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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e8, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436137

RESUMO

AIMS: Occupational Burnout (OB) is currently measured through several Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) and some of them have become widely used in occupational health research and practice. We, therefore, aimed to review and grade the psychometric validity of the five OB PROMs considered as valid for OB measure in mental health professionals (the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Pines' Burnout Measure (BM), the Psychologist Burnout Inventory (PBI), the OLdenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI)). METHODS: We conducted systematic literature searches in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE databases. We reviewed studies published between January 1980 and September 2018 following a methodological framework, in which each step of PROM validation, the reference method, analytical technics and result interpretation criteria were assessed. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments we evaluated the risk of bias in studies assessing content and criterion validity, structural validity, internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, hypotheses testing and responsiveness of each PROM. Finally, we assessed the level of evidence for the validity of each PROM using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We identified 6541 studies, 19 of which were included for review. Fifteen studies dealt with MBI whereas BM, PBI, OLBI and CBI were each examined in only one study. OLBI had the most complete validation, followed by CBI, MBI, BM and PBI, respectively. When examining the result interpretation correctness, the strongest disagreement was observed for MBI (27% of results), BM (25%) and CBI (17%). There was no disagreement regarding PBI and OLBI. For OLBI and CBI, the quality of evidence for sufficient content validity, the crucial psychometric property, was moderate; for MBI, BM and PBI, it was very low. CONCLUSION: To be validly and reliably used in medical research and practice, PROM should exhibit robust psychometric properties. Among the five PROMs reviewed, CBI and, to a lesser extent, OLBI meet this prerequisite. The cross-cultural validity of these PROMs was beyond the scope of our work and should be addressed in the future. Moreover, the development of a diagnostic standard for OB would be helpful to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the PROMs and further reexamine their validity.The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42019124621).


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adapting and translating already developed tools to different cultures is a complex process, but once done, it increases the validity of the construct to be measured. This study aimed to assess the 12 items WHODAS-2 and test its psychometric properties among road traffic injury victims in Ethiopia. This study aimed to translate the 12 items WHODAS- 2 interview-based tools into Amharic and examine the psychometric properties of the new version among road traffic injury victims. METHODS: The 12 items WHODAS 2 was first translated into Amharic by two experts. Back translation was done by two English experts. A group of experts reviewed the forward and backward translation. A total of 240 patients with road traffic injury completed the questionnaires at three selected Hospitals in Amhara Regional State. Internal consistency was; assessed using Chronbach's alpha, convergent, and divergent validity, which were; tested via factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); was computed, and the model fit; was examined. RESULTS: The translated Amharic version 12 -items WHODAS-2 showed that good cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency (Chronbach's α =0.88). The six factor structure best fits data (model fitness indices; CFI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.042, RMR = 0.072, GFI = 0.961, chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.42, TLI = 0.935 and PCLOSE = 0.68). Our analysis showed that from the six domains, mobility is the dominant factor explaining 95% of variability in disability. CONCLUSION: The 12 items interview-based Amharic version WHODAS-2; showed good cultural adaptation at three different settings of Amhara Regional State and can be used to measure dis-ability following a road traffic injury.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Etiópia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traduções , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143120

RESUMO

Basketball is a sport in which, beyond the physical and technical skills, the psychological aspects are a decisive factor and could negatively affect the well-being of the player. The present study analyzes how 11 items belonging to two stakeholders (coach and player) could negatively affect the well-being of the athlete. A sample of elite young basketball players (n = 121) consisting of 55 males and 66 females, ranging in age from 16 to 23 (M = 20.12 ± 1.71), completed the Negative Factors Affecting Players' Well-being (NFAPW) Questionnaire. This questionnaire was designed ad hoc and demonstrated good psychometric properties that confirmed that it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure how those factors negatively affect their well-being. The results showed that females have a greater perception of the factors that negatively affect their well-being, especially those related to the actions of the coach. However, no differences were found regarding the experience. Although this research provides an initial tool for measuring the well-being of the player during competition, future studies are encouraged to provide guidance to the coaches and players in dealing with the psychological variables in a better way.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Basquetebol/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113477, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198048

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) scale and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were administered to a non-clinical group of 274 participants recruited from a university volunteers list. We found a highly significant positive correlation between number of self-reported ADHD traits and sensory sensitivity. Furthermore, ADHD traits and age were predictors of SPS and exploratory factor analysis revealed a factor that combined ADHD traits and items from the HSPS. The psychometric properties of the HSPS were also examined supporting the unidimensional nature of the concept. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a positive relationship between HSPS and ADHD traits in the general population. Our results further support recent findings suggesting abnormal sensory processing in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/diagnóstico , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Vigilância da População/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Transtornos das Sensações/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family quality of life (FQoL), just like individual quality of life, has become a priority outcome in the policies and services received by persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and their families. Conceptualizing, measuring, and theorizing FQoL has been the object of investigation in recent decades. The goal of this paper is to present a revision of the Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales, the CdVF-E < 18 and the CdVF-E >18, and describe the FQoL of Spanish families with a member with IDD. METHODS: The sample included a total of 548 families with a member under 18 years old and 657 families with a member over 18. Based on an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) firstly and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) secondly, the two scales' psychometric properties were explored. RESULTS: The CdVF-ER < 18 and the CdVF-ER > 18 comprise 5 dimensions, containing 35 and 32 items, respectively, and they show good validity and reliability. The families obtained a high FQoL score, although some differences exist between the dimensions on which families with children under and over 18 score highest and lowest. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of the revised scales facilitate their use by professionals, administrations, and services.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080943

RESUMO

Communication is one of the determining factors of healthcare quality; however, a health model that prioritizes clinical over non-technical skills remains prevalent. The aims of this article were: (a) to validate a communication skills scale in a sample of fourth-year nursing degree students from two Spanish universities and (b) determine their perception of communication skills. The study included 289 fourth-year nursing undergraduate students with a mean age of 22.7 (SD = 4.87) years; 81.7% were female. The Health Professionals Communication Skills Scale (HP-CSS) questionnaire was adapted for use among nursing students. We analysed the psychometric properties and relationships with the variable attitudes toward communication skills. The HP-CSS showed a high internal consistency (0.88) and good fit of data to the model (TLI = 0.98; CFI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.05 [95% CI = 0.04-0.06]). The total score and subscale scores correlated with the variable attitude towards communication skills. High scores were obtained for the students' perception of communication skills. The HP-CSS is a valid and reliable tool to assess the communication skills in nursing students. This scale provides university teachers with a rapid and easily applied instrument to assess the level of communication skills and relationship with patients.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200100, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The assessment of the degree to which health professionals, workers and organizations are ready to implement changes in health services deserves special attention, especially related to new technologies, public policies and innovation. The objectives of this study were to conduct a Brazilian Portuguese Brazil cross-cultural adaptation of the ORIC questionnaire and to initiate the study of its psychometric properties. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study, the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) questionnaire, containing 12 questions, was translated and later applied to a sample of workers from traditional primary health care units undergoing transformation to family health units. Statistical analysis included Cronbach's alpha, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation model using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. RESULTS: Workers from ten health units participated in the study (n = 150). The analysis confirmed two main factors (Effectiveness and Commitment) with Eigenvalues > 1. Rotation by the orthogonal method showed that the instrument questions confirmed the factors analyzed by the original instrument. The total Cronbach's Alpha of ORIC was 0.94, showing excellent reliability. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese Brazil version of the ORIC-Br questionnaire showed good psychometric properties and can be used in health services to measure organizational readiness, considered as an indicator of the potential success in implementing change.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Inovação Organizacional , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 364, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring self-care ability in elderly people needs specific instruments. The Self-care Ability Scale for Elderly (SASE) is one of the common instruments used for assessing self-care ability. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the SASE among Iranian elderly population. METHODS: This cross-cultural adaptation study was carried out at Shahid Chamran and Shadpour Health Complex in Tabriz, Iran. The forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the SASE from English into Persian. Then, it was completed to 220 elderly people. A systematic random sampling method was used for sampling. Content validity was calculated through modified Kappa coefficient (modified CVI) based on clarity and relevance criteria. Reliability was measured by internal consistency and test-retest analysis. The construct validity also was assessed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21 statistical software package. RESULTS: The mean of self-care ability was 61.14 ± 21.08. The CVI and modified kappa were 0.91 and 0.92 for relevance and clarity, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.73 and Intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.97. The results of EFA revealed a three-factor solution ('ability to take care of personal responsibility', 'ability to take care for the goals', and 'ability to take care of the health') that jointly explained for 64.61% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: Results of the study showed that the Iranian version of the SASE has good psychometric properties and can be used in assessing the self-care ability of elderly people.


Assuntos
Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977520

RESUMO

There is a need for valid and reliable instruments to focus on medication aspects of health literacy and help healthcare professionals address patients' barriers to medication use. This cross-sectional study describes the conceptualization, development, and psychometric properties of the first Chinese Medication Literacy Measurement (ChMLM) to assess the level of health literacy on medication use. The 17-item ChMLM (ChMLM-17) and its short form, 13-item ChMLM (ChMLM-13), consist of four sections (vocabulary, over-the-counter labels, prescription labels, and advertisements) to cover six domains of medication-related health literacy. Multistage stratified quota sampling was attempted to recruit a representative sample in Taiwan. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify the cut-off point for differentiating high and low medication literacy. Psychometric analyses were performed (n = 1410) to assess the reliability and validity separately on all samples and sociodemographic subgroups. The 17- and 13-item versions both had high construct validity among all patients and patients with low medication literacy. The developed ChMLM-17 and ChMLM-13 is expected to help healthcare providers and researchers to accurately measure medication-related health literacy and improve medication use in the real-world practice.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Formação de Conceito , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Conhecimento do Paciente sobre a Medicação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taiwan
10.
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1862-1871, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although Medicare assessment files will include Standardized Patient Assessment Data Elements from 2016 forward, lack of uniformity of functional data prior to 2016 impedes longitudinal research. The purpose of this study was to create crosswalks for postacute care assessment measures and the basic mobility and daily activities scales of the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) and to test their accuracy and validity in development and validation datasets. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of AM-PAC, the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Patient Assessment Instrument, the Minimum Data Set, and the Outcome and Assessment Information Set data from 300 adults receiving rehabilitation recruited from 6 health care networks in 1 metropolitan area. Rasch analysis was used to co-calibrate items from the 3 measures onto the AM-PAC metric and to create look-up tables to create estimated AM-PAC (eAM-PAC) scores. Mean scores and correlation and agreement between actual and estimated scores were examined in the development dataset. Scores were estimated in a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with hip, humerus and radius fractures. Correlations between eAM-PAC and Functional Independence Measure motor scores were examined. Differences in mean eAM-PAC scores were evaluated across groups of known differences (age, fracture type, dementia). RESULTS: Strong correlations were found between actual and eAM-PAC scores in the development dataset. Moderate to strong correlations were found between the eAM-PAC basic mobility and Functional Independence Measure motor scores in the validation dataset. Differences in basic mobility scores across known groups were statistically significant and appeared to be clinically important. Differences between mean daily activities scores were statistically significant but appeared not to be clinically important. CONCLUSION: Although further testing is warranted, the basic mobility crosswalk appears to provide valid scores for aggregate analysis of Medicare postacute care data. IMPACT: This study reports on a method to take data from different Medicare administrative data sources and estimate scores on 1 scale. This approach was applied separately for data related to basic mobility and to daily activities. This may allow researchers to overcome challenges with using Medicare administrative data from different sources.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estados Unidos , Caminhada
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
12.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 11-18, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195034

RESUMO

La pandemia COVID-19 ha conllevado un confinamiento que puede haber afectado al bienestar social y emocional en la infancia y adolescencia, como se está estudiando desde diferentes investigaciones. El presente estudio analiza las relaciones entre el estado psicológico general de los menores y los miedos a enfermedades y contagios por virus; además, valora estas relaciones en el trascurso del confinamiento y en función de la edad. Han participado 972 familias con hijos/as entre 3 y 18 años. Los resultados indican que las mayores dificultades psicológicas se centran en los problemas emocionales, los problemas de conducta y la puntuación de dificultades totales. Además, se evidencia una relación positiva entre los miedos asociados a la COVID-19 y la presencia de esos problemas en la población infanto-juvenil. Se destaca que, según avanza el confinamiento, aumenta la presencia de dificultades psicológicas y que estas afectan de manera diferencial en la infancia y en la adolescencia


Evolution of psychological state and fear in childhood and adolescence during COVID-19 lockdown. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a lockdown that may have affected social and emotional well-being in childhood and adolescence, as is being explored from different research. The present study analyses the relations between the general psychological state and the fears of diseases and virus infections. Furthermore, it assesses these relations in the course of lockdown and as a function of age. A total of 972 families with children between 3 and 18 have participated. The results indicate that the highest psychological difficulties are focused on emotional symptoms, the behavioral problems and the total difficulty score. In addition, there is a positive relation between fears associated with COVID-19 and the presence of these problems in the infant population. It should be noted that, as confinement advances, the presence of psychological difficulties increases, and these affect children and adolescents differently


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 27-34, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195036

RESUMO

El confinamiento por la COVID-19 y el estrés asociado pueden afectar al bienestar infantil. Debido a lo reciente de esta situación, son limitados los estudios relacionados. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo principal describir en qué medida la situación de confinamiento afectó a los niños en su conducta, problemas de sueño y bienestar emocional. Un segundo objetivo fue identificar variables protectoras que puedan servir para paliar posibles efectos negativos por la situación en los niños. Un tercer objetivo fue estudiar la posible relación entre la percepción de gravedad y controlabilidad de los padres y las reacciones negativas en sus hijos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 113 participantes españoles (70.5% mujeres) con hijos entre 3 y 12 años (51.8% niños). Los padres respondieron a un cuestionario online sobre las rutinas de los hijos durante la cuarentena, su bienestar emocional, problemas de sueño y su conducta. El 69.6% de los padres informaron que, durante el confinamiento, sus hijos presentaron reacciones emocionales negativas, el 31.3% problemas en el sueño y el 24.1% problemas de conducta. Los niños que invertían menos tiempo en el ejercicio físico y hacían mayor uso de pantallas presentaron un mayor número de reacciones negativas. Los niños con padres que hacían mayor uso de medidas de seguridad presentaron menos reacciones negativas. La percepción de riesgo y la gravedad de la situación por la COVID-19 no se relacionaron con las reacciones de los niños. Los datos sugieren que realizar ejercicio físico regular y limitar el uso diario de pantallas puede beneficiar a la salud mental infantil en situaciones de aislamiento


Due to the recent nature of this situation, related studies are limited. The main objective of this paper was to describe the extent to which the confinement situation affected children's behavior, sleep problems and emotional well-being. A second objective was to identify protective variables that could serve to mitigate possible negative effects of the situation on children. A third objective was to study the possible relationship between parents' perception of severity and controllability and negative reactions in their children. The sample was composed of 113 Spanish participants (70.5% women) with children between 3 and 12 years old (51.8% children). The parents answered an online questionnaire about their children's routines during quarantine, their emotional well-being, sleep problems and their behavioral. The 69.6% of the parents reported that, during confinement, their children presented negative emotional reactions, 31.3% sleep problems and 24.1% behavioral problems. Children who invested less time in physical exercise and made more use of screens had a greater number of negative reactions. Children with parents who made greater use of safety measures presented fewer negative reactions. The perception of risk and the seriousness of the situation due to COVID-19 were not related to the reactions of the children. The data suggest that regular physical exercise and limiting daily screen use may benefit children's mental health in situations of isolation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
15.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 35-41, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195037

RESUMO

La pandemia debida al COVID-19 ha supuesto un gran impacto a nivel mundial. El objetivo general del presente estudio es analizar el impacto psicológico durante el confinamiento en la adolescencia y adultez emergente. La muestra fue de conveniencia (n = 399), residentes en España y República Dominicana (RD). El rango de edad abarca desde los 12 hasta los 29 años (M = 22.57; DT = 3.67). La evaluación se realizó en línea, con los siguientes instrumentos: una encuesta ad hoc para medir las variables sociodemográficas, Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Escala de Miedo al COVID-19), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (Escala del Impacto de Eventos Estresantes Revisada), The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experience (Inventario breve de afrontamiento) y Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Cuestionario de Capacidades y Dificultades). Los resultados muestran diferencias según el grupo de edad, sexo y residencia. Los adultos presentaron más miedo al COVID-19 (p < .05) y estrés agudo que los adolescentes (p < .01), las mujeres más miedo y estrés que los hombres (p < .01) y los residentes de RD más miedo a la enfermedad que los de España (p < .01). El análisis de regresión lineal mostró que el miedo a la enfermedad fue un buen predictor del estrés agudo. En conclusión, se sugiere ampliar el estudio en estas poblaciones ante situaciones de estrés, concretamente la derivada del COVID-19, que permitan la prevención de estrés agudo y entrenamiento en estrategias de afrontamiento adaptativas frente a situaciones de crisis


The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological impact during confinement on adolescents and emerging adults. The convenience sample is composed by (n = 399) residents of Spain and the Dominican Republic (DR). The age range is 12 to 29 years old (M = 22.57; SD = 3.67). The assessment was conducted online, with the following instruments: an ad hoc survey to measure socio-demographic variables, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experience and Strengths and Difficulties Question-naire. The results show differences by age, sex and residence. Adults reported more fear of COVID-19 (p < .05) and acute stress than adolescents (p < .01), more fear and stress in women than men (p < .01) and more fear to the disease in residents of the DR than in Spain (p < .01). Linear regression analysis showed that fear of COVID-19 was a good predictor of acute stress. In conclusion, it is suggested to expand the study in these populations in situations of stress, specifically the one derived from COVID-19, that allow the prevention of acute stress and training in adaptive coping strategies in the face of crisis situations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Espanha , República Dominicana , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 42-48, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195038

RESUMO

The implementation of measures (e.g. school closure and social distancing) to contain the spread of COVID-19 by government in numerous countries has affected millions of children and their families worldwide. However, the consequences of such measures on children's wellbeing are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychological impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on primary school children and their families living in the UK. A total of 927 caregivers with children aged between 5 and 11 years completed an online survey which included a set of questionnaires to measure their own behaviour and emotional state as well as that of their children before and during the lockdown. Caregivers reported changes in their children's emotional state and behaviours during the lockdown. The most frequently reported child symptom was boredom (73.8%), followed by loneliness (64.5%) and frustration (61.4%). Irritability, restlessness, anger, anxiety, sadness, worry and being likely to argue with the rest of the family was reported by more than 30% of the caregivers. During the lockdown, children spent significantly more time using screens, and less time doing physical activity and sleeping. Moreover, family coexistence during the lockdown was described as moderately difficult. More than half of the caregivers reported being moderately or seriously distressed during the lockdown and caregiver level of psychological distress was significantly related to child symptoms. The findings emphasised the importance of developing prevention programmes to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on children's and their family's psychological wellbeing


La implementación de medidas para contener la propagación del COVID-19 por parte del gobierno en numerosos países (por ejemplo, el cierre de colegios y el distanciamiento social) ha afectado a millones de niños y a sus familias en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, se desconocen las consecuencias de esas medidas en el bienestar de los niños. El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar el impacto psicológico del confinamiento por COVID-19 en niños de educación primaria y en sus familias, residentes en Reino Unido. Un total de 927 padres y madres de niños de 5 a 11 años completaron una batería online compuesta por un conjunto de cuestionarios para evaluar su propio comportamiento y su estado emocional, así como el de sus hijos, antes y durante el confinamiento. Los padres informaron de cambios en el estado emocional y en el comportamiento de sus hijos. El síntoma infantil más frecuente fue el aburrimiento (73.8%), seguido del sentimiento de soledad (64.5%) y la frustración (61.4%). Más del 30% de los padres informaron de irritabilidad, inquietud, enfado, ansiedad, tristeza, preocupación y de una mayor probabilidad de discutir con el resto de la familia. Durante el confinamiento, los niños pasaban significativamente más tiempo usando pantallas y menos tiempo realizando actividad física y durmiendo. Además, la convivencia familiar se describió como moderadamente díficil. Más de la mitad de los padres informaron de niveles moderados o graves de distrés durante el confinamiento, que se relacionó significativamente con los síntomas del niño. Los hallazgos enfatizan la importancia de desarrollar programas de prevención para mitigar el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en el bienestar psicológico de los niños y sus familias


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 49-58, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195039

RESUMO

COVID-19 has affected learning and the outdoor activities of more than 862 million children or adolescents worldwide. This study investigated the mental health of Italian children and explored their psychological response and coping strategies in different COVID-19 epidemic severity areas, with the aims of alleviating the impacts of COVID-19, promoting targeted intervention, and reducing the risk of future psychological problems. 1074 parents of children aged 6 to 12 years old participated in an ad-hoc online survey. Among them, 40.3% were from the high-risk areas in the North, and 59.7% were from the medium/low-risk areas in the center of Italy. The results showed that, compared to the children in medium- or low-risk areas, children in the North scored significantly higher for symptoms of anxiety, moods, and cognitive changes, showing a "ripple effect" trend. Moreover, children in the northern areas used fewer task-oriented strategies and more emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies than those in the central areas. Specifically, children in the northern areas were more likely to show acceptance and seek affection from others, while those in the central areas used more humor when their parents talked about quarantine or coronavirus. These findings provide relevant evidence and a reference point for crisis management in children's mental health


El COVID-19 ha afectado el aprendizaje y las actividades al aire libre de más de 862 millones de niños o adolescentes en todo el mundo. Este estudio investigó la salud mental de los niños italianos y exploró su respuesta psicológica y las estrategias de afrontamiento en diferentes áreas de gravedad de la epidemia de COVID-19, con el objetivo de aliviar los impactos de la misma, promover la intervención específica y reducir el riesgo de futuros problemas psicológicos. 1074 padres de niños entre 6 a 12 años de edad participaron en una encuesta ad-hoc online. De ellos, el 40,3% procedían de las zonas de alto riesgo del norte y el 59,7% de las zonas de riesgo medio/bajo del centro de Italia. Los resultados mostraron que, en comparación con los niños de las áreas de riesgo medio o bajo, los niños del norte obtuvieron una puntuación significativamente más alta en cuanto a los síntomas de ansiedad, cambios cognitivos y de estado de ánimo, mostrando una tendencia de "efecto dominó". Además, los niños de las zonas del norte utilizaron menos estrategias orientadas a las tareas y más estrategias orientadas a las emociones - y la evitación - que los de las zonas centrales. Concretamente, los niños de las zonas del norte eran más propensos a mostrar aceptación y a buscar el afecto de los demás, mientras que los de las zonas centrales usaban más el humor cuando sus padres hablaban de la cuarentena o del coronavirus. Estos hallazgos proporcionan evidencia relevante y un punto de referencia para el manejo de crisis en la salud mental de los niños


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia
18.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 73-80, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195042

RESUMO

The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents is one of the most prevalent concerns all over the world. Adolescence is a developmental stage of high vulnerability due to the challenges this period entails. Additionally, the health emergency crisis has put adolescents even more at risk of developing mental health problems. The present study aims to examine the influence of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related variables on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in adolescents during pandemic-related confinement in Spain. Participants were 523 adolescents (63.1% female), aged between 13 and 17 years (M=14.89 years; SD=1.13 years), who completed an ad hoc questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and The Oviedo Infrequency Scale (INFO-OV). A descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used, and descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results indicate that socio-demographic and COV-ID-19 related variables play a significant role in the development of emotional symptomatology in adolescents during the current pandemic. Girls more than boys, adolescents who did volunteer work and those who stayed home more often were more likely to experience depression, anxiety or stress symptoms. Experiencing a stressing life event and searching for COVID-19 related information more often was related to psychological distress. On the other hand, adolescents who were in a romantic relationship and had been infected with the coronavirus, were more likely to be mentally healthy. Further research is necessary in order to detect risk and protective variables that impact adolescent's mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic


El impacto psicológico de la pandemia de COVID-19 en niños y adolescentes es una de las preocupaciones más frecuentes en todo el mundo. La adolescencia es una etapa de desarrollo de alta vulnerabilidad debido a los desafíos que conlleva este período. Además, la crisis de emergencia sanitaria ha puesto a los adolescentes en un riesgo aún mayor de desarrollar problemas de salud mental. El objetivo del presente estudio es examinar la influencia de las variables sociodemográficas y las relacionadas con COVID-19 en los síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés en los adolescentes durante el confinamiento a causa de la pandemia en España. Los participantes fueron 523 adolescentes (63,1% mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre los 13 y los 17 años (M=14.89 años; SD=1.13 años), que cumplimentaron un cuestionario ad hoc, la Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés (DASS-21) y la Escala de Infrecuencia de Oviedo (INFO-OV). Se utilizó un diseño descriptivo y transversal, y se realizaron estadísticos descriptivos y análisis de regresión logística múltiple. Los resultados indican que las variables sociodemográficas y las relacionadas con la COVID-19 desempeñan un papel importante en el desarrollo de la sintomatología emocional en los adolescentes durante la pandemia. Las chicas, los adolescentes que hicieron trabajo voluntario y los que se quedaron en casa con más frecuencia tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar síntomas de depresión, ansiedad o estrés. Se necesitan más investigaciones para detectar las variables de riesgo y de protección que afectan a la salud mental de los adolescentes durante la pandemia de COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Medo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
19.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 81-87, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195043

RESUMO

Child emotion regulation (ER) skills and specific parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to influence children adjustment in these unprecedented times. On this assumption, we first aimed to examine the predictive value of ER skills in relation to diverse indicators of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Then, we tested whether some of these associations could be partially explained through the mediator role of the specific parenting practices displayed within the pandemic context. These hypotheses were tested considering the previous levels of child reactivity as a potential moderator of the examined relations. Using parent-reported data from a sample of 874 Galician children (49.6% girls) aged 5 to 9 (Mage = 7.09; SD= 1.04), multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Robust associations between ER skills and diverse indicators of child adjusment were found. Moreover, it was found that specific parenting practices mediate the relation between child ER skills and specific behavioral outcomes (i.e., child routine maintenance). Thus, our findings highlight the importance of ER skills for child adjustment during the COVID-19 crisis, not only through direct, but also indirect effects, suggesting that the kind of parenting style that children receive during the pandemic conditions might be partially elicited by their individual characteristics


Las habilidades de regulación emocional (HRE) de los niños/as y las prácticas parentales específicas surgidas como consecuencia de los importantes cambios originados por la pandemia del COVID-19, podrían contribuir a su adaptación durante esta época sin precedentes. Bajo estas consideraciones, nos propusimos, en primer lugar, examinar el valor predictivo de las HRE en relación a diversos indicadores conductuales y socioemocionales de ajuste, para después estudiar si algunas de estas asociaciones podrían ser parcialmente explicadas a través del rol mediador de las prácticas parentales específicas desplegadas por los padres/madres en estas circunstancias. Contrastamos nuestras hipótesis considerando los niveles previos de reactividad del niño/a como moderadores de las relaciones analizadas. Usando los datos proporcionados por los padres/madres de 874 niños/as gallegos (49.6% niñas) de 5 a 9 años (Medad = 7.09; SD = 1.04), se llevaron a cabo múltiples análisis de regresión y mediación. Se encontraron asociaciones robustas entre las HRE y diversos indicadores de ajuste. Además, se encontró que prácticas parentales específicas median la relación entre las HRE y un tipo de consecuencias conductuales positivas (i.e., el mantenimiento de rutinas por parte de los niños/as). Nuestros resultados constatan, por tanto, la importancia de las HRE para la adaptación de los niños/as a las condiciones derivadas de la crisis, no solo por sus efectos directos, sino también por su influencia a través de efectos indirectos, que sugieren que el tipo de prácticas parentales que los niños/as reciben durante la pandemia, podría ser parcialmente elicitado por sus características personales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Ajustamento Emocional/classificação , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 88-93, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195044

RESUMO

As this is the first time that a pandemic has occurred in our recent history, preventive interventions for children ́s emotional problems during confinement were not planned. A main goal of Super Skills for Life Program (SSL) is to provide children with skills to build emotional resilience and coping strategies for daily and difficult life situations, so examining how the program may help children to face the COVID-19 situation could be appropriate. The aim of this research was to compare parents' perception of immediate psychological reactions to confinement and coping styles in children who received the SSL program before home confinement (n = 48) with an equivalent sample of children who did not attend the program (n = 48). Another objective was to study the relationship between children's immediate psychological reactions to confinement and their coping styles. Parents (n = 96) completed an online survey providing information on sociodemographic variables, children's immediate psychological reactions (anxiety/activation, mood, sleep, behavioral alterations, eating and cognitive alterations), and children's coping styles (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented strategies). Results indicated that the control group presented more symptoms of anxiety (p ≤ .001), worse mood (p ≤ .001), more sleep problems (p ≤ .01), and more cognitive alterations (p ≤ .01) during home confinement than children who received the program. Children in the control group were also more likely to use emotion-oriented strategies (p = .001), which were associated with presenting more psychological alterations. Although the SSL program was not created specifically for coping with the COVID-19 situation, it seems to provide children with skills to cope with this unexpected event


Puesto que ésta es la primera vez que ocurre una pandemia en nuestra historia reciente, no ha sido posible planificar intervenciones para prevenir los problemas emocionales infantiles durante el confinamiento. Un objetivo principal del programa Super Skills for Life (SSL) es proporcionar a los niños habilidades para desarrollar resiliencia emocional y hacer frente a situaciones diarias y difíciles en su vida, por lo que parece interesante examinar cómo el programa podría ayudar a los niños a afrontar la situación del COVID-19. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el impacto psicológico durante el confinamiento y los estilos de afrontamiento de los niños que recibieron el programa SSL antes del confinamiento (n = 48), en comparación con una muestra equivalente de niños que no habían recibido el programa (n = 48). La información se obtuvo a través de los padres (n = 96), quienes respondieron a unos cuestionarios online sobre variables sociodemográficas, reacciones psicológicas de los niños (ansiedad/activación, estado de ánimo, sueño, alteraciones conductuales, cambios en la alimentación y alteraciones cognitivas) y estilos de afrontamiento (orientados a la tarea, a la emoción y a la evitación). Los resultados indicaron que durante el confinamiento el grupo control presentó más síntomas de ansiedad (p ≤ .001), peor estado de ánimo (p ≤ .001), más problemas de sueño (p ≤ .01) y más alteraciones cognitivas (p ≤ .01), que los niños que recibieron el programa. Los niños del grupo control también eran más propensos a utilizar estrategias orientadas a la emoción (p = .001), que se asociaron con más alteraciones psicológicas. Aunque el programa SSL no se creó específicamente para hacer frente a la situación del COVID-19, parece proporcionar a los niños habilidades para hacer frente a este evento inesperado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Psicoterapia/métodos , Ajustamento Emocional/classificação , Transtornos de Adaptação/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Medo/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
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