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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4366, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868764

RESUMO

Armed forces often rely on strict hierarchical organization, where people are required to follow orders. In two cross-sectional studies, we investigate whether or not working in a military context influences the sense of agency and outcome processing, and how different durations (junior cadets vs senior cadets) and types (cadets vs privates) of military experience may modulate these effects. Participants could administer painful electrical shocks to a 'victim' in exchange for money, either by their own free choice, or following orders of the experimenter. Results indicate that working in a strictly hierarchical structure may have a generalized negative impact on one's own sense of agency and outcome processing by reducing it, even when participants could freely decide their action. However, trained officers showed an enhanced sense of agency and outcome processing. This study offers insights on the potential for training the sense of agency and outcome processing.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia Militar , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMO

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia/história , Ergonomia , Psicologia Comparada , Psicologia Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervoso
3.
Sanid. mil ; 75(4): 193-202, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189638

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Análisis sobre la importancia de realizar una óptima selección de los aspirantes a Ofciales y Subofciales de las Fuerzas Armadas. OBJETIVOS: Revisar la frecuencia de las evaluaciones psicológicas realizadas a los aspirantes a ofciales y subofciales de las Fuerzas Armadas y las variables implicadas, así como describir el contexto normativo en el que se enmarca y las difcultades que se plantean. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, transversal y retrospectivo de los aspirantes a ofciales y subofciales en julio y agosto de 2016, considerados "no aptos provisionales" en el Inventario de Personalidad de las Fuerzas Armadas (IPFAS). Estos aspirantes fueron evaluados por psicólogos en la Unidad de Reconocimientos del HCD Gómez Ulla para determinar si se encontraban dentro de los criterios de exclusión médica de la normativa vigente. RESULTADOS: Se identifcaron 114 aspirantes (7.39%) que obtuvieron puntuaciones que indicaban desajustes en la personalidad, de un total de 1542 que realizaron su reconocimiento médico. La valoración para éstos consistió en entrevista clínica, Cuestionario de Salud e Inventario Clínico Multiaxial de Millon (MCMI-III). Resultaron "no aptos" 32 aspirantes (2,07% del total). CONCLUSIONES: Sería benefcioso aprovechar las medidas de personalidad aportadas por el IPFAS para seleccionar a los futuros mandos en base a la posesión de atributos relacionados con el éxito profesional independientemente de la valoración médica que explora patología mental, así como encontrar una solución para poder decidir sobre la aptitud de los aspirantes que distorsionan e invalidan las pruebas como resultado de una deseabilidad social anormalmente elevada


INTRODUCTION: Analysis on the importance of performing optimum selective process of candidates Armed Forces offcers and NCO's. Objetive: To assess the frequency of the psychological evaluations performed to candidates offcers and NCO's and the variables involved, as well as to describe the normative context and the diffculties that may arise. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Observational, transversal and retrospective study of candidates offcers and NCO's declared as "provisionally not suitable" according to the Armed Forces Personality Inventory (IPFAS) carried out during July and August 2016. These people were assessed at the Reconnaissance Unit located in HCD Gomez Ulla in order to determine if they met the medical exclusion criteria according to existing legislation. RESULTS: 114 candidates out of a total of 1542 (7.39%) were identifed whose scores indicated personality misadjustments. For these individuals, the assessments consisted of clinical interview and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. 32 candidates were found "not suitable" (2.07% of the total). Conclussions: It would be convenient to take beneft from personality measurements provided by IPFAS in order to select future commanders based on possession of personal qualities or attributes related to professional success, regardless of the medical assessment exploring mental pathology, as well as coming up with a solution allowing to take a decision on the suitability of the candidates that distort and invalidate the tests as a consequence of a social desirability abnormally elevated


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia Militar , Militares/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Sanid. mil ; 75(3): 129-130, jul.-sept. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187447

RESUMO

No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Militar , Militares/psicologia , Psicologia Militar
5.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 141-148, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183644

RESUMO

En el marco de la Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia para la Seguridad (International Security Assistance Force, ISAF) de la OTAN, España mantuvo desplegado desde 2005 a 2014 en Herat (Afganistán) un Hospital Militar de Campaña (Role 2 Enhanced, en termi-nología OTAN) dotado, entre otras especialidades, de un Servicio de Psicología. Durante casi diez años de misión, los psicólogos mi-litares allí comisionados han ejercido diversas funciones, incluyendo la clínica-asistencial, asesora, preventiva y pericial, cuyo objetivo ha sido mejorar el bienestar y la salud psicológica de nuestro personal desplegado en zona de operaciones. En el presente trabajo se expone, a modo de lecciones aprendidas, una serie de reflexiones y propuestas al objeto de contribuir al mejor funcionamiento del Servicio de Psicología Militar en operaciones internacionales en el exterior y, por ende, a la mejora de la adaptación a las mismas de los contingentes que participan en ellas


Within the framework of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), a NATO-led mission, Spain deployed from 2005 to 2014 in Herat, Afghanistan, a (Role 2 Enhanced) military field hospital endowed with, among other health specialties, a psychology service. During almost ten years of mission, military psychologists commissioned there performed various functions and tasks, including clinical-assistance, support to commanders, preventive and expert duties, whose goal was to improve the well-being and psychological health of our personnel deployed in the area of operations. Lessons learned from this experience are presented in this paper. In this respect, several reflections and proposals are presented, the objective of which is to contribute to a better functioning of the military psychology service in international operations abroad and, therefore, to the improvement of the adaptation of our contingents engaged in these operations


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Saúde da Família , Adaptação Psicológica , Psicologia Militar/instrumentação , Afeganistão , Hospitais Militares , Promoção da Saúde
6.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 49(6): 1707-1720, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study describes characteristics of United States Air Force (USAF) suicide decedents and determines subgroups. METHOD: Retrospective review of demographic, psychiatric, event-related, and psychosocial variables for USAF suicide decedents in the Suicide Event Surveillance System database was conducted between February 1999 and July 2009 (N = 376). Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to determine initial clusters and cluster centroids. RESULTS: Analyses identified three clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 149) individuals were mostly single or divorced, E-1-E-6 rank, living alone, and less likely to have psychiatric disorder diagnoses or engage with most helping resources. Cluster 2 (n = 126) decedents were mostly married, living with a partner, higher ranking, and least likely to communicate suicide intent. Cluster 3 (n = 101) individuals were mostly E-4-E-6 rank, with the highest rates of most psychiatric diagnoses, previous suicide-related events, engagement with multiple helping resources, communication of intent, and psychosocial precipitants. Clusters differed significantly in marital status, rank, psychiatric diagnoses, precipitants, service utilization, previous suicide-related events, risk factors, communication of intent, location and method of death, and residential status. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies empirically based suicide typologies within a military decedent sample. While further research and replications of findings are needed, these typologies have clinical and policy implications for military suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Militares , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio Consumado , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio Consumado/prevenção & controle , Suicídio Consumado/psicologia , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 80-86, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886008

RESUMO

This paper considers the manifestation and treatment of psychological trauma in the military. The article describes how military psychologists conceptualise psychological trauma within the culture of the Armed Forces (AF), which is reflected in the process of acquiring what has been referred to as cultural competency. Psychologists in this context acquire an understanding of the manner in which the psychological and organisational systems and culture of the military affect the presentation of psychological trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The paper outlines core psychological features of military life, including some of the ways in which the AF functions effectively as an adaptable fighting force. This highlights, for example, the potential for stigma within and between military personnel who experience mental health difficulties. The article proceeds to examine aspects of help-seeking in military mental healthcare, how symptoms can present at different stages in a deployment process, and the consequences that such problems can cause for military conduct and performance. Psychological care in the military is structured within an occupational mental health ethos, in which psychologists fulfil a range of clinical, organisational and leadership roles. These dynamics are explored with examples of care pathways and clarity on evidence-based interventions for trauma and PTSD in those experiencing military-related psychological injuries. Two vignettes are then offered to illustrate how some of these interventions can be used psychotherapeutically in addressing symptoms pertaining to hyperarousal, hypervigilance, guilt and shame.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Medicina Militar , Psiquiatria Militar , Psicologia Militar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Medicina Militar/normas , Militares , Psiquiatria Militar/organização & administração , Psiquiatria Militar/normas , Psicologia , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Psicologia Militar/normas
8.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 109-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711923

RESUMO

The Department of Communication and Applied Behavioural Science is one of the three departments in the academic faculty at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. The aim of the Department is to equip officer cadets with the skills, knowledge and personal qualities in order for them to develop their own potential, as both individuals and leaders in the British Army. The members of the Department have a range of backgrounds, with most having served in various capacities across UK Defence, both in uniformed and/or civilian crown servant contexts. Several members of the faculty are qualified psychologists, while others have related academic and professional backgrounds. The academic and applied discipline of psychology is the fundamental thread that runs through the various courses and projects delivered by the Department. This paper provides a brief overview of the activities undertaken by the Department, with a specific focus on the psychology components of the academic and applied activities. Although mainly serving in academic teaching roles, this paper illustrates the work of the psychologists outside the classroom, such as via field exercises and deployments overseas. It also touches on the importance of the outreach undertaken by the psychologists in the Department, which supports their ongoing research.


Assuntos
Militares , Psicologia Militar , Humanos , Psicologia , Psicologia Militar/educação , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Reino Unido
10.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 94-97, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679182

RESUMO

Military personnel can experience psychosexual difficulties for a variety of reasons. Problems can arise because of psychological trauma, physical injury, consequences arising from pharmacological and surgical complications and social or emotional concerns relating to intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship dynamics. Such individuals might seek to minimise or avoid resolving their pertinent difficulties, while others can experience cultural, personal or organisational barriers to accessing professional help. This paper offers an overview of the development of a national specialist psychosexual therapy service (PST), commenting specifically on the service delivery for male military personnel. It will also consider factors which may support progress in treatment and reflect upon the importance of considering psychosexual functioning in relationships as part of the broader service-life context, which is especially relevant to military personnel.


Assuntos
Medicina Militar , Psicologia Militar , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/terapia , Genitália Masculina/lesões , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Militares , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Reino Unido
11.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 124-127, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446506

RESUMO

Psychologists first became prominent within the Armed Forces largely as a result of their contributions to military systems, operations and personnel during the First and Second World Wars. In the early years of the 20th century, as psychology was becoming a profession in its own right, its association with the military arose within the emerging concept of 'shell shock' during World War I and supporting selection activities in World War II. There are approximately 25 occupational psychologists currently employed within the Ministry of Defence (MoD), operating across all branches of the MoD, within the department of the Chief of Defence Personnel, the UK Defence Academy and a small number at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The aim of this paper is to discuss the history and current application of occupational psychology within the UK MoD.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Psicologia Militar , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Militares , Reino Unido
13.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 116-119, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504454

RESUMO

This article will focus on a study by the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) which investigated the risk propensity and health behaviours of UK army personnel deployed to Iraq in 2007 as part of Op TELIC. The study addressed the concept of impulsive sensation seeking and how this interacted with health behaviours associated with alcohol, smoking, driving and sex at predeployment, during deployment and postdeployment, as well as perceptions of risk and psychological well-being. There is also a description of other deployment-related risk and health research and analysis undertaken by Dstl as part of a wider discussion on the nature of both risk and health on deployed operations.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Militares/psicologia , Psicologia Militar , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Risco , Reino Unido
14.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(2): 90-96, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a military resilience intervention which aimed to help UK military recruits to manage their personal health and well-being more effectively. METHODS: Trainers within six pre-existing training teams were randomly allocated by team to deliver a resilience-based intervention (SPEAR) or usual training (control) during recruit training. 23 trainers delivered SPEAR; 18 delivered the control training. 707 recruits participated (n=358 SPEAR and n=349 controls). Outcome measures were obtained before and after recruit training and 3 months later. Measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms, alcohol use, homesickness and mental health stigmatisation were obtained at baseline. Repeat baseline scales plus measures of help-seeking, cohesion, leadership and training impact were obtained at the two follow-up points. RESULTS: Response rates were 91.7% (baseline), 98.1% (post) and 73.6% (follow-up). Following adjustment for potential confounders, levels of PTSD, CMD symptoms, alcohol misuse, help-seeking and homesickness were not significantly different between groups at any measurement point. Stigmatisation was significantly lower among SPEAR recipients at baseline but was not significantly different at the two follow-up points. Following adjustment for mental health confounders, there were no significant between-group differences in perceptions of leadership and cohesion and in ratings of six training outcomes at the two follow-up points. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that resilience-based training had any specific benefit to the health and well-being of UK military recruits.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Militares/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Psicologia Militar , Reino Unido
15.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 49(5): 1318-1331, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the general suicide rate within the military being comparable to the general population when comparing peers, there are certain branches of the military that have elevated risk. Specifically, the U.S. National Guard has suicide rates that are constantly higher than other military branches and civilian peers. The National Guard are a unique military population in which they frequently transition between military and civilian life. With these unique experiences and heightened risk, military suicide prevention efforts may benefit from further research within this population. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is another concern amongst military personnel and has been linked to suicidal behavior. METHODS: The current study examined the indirect effects that distress tolerance, a protective factor against suicide, has on the relationship between PTSD and constructs within a well-validated theory for suicide (the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory for suicidal behaviors) in a sample of U.S. Army National Guard personnel. RESULTS: Results indicated that distress tolerance had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD and thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with previous literature examining the relationship between distress tolerance and our outcome variables. These results could have important clinical implications, mainly that intervention strategies targeting distress tolerance could have significant impacts on suicide-relate thoughts.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Suicídio , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia Militar , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
17.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 106-108, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580281

RESUMO

This paper will explain the concept behind mental resilience training (MRT) and how the training package was developed and implemented within the British ArmyInfantry Training Centre (ITC) Catterick between 2014 and 2016. MRT is a mindfulness-based psychological skills training package that integrates cognitive behavioural and mindfulness based principles and techniques, which have been proven to improve stress regulation, emotional and cognitive control and self-confidence in military personnel. MRT is based on an extensive evidence base that has demonstrated that psychological skills training delivers tangible improvements in performance in elite sport and in healthcare, business and military contexts. The initial trials at the ITC Catterick have delivered tangible improvements in infantry recruits' use of psychological skills within real-life training contexts.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Militares , Psicologia Militar , Humanos , Medicina Militar , Atenção Plena , Reino Unido
18.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 102-105, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573699

RESUMO

Mindfulness approaches to promoting resilience and mental fitness within the UK Armed Forces have very recently emerged against a backdrop of studies from abroad, leading to a plethora of initiatives. These studies have used biological and cognitive markers of sustained attention and the human stress response, before and after training, in the period prior to deployment and made assertions of effectiveness on this basis. Progress has similarly been made in applying versions of mindfulness meditation to veteran patient groups with several difficult-to-treat conditions, to combat high dropout from services when little patient choice is offered. In short, a case has been made for offering mindfulness interventions as a further treatment option in combination with other approaches to maximise engagement with mental health services. Meanwhile, within the mindfulness literature more and more focus has been placed on ways to improve treatment fidelity and enhance teacher competency, and investment in teacher training is seen as essential for successful outcomes in any controlled trial.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Medicina Militar , Militares , Atenção Plena , Psicologia Militar , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Reino Unido
19.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 128-132, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) policy and strategy recommend the use of a 'Defence MODified' version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool to help managers identify risks of work-related stress among Defence personnel. The Defence MODified Tool ('Stress Indicator Survey') asks personnel to rate their perceptions of eight working conditions known to be significantly associated with work-related stress. MOD psychologists are developing a Defence norm group against which future survey scores can be compared. This article describes the use of the Stress Indicator Survey in MOD and gives an overview of findings from 2016 to 2018. METHOD: MOD psychologists conducted 27 Stress Indicator Surveys in 2016-2018. Data were collated from 6227 personnel for the Defence norm group and comparisons were conducted between Service personnel and MOD civil servants, and between Services (Royal Navy/Royal Marines (RN/RM), Army and Royal Air Force (RAF)). RESULTS: Service personnel had significantly more favourable perceptions than MOD civil servants of most working conditions. The RN/RM had significantly more favourable perceptions than either the Army or the RAF of all working conditions. These findings indicate differential risks of work-related stress in different groups of personnel. DISCUSSION: Possible explanations for the observed differences in risk of work-related stress are discussed, including the nature of military life and planned changes to Defence civilian headcount. Examples of managerial actions to improve working conditions based on individual survey findings are given.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional , Psicologia Militar , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Reino Unido
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