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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705397, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368068

RESUMO

Background: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with outcome in psychotic disorders and influenced by contextual factors such as immigration. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of mental health literacy (MHL) on duration of untreated psychosis considering the influence of migration and education. Methods: A total of 269 participants who received their first adequate medical treatment for a psychotic disorder within the current or past year were included to the Thematically Organized Psychosis study in Oslo, Norway. Sociodemographic and clinical information was collected through systematic interviews. MHL was measured as "recognition of psychotic symptoms" and assessed by "The Attitudes and Beliefs about Mental Health Problems" schizophrenia version. Influence of education, migration and MHL on DUP was analyzed with hierarchical block-wise multiple regression analysis. Results: Recognition of psychotic symptoms explained a small but unique variance (2.3%) in DUP after the effects of other important predictors were controlled for. Longer DUP was also associated with less education, lower premorbid social, and academic functioning, a diagnosis within schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and earlier age of onset. The model explained 26% of variance in DUP. Migration after the age of six and length of education were associated with MHL but did not have a significant interaction with MHL in predicting DUP. Conclusions: MHL, measured as recognition of psychotic symptoms, has a small but significant independent effect on DUP. The effect of MHL was larger than years of education and migration history, and did not interact with either, in predicting DUP. This suggests that MHL is an independent factor in prevention strategies for early psychosis.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16524, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400716

RESUMO

The aims of the current study were to identify factors associated with sleep disturbance and Coronavirus disease-19 related psychological distress (CPD), and to develop a conceptual model to verify the mediating effect of CPD on the association between social impact and sleep disturbance. This study recruited patients with schizophrenia. Factors associated with the level of sleep disturbance and CPD were identified using univariate linear regression, and further selected into a stepwise multivariate linear regression model. Using structural equation modeling, a mediation model was developed to test the mediating effect of CPD on the association between social impact and sleep disturbance. After estimating with the stepwise and bootstrap regression, higher levels of CPD were associated with higher levels of social anxiety and subjects without a regular diet. Sleep disturbance was associated with a higher level of social anxiety, a history of psychological trauma, chronic disease, and those who did not smoke. The final model confirmed the mediating effects of CPD; whereas, the direct effect from social impact to sleep disturbance did not reach statistical significance. The current study manifests the crucial role of CPD on the association between social impact and sleep disturbance, and timely intervention for CPD is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Mudança Social , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(9): 784-796, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delusions in schizophrenia are commonly approached as empirical false beliefs about everyday reality. Phenomenological accounts, by contrast, have suggested that delusions are more adequately understood as pertaining to a different kind of reality experience. How this alteration of reality experience should be characterised, which dimensions of experiential life are involved, and whether delusional reality might differ from standard reality in various ways is unclear and little is known about how patients with delusions value and relate to these experiential alterations. This study aimed to investigate the nature of delusional reality experience, and its subjective apprehension, in individuals with lived experience of delusions and a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. METHODS: In this qualitative phenomenological study, we recruited individuals with lived experience of delusions and a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis from two psychiatric-hospital services in Belgium using homogenous sampling. Criteria for participation were having undergone at least one psychotic episode with occurring delusional symptoms, present at least 1 year before participation, on the basis of clinical notes assessed by the attending psychiatrist; a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis, ascertained through clinical interview by the attending psychiatrist upon admission; being aged between 18 years and 65 years; and having the capacity to give informed consent. Exclusion criteria included worries concerning capacity to consent and risk of distress caused by participation. We did phenomenologically driven semi-structured interviews with the participants to explore the nature of delusional reality experience and their subjective valuation of these experiences. We used interpretative phenomenological analysis, a qualitative method tailored to the in-depth exploration of participants' first-person perspective, to analyse their accounts. FINDINGS: Between March 2, 2020, and Sept 30, 2020, 18 adults (13 men and five women, aged 19-62 years) participated in the interview study. The findings suggest that delusions are often embedded in wide-ranging alterations of basic reality experience, involving quasi-ineffable atmospheric and ontological qualities that undermine participants' sense of the world as unambiguously real, fully present, and shared with others. We also found that delusional reality experience can differ from standard reality in various ways (ie, in a hypo-real and hyper-real form), across multiple dimensions (eg, meaningfulness, necessity and contingency, and detachment and engagement), and that participants are often implicitly or explicitly aware of the distinction between delusional and standard reality. Delusional experience can have an enduring value and meaning that is not fully captured by a strictly medical perspective. INTERPRETATION: Increased awareness and recognition of the distinctive nature of delusional reality experience, in both clinical and research settings, can improve diagnostic accuracy, explanatory models, and therapeutic support for individuals with delusions whose lived realities are not always evident from an everyday perspective. FUNDING: FWO Flanders. TRANSLATION: For the Dutch translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Delusões/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Bélgica , Delusões/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 348, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severity of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia is a determinant of patient's well-being, but evidence in low- and middle-income countries is limited. We aimed to measure the symptom severity using objective measurements, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S), and their associations with well-being in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia aged ≥18 years, without active psychosis including no history of hospitalization within the last 6 months, were included. Symptom severity was measured by the clinicians using BPRS and CGI-S. The patients' well-being was assessed by self-report using the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic treatment scale (SWN) as continuous and binary outcomes (categorized into adequate or poor well-being). Correlations between symptom severity (BPRS and CGI-S scores) and well-being (SWN score) were analyzed using Pearson's correlation. Association between well-being status and BPRS was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 150 patients, BPRS and CGI-S were inversely correlated with SWN score (r = - 0.47; p < 0.001 and - 0.21; p < 0.01, respectively). BPRS Affect domain had the highest correlation with SWN (r = - 0.51, p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, BPRS score and being unemployed were associated with poor well-being status (adjusted OR 1.08; 95%CI 1.02-1.14; p = 0.006, and 4.01; 95%CI 1.38-11.7; p = 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSION: Inverse relationships between symptom severity and well-being score were found. Higher BPRS Affect domain was significantly associated with lower patients' well-being. The use of BPRS tool into routine clinical practice could serve as an adjunct to physician's clinical evaluation of patients' symptoms and may help improve patient's well-being. Further research on negative symptoms associated with well-being is required.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Tailândia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300155

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is associated with marked functional impairment and low levels of subjective happiness. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between subjective happiness and functioning in patients with schizophrenia, while considering the role of cognitive functioning. METHODS: In total, 69 schizophrenia patients and 87 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Patients' clinical status was assessed, and a series of self-report questionnaires were administered to both patients and healthy controls to measure subjective happiness, satisfaction with life, well-being, functioning, and cognitive impairment. A multiple linear regression model identified significant predictors of subjective happiness and related constructs. RESULTS: Schizophrenia participants endorsed lower levels of happiness and well-being, and higher perceived stress compared to healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, there was an inverse and significant correlation (r = -0.435; p = 0.013) between subjective happiness and functioning in a subgroup of patients without cognitive impairment. This correlation was not significant (r = -0.175; p = 0.300) in the subgroup with cognitive impairment. When controlling for other clinical variables (by multiple lineal regression), the severity of symptoms and level of insight failed to demonstrate significant relationships with happiness; meanwhile, perceived stress and some specific cognitive dominions (as verbal learning and processing speed) were associated with satisfaction of life of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between subjective happiness and functioning in schizophrenia patients was influenced by level of cognitive impairment. Findings from this study suggest that rehabilitation programs may improve recovery outcomes with a focus on subjective happiness and functioning, especially in patients with cognitive impairment. Future research is needed to better understand the complex interplay between subjective happiness, functioning, and cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Felicidade , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281109

RESUMO

Adults with schizophrenia usually have impairments in theory of mind (ToM), which subsequently cause them problems in social interaction. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to assess their ToM using adequate measures. This systematic review evaluated current ToM measures (or ToM tasks) for adults with schizophrenia and summarized their specific characteristics, including the concept and construct, administration, and psychometric properties. From a review of 117 articles, 13 types of ToM tasks were identified, and the findings from these articles were qualitatively synthesized. The results showed that ToM tasks are diverse in their presentation modalities, answer modes, strategies of controlling cognitive confounders, and scoring. Most tasks employ cognitive and affective dimensions and target a specific, single ToM concept. The present systematic review found that psychometric evidence supporting the ToM tasks, such as internal consistency, test-retest reliability, unidimensionality, and convergent, criterion, and ecological validities, is insufficient. Based on the results, we propose several principles for selecting appropriate ToM tasks in practice, e.g., selecting a task with multiple ToM concepts, or an exclusive ToM construct containing the cognitive and affective dimensions. Moreover, future studies are needed to provide more psychometric evidence on each type of ToM task applied in people with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Teoria da Mente , Adulto , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065556

RESUMO

The prevalence of schizophrenia is gradually increasing worldwide. Many patients with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to empathize and to detect their own emotions or those of others, deteriorating their social functioning and their quality of life. Nonetheless, emotional management training may improve patients' emotion recognition, emotional expression, and negative symptoms. Developing and applying a short but effective program that reflects the current medical environment, in which hospital stays are ever-diminishing, is warranted. This one-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to examine the effects of a short emotional management program (EMP-S) on 17 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Participants were patients hospitalized in the National Center for Mental Health in Korea. After the completion of a twice-a-week, eight-session, four-week long EMP-S, participants showed improvements in emotion recognition, emotional expression, and negative symptoms. Our results suggest the applicability and potential effectiveness of the EMP-S, which takes the length of psychiatric hospital stay and the inpatient environment into consideration. To minimize any barriers to social functioning in the post-discharge lives of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and enhance their social cognition-by improving their emotion recognition, emotional expression, and negative symptoms-we suggest the periodical administration of this EMP-S to these inpatients.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Esquizofrenia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Emoções , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 109: 152254, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autobiographical memory is an important component of declarative memory, which refers to the ability to recall personal events that happened in the past. This requires that the person senses or experiences himself/herself in the past (i.e., conscious recollection). For people with schizophrenia, conscious recollection can be particularly difficult, resulting in difficulty accessing detailed, specific autobiographical information. Our hypothesis is that the ability to monitor and think about one's cognitive processes (metacognition) is a requisite for conscious recollection, and that it mediates the association between having schizophrenia and recalling fewer specific, personal memories. METHODS: Participants were 30 adults with schizophrenia and 30 matched healthy controls. The main assessment instruments were the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A) and the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Cognitive performance was measured with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP). Mediation analysis was conducted following Baron and Kenny's procedure. RESULTS: People with schizophrenia had more semantic associations and fewer specific memories than controls in the AMT. Metacognition (MAS-A total score) partially mediated the association between having schizophrenia and recalling fewer specific past events, even after controlling for cognitive impairment as a potential confounding source. CONCLUSIONS: Metacognitive ability, which can be improved with available programs, intervenes in the process of accessing autobiographical memories in people with schizophrenia. Practical implications of this finding are discussed.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Metacognição , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
15.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(4): 413-422, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180705

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZ) have overlapping symptomatology related to difficulties with social cognition. Yet, few studies have directly compared social cognition in ASD, SCZ, and typical development (TD). The current study examined individual differences in face recognition and its relation to affective theory of mind (ToM) in each diagnostic group. Adults with ASD (n = 31), SCZ (n = 43), and TD (n = 47) between the ages of 18 and 48 years-old with full scale IQ above 80 participated in this study. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) measured affective ToM, and the Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) measured face perception. Adults with ASD and SCZ did not differ in their affective ToM abilities, and both groups showed affective ToM difficulties compared with TD. However, better face recognition ability uniquely predicted better affective ToM ability in ASD. Results suggest that affective ToM difficulties may relate to face processing in ASD but not SCZ. By clarifying the complex nature of individual differences in affective ToM and face recognition difficulties in these disorders, the present study suggests there may be divergent mechanisms underlying pathways to social dysfunction in ASD compared with SCZ. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria da Mente , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(3): 232-238, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939379

RESUMO

A patient's complaint of "hearing voices" or "seeing things" or of similar perceptual abnormalities leaves the clinician with 2 decisions: (1) Is the patient actually experiencing a hallucination, or does the complaint reflect a different mental experience, ranging from outright fabrication to the misinterpretation or mislabeling of vivid thoughts and emotions? (2) How should the experience reported by the patient, whether determined to be a hallucination or not, be understood in the context of the patient's entire history and mental state? We report the case of a 16-year-old whose cartoon-like hallucinations had led to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and had directed attention of the patient, her parents, and her clinicians away from critical issues of anxiety, depression, learning difficulties, and traumatic school experiences. This case illustrates how the diagnosis of schizophrenia can be driven by the prominence and vividness of psychotic-like symptoms reported by a patient, the expectation that patients' chief complaints must be directly and immediately addressed, insufficient attention to collateral information, and the distortions of a "checklist" approach to psychiatric diagnosis driven by the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, insurers, and the properties of electronic medical records. Given the consequences of either underdiagnosing or overdiagnosing schizophrenia, and the current lack of validated objective tests to assist with this diagnosis, clinicians are obligated to perform a thorough clinical assessment of such patients, including a probing exploration of the patient's mental state and a systematic collection of collateral information.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Alucinações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Depressão , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(5): e1008985, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033641

RESUMO

Poor context integration, the process of incorporating both previous and current information in decision making, is a cognitive symptom of schizophrenia. The maintenance of the contextual information has been shown to be sensitive to changes in excitation-inhibition (EI) balance. Many regions of the brain are sensitive to EI imbalances, however, so it is unknown how systemic manipulations affect the specific regions that are important to context integration. We constructed a multi-structure, biophysically-realistic agent that could perform context-integration as is assessed by the dot pattern expectancy task. The agent included a perceptual network, a memory network, and a decision making system and was capable of successfully performing the dot pattern expectancy task. Systemic manipulation of the agent's EI balance produced localized dysfunction of the memory structure, which resulted in schizophrenia-like deficits at context integration. When the agent's pyramidal cells were less excitatory, the agent fixated upon the cue and initiated responding later than the default agent, which were like the deficits one would predict that individuals on the autistic spectrum would make. This modelling suggests that it may be possible to parse between different types of context integration deficits by adding distractors to context integration tasks and by closely examining a participant's reaction times.


Assuntos
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Tempo de Reação , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia
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