic psychologists. This article aims to discuss a model of psychological assessment prior to the inquiry, targeted to the occurrence of psychological damage or revictimization associated with it. For this, a reflexive synthesis of the authors' professional experience in criminal proceedings involving violence against children is presented, discussed within the specialized literature in Psychological Assessment and Forensic Psychology In the damage's intrapsychic dimension, it is suggested to assess child's fantasies, anxieties and defense mechanisms regarding testifying. In the intersubjective dimension, their level of cognitive development, moral reasoning and attachment to the interviewer is evaluated. The applicability of thematic projective techniques ­ CAT-A, TAT and Drawing-Stories Procedure - was observed to approach such constructs, using clinical-forensic vignettes to illustrate the evaluative reasoning. It is concluded that protecting the child from the criminal suit is protecting the criminal suit itself.


El Testimonio Especial de niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia sexual ha sido realizado por psicólogos judiciales. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir un modelo de evaluación psicológica previa a la inquisición, dirigido a la ocurrencia de daños psicológicos o revictimización correlativos. Para eso, se presenta una síntesis reflexiva de la experiencia profesional de los autores en procesos penales de violencia infanto-juvenil, debatida con la literatura especializada en las áreas de Evaluación Psicológica y Psicología Forense. En la dimensión intrapsíquica del daño, evaluanse fantasías, ansiedades y mecanismos de defensa del niño. En la dimensión intersubjetiva, apreciase su nivel de desarrollo cognitivo, razonamiento moral y vinculación al entrevistador. Se observó la aplicabilidad de las técnicas proyectivas temáticas ­ CAT-A, TAT y Procedimiento de Dibujo-Cuentos ­ en la evaluación, usándose viñetas clínico-forenses para ilustrar el razonamiento evaluativo. Se concluye que proteger al niño del proceso penal es proteger el proprio proceso penal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Testes de Personalidade , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Psicologia Forense
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(4): 1364-1376, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748975

RESUMO

Concerning approaches and communications to the Royal Family and other British public figures are relatively numerous. This paper examines over 2000 such cases logged over a three-year period in the United Kingdom. Using police and health data, the paper conducts a series of bivariate and multivariate analyses to demonstrate the predictors of what types of risk are posed by an individual case (e.g., communicate only, approach, security breach). The results showed that (a) the rates of serious mental disorders are higher among this sample than the general population base rate, (b) approachers were significantly more likely than communicators to suffer from serious mental disorders, (c) approachers were significantly more likely than communicators to have a history of substance use and abuse problems, (d) approachers were significantly more likely than communicators to have a history of violent behavior against property and persons, and (e) the motivations of approachers and communicators significantly differ. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications for threat assessment and management.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Risco , Segurança , Comunicação , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Perseguição/psicologia , Reino Unido , Violência
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