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1.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 18: 443-469, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534121

RESUMO

A basic survival need is the ability to respond to, and persevere in the midst of, experiential challenges. Mechanisms of neuroplasticity permit this responsivity via functional adaptations (flexibility), as well as more substantial structural modifications following chronic stress or injury. This review focuses on prefrontally based flexibility, expressed throughout large-scale neuronal networks through the actions of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. With substance use disorders and stress-related internalizing disorders as exemplars, we review human behavioral and neuroimaging data, considering whether executive control, particularly cognitive flexibility, is impaired premorbidly, enduringly compromised with illness progression, or both. We conclude that deviations in control processes are consistently expressed in the context of active illness but operate through different mechanisms and with distinct longitudinal patterns in externalizing versus internalizing conditions.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Cognição , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Pré-Frontal
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e229601, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536581

RESUMO

Importance: The understanding of the development of psychopathology has been hampered by a reliance on cross-sectional data and symptom- or disorder-centered methods. Person-centered methods can accommodate both the problems of comorbidity and the movement between different psychopathological states at different phases of development. Objective: To examine the profiles and map the trajectories of psychopathology from early childhood to late adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used 2 longitudinal nationally representative community-based cohorts from the Growing Up in Ireland study covering developmental periods from early childhood to late adolescence. Data in this investigation came from children and their families who participated in all waves of cohorts recruited in 2008 (children ages 3, 5, and 9 years) and 1998 (adolescents ages 9, 13, and 17 or 18 years). Both samples were weighted to account for representation and attrition. Latent transition analyses were used to map the trajectories of psychopathology. Data were analyzed between October 2020 and September 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at all ages in both samples. Results: A total of 13 546 individuals were included in the analyses. In the child cohort, mean (SD) age was 3.0 [0.01] years; 3852 (51.3%) were male participants. In the adolescent cohort, mean age was 9.0 (0.1) years; 3082 (51.0%) were male participants. Four profiles were identified in both cohorts that could be broadly labeled as no psychopathology (incidence range, 60%-70%), high psychopathology (incidence range, 3%-5%), externalizing problems (incidence range, 15%-25%), and internalizing problems (incidence range, 7%-12%). Transition between the profiles was common in both cohorts, with 3649 of 7507 participants (48.6%) in the child cohort and 2661 of 6039 participants (44.1%) in the adolescent cohort moving into 1 of the 3 psychopathology profiles at some point in development. Transition to the high psychopathology profile was most often preceded by externalizing problems. Approximately 3% to 4% of the sample had persistent psychopathology (child cohort, 203 participants [2.7%]; adolescent cohort, 216 participants [3.6%]). All psychopathology profiles were more common in boys in early life but, by late adolescence, girls were more likely to have internalizing problems. In a cross-cohort comparison at age 9, there were differences in the sex distributions of the profiles between the samples. Conclusions and Relevance: Using person-centered methods, this study demonstrated that from early life young peoples' experience of psychopathology is dynamic-they can move between different mental health problems; for most children, these problems are transient, but a small proportion (fewer than 5%) have persistent difficulties. In the context of finite resources, optimizing care requires the early identification of those with persistent phenomena.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7163, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504926

RESUMO

Cannabis use characteristics, such as earlier initiation and frequent use, have been associated with an increased risk for developing psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders. However, little is known how these characteristics relate to specific aspects of sub-clinical psychopathology in the general population. Here, we explore the relationships between cannabis use characteristics and psychopathology in a large general population sample (N = 2,544, mean age 29.2 years, 47% women) by employing a network approach. This allows for the identification of unique associations between two cannabis use characteristics (lifetime cumulative frequency of cannabis use, age of cannabis use initiation), and specific psychotic experiences and affective symptoms, while controlling for early risk factors (childhood trauma, urban upbringing). We found particularly pronounced unique positive associations between frequency of cannabis use and specific delusional experiences (persecutory delusions and thought broadcasting). Age of cannabis use initiation was negatively related to visual hallucinatory experiences and irritability, implying that these experiences become more likely the earlier use is initiated. Earlier initiation, but not lifetime frequency of cannabis use, was related to early risk factors. These findings suggest that cannabis use characteristics may contribute differentially to risk for specific psychotic experiences and affective symptoms in the general population.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Delusões , Feminino , Alucinações , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia
4.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 428-436, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a period of both great social change, and of vulnerability to psychiatric distress. However, little is known about the associations between early psychopathology and social interactions at the fundamental level of daily life. To better understand the social correlates of subclinical psychopathology in adolescence, we assessed associations between general psychopathology and the quantity and quality of daily-life social interactions. METHODS: During a six-day experience sampling period, adolescent and young adult participants in Study 1 (n = 663) and Study 2 (n = 1027) reported the quantity and quality of their everyday social interactions. General psychopathology was assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90 and Brief Symptom Inventory-53. The relationship between psychopathology and each outcome variable was tested in separate multilevel linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: General psychopathology was associated with social interaction quality. Associations between psychopathology and the number of social interactions were less apparent: In Study 1, participants with more psychopathology were not more alone, whereas Study 2 participants with higher levels of psychopathology were alone more. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include no separate investigation of distinct types of psychopathology, and relatively low compliance to the experience sampling in Study 2. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent associations between subclinical psychopathology and the quality of social interactions support the fundamentally social nature of early psychopathology. Moreover, negative experiences of social interactions may be more valuable markers of early psychopathology than a reduced quantity of social behaviors. Conceptualizations of daily-life social functioning, and prevention/intervention efforts would benefit from a greater consideration of the quality of everyday social experiences.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Adolescente , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(4): 407-421, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511526

RESUMO

Bifactor models are a promising strategy to parse general from specific aspects of psychopathology in youth. Currently, there are multiple configurations of bifactor models originating from different theoretical and empirical perspectives. We aimed to test the reliability, validity, measurement invariance, and the correlation of different bifactor models of psychopathology using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We used data from the Reproducible Brain Charts (RBC) initiative (N = 7,011, ages 5 to 22 years, 40.2% females). Factor models were tested using the baseline data. To address our aim, we (a) searched for the published item-level bifactor models using the CBCL; (b) tested their global model fit; (c) calculated model-based reliability indices; (d) tested associations with symptoms' impact in everyday life; (e) tested measurement invariance across many characteristics, and (f) analyzed the observed factor correlation across the models. We found 11 bifactor models ranging from 39 to 116 items. Their global model fit was broadly similar. Factor determinacy and H index were acceptable for the p-factors, internalizing, externalizing, and somatic specific factors in most models. However, only the p- and attention factors predicted daily life symptoms' impact in all models. Models were broadly invariant across different characteristics. P-factors were highly correlated across models (r = .88 to .99) and homotypic specific factors were highly correlated. These results suggest that regardless of item selection and strategy to compose CBCL bifactor models, they assess very similar constructs. Taken together, our results support the robustness of the p-factor across distinct bifactor models and studies of distinct characteristics. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicopatologia , Adolescente , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 63(5): 505-506, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442517

RESUMO

The experience of two or more mental health disorders or symptom-clusters, either simultaneously or sequentially, is common among adults. Increasing evidence suggests that such comorbidity may also be prevalent among children though it often extends beyond mental health disorders. This is highlighted by several of the papers featured in the current issue of the Journal, which are summarised in this editorial. These studies underscore the importance of providing integrated care for children to ensure all their needs are effectively addressed. It also raises questions about the distinctions we draw between disorders and supports calls for dimensional approaches to conceptualising psychopathology and its inter-relatedness with other aspects of health and functioning.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Comorbidade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia
7.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(2): 80-86, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Religious coping can be seen as a method which applies religious resources, including prayer, and trust and appeals to God, in order to deal with stressful situations. AIM: To gain insight into the associations between religious coping styles and mental health and to investigate whether the use of the coping styles differs between mental health care clients and non-mental health care clients with a Christian background. METHOD: The sample consisted of 655 Dutch participants with a Christian worldview, aged 18 to 79 years (M = 42.6, SD = 14.2). 60.9% were female and 49.5% higher educated. Intra- and extramural clients in mental health care were involved. A cross-sectional, online survey was used, combined with an available client database. RESULTS: More use of the collaborative coping style was associated with less psychological complaints. More use of the (passive-)deferring and selfdirecting coping styles was associated with more psychological complaints. Christian mental health care clients used the collaborative and the deferring coping styles less often compared to Christian non-clients. CONCLUSION: The collaborative religious coping style is positively associated with mental health. Mental health care clients amongst them use this style less often compared to non-clients. Awareness of religious coping styles and appropriate support are indicated.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Adolesc ; 94(3): 380-389, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent works have developed two self-report measures of general and social anhedonia for adolescents. Little is known about the relative stability of these constructs and their associations with psychopathological symptoms over time. METHODS: A total of 694 Chinese adolescents aged 14-16 years (74.6% girls) completed measures of anhedonia at two time points 1 year apart. General anhedonia was assessed using the Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale while social anhedonia was assessed using the Adolescent Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale. RESULTS: General and social anhedonia significantly increased over time, F(1, 693) =16.54, p < .001, η2 = 0.02; F(1, 693) =27.31, p < .001, η2 = 0.04. Greater depression (b = -0.10, p = .006), suicidal ideation (b = -0.55, p < .001), generalized anxiety (b = -0.28, p = .012), social anxiety (b = -0.28, p = .002), and interpersonal stressful events (b = -0.20, p = .035) were associated with greater social anhedonia. Suicidal ideation was associated with general anhedonia (b = 0.29, p = .004). Higher positive schizotypal personality was associated with less general and social anhedonia (b = -0.18, b = 0.16, all p < .001) whereas higher negative schizotypal personality was associated with greater general and social anhedonia (b = 0.34, b = -0.58, all p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests that anhedonia is an increasing trend during adolescence. The relationship between anhedonia and psychopathology was specific to social anhedonia.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prazer , Psicopatologia , Autorrelato
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457741

RESUMO

Eating disorders (EDs) are complicated mental illnesses with significant treatment resistance and dropout rates. For successful treatment, it is important for clinicians to better understand the patients' narrative and their lived experiences. A thorough psychodynamic understanding of patients' childhood attachment and primary relationships, personality traits and mental processes is, therefore, crucial for managing patients with ED. Interestingly, several studies have observed an association between functional urinary symptoms and individuals with ED. EDs such as anorexia nervosa are associated with an increased risk of all urinary symptoms, and functional incontinence was also more common in extreme female athletes with low energy availability and with disordered eating. There is, however, a dearth of literature describing this relationship, and the underlying mechanisms remain remote. In this paper, we present a psychoanalytic approach to the presence of urinary symptoms in females with EDs. We hypothesize that these symptoms are tied to specific traits or characteristics of ED patients, namely the overarching need for control, a pathological strive for perfection and the self-denial of basic bodily urges. This is discussed in relation to psychopathological processes, development and personality factors commonly seen in patients with ED.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Incontinência Urinária , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Psicoterapia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
11.
Sleep Med ; 93: 26-38, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Insomnia in adolescence is common and debilitating yet it remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the complexity of clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial factors characterizing insomnia in adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-five adolescents (16-19 years) with (N = 47, 31 female) and without (N = 48, 28 female) insomnia symptoms participated. In the insomnia group, 26 (20 female) met full DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder, while 21 (11 female) met partial criteria. Participants completed a clinical interview and assessments of clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial dimensions associated with insomnia. GLMs and network analyses were used to evaluate group and sex differences in severity and inter-relationships between symptoms. RESULTS: Adolescents with insomnia symptomatology had lower sleep hygiene and thought control, more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions, and more substance use as a coping behavior than healthy controls. They also indicated higher neuroticism, stress levels, and sleep stress reactivity (p < 0.05), but no difference in adverse childhood experiences, than controls. Girls compared to boys with insomnia reported lower sleep quality, and more pre-sleep cognitive activity and sleep stress reactivity (p < 0.05). Compared to healthy girls, girls in the insomnia group reported lower sleep hygiene and higher agreeableness. Network analyses confirmed profound group differences in network topology, with the insomnia group having different levels of centrality and relationships between clinical characteristics compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight clinical and sex-specific characteristics of adolescent insomnia, with network analyses revealing a complex interplay between clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial domains. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms, particularly girls, may benefit from interventions to improve negative cognition, mood, and stress, and behavioral strategies to counteract sleep-related maladaptive behaviors.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adolescente , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Sono , Higiene do Sono
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 290, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pursuing a healthy diet is not a dysfunctional behavior, but dieting could be an important etiological factor for Orthorexia Nervosa (ON). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of diet in groups with high/low orthorexic tendencies. Moreover, some psychopathological characteristics associated with ON and maladaptive personality traits were investigated. METHODS: The sample consisted of three groups: two were on a diet and had high (HIGH-D; n = 52) or low (LOW-D; n = 41) orthorexic tendencies. The other was composed of people with high orthorexic tendencies not on a diet (HIGH; n = 40). Participants filled out self-report questionnaires to investigate orthorexic tendencies, eating disorders features, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perfectionism, depressive/anxious symptomatology, and maladaptive personality traits. RESULTS: The HIGH-D group showed more orthorexic tendencies than the HIGH group. More maladaptive personality traits and anxiety symptoms have been highlighted in HIGH and HIGH-D groups. The HIGH group had more eating disorder characteristics than other groups. Only the HIGH-D group showed more depressive symptoms than the LOW-D group. CONCLUSIONS: The features of HIGH and LOW-D groups suggest that diet alone could not explain ON, even if it could be a possible factor related to ON. Therefore, people with high orthorexic tendencies, psychopathological features, and maladaptive personality traits could be in a prodromic condition for disordered eating habits and deserve clinical attention.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Compr Psychiatry ; 115: 152311, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is not clear whether there are differences in the risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) between children and early adolescents. Clarifying this question is crucial for identifying actionable prevention strategies for NSSI in these two age groups. METHOD: The study, comprising 8611 children and early adolescents (4409 (51.2%) children, 4202 (48.8%) early adolescents), was based on the baseline data of the Chengdu Positive Child Development (CPCD) in China. NSSI behaviours, emotional and behavioural problems and family environment were assessed and obtained via self-reports and parent reports. RESULTS: Overall, 2520 (29.26%) participants reported having ever engaged in NSSI. There was a higher lifetime NSSI rate in males than in females during childhood, contrasting with higher NSSI rates in females than in males during early adolescence. Furthermore, NSSI shared similar risk factors, including major family conflict and poor relationships with caregivers, in both age groups. Specifically, in children, the risk of NSSI increased along with thought and attention problems (OR, 95% CI: 1.194, 1.106-1.288 and 1.114, 1.028-1.207, respectively), whereas in early adolescents, it increased with anxiety and depressive problems (OR, 95% CI: 1.259, 1.116-1.422). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested the need for difference in preventive strategies for NSSI in the two age groups. It may be more efficacious to screen for NSSI in children with thought and attention problems and in early adolescents with anxiety and depressive problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4291, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277563

RESUMO

Psychiatric symptoms have consistently been associated with negative educational outcomes. However, possible confounding variables, such as comorbid mental and environmental conditions, have not been well addressed. This study examined whether mental health problems were significantly linked to academic performance in a Spanish school-based sample, after adjustment for co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and multiple contextual factors. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding child's sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., gender, age, type of school, socioeconomic status, ethnicity), stressful events (i.e., adoption, parental divorce/separation, grade retention) and lifestyle (i.e., diet, sleep, screen time), along with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Academic performance was obtained from school records. The sample comprised 7036 students aged 5-17 with full data on the CBCL. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between psychopathology and academic achievement, controlling for potential confounders. When examined separately, higher scores on the CBCL scales were related to lower grades, regardless of sociodemographic factors. However, after controlling for the presence of other psychiatric symptoms, we found that students who reported more anxious/depressed and thought problems were less likely to perform poorly, while those with increased levels of attention problems and delinquent behavior had higher risk for academic underachievement. These associations remained mainly the same once stressful events and lifestyle were taken into account. This investigation demonstrates that anxious/depressed symptoms, thought problems, attention problems, and delinquent behavior are independently associated with academic performance, which emphasize the need for preventive and treatment interventions targeted at students' mental health to improve their psychological well-being and functioning at school.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicopatologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329308

RESUMO

Self-perceived interpersonal problems are of central concern for researchers and individuals; they are at the basis of psychopathology and cause for subjective distress. In this study, we examine whether a group-based rehabilitation program in nature may reduce self-perceived interpersonal problems in a heterogeneous group of men declining participation in traditional rehabilitation offers. The intervention consisted of weekly meetings in nature, taking place over the course of nine weeks. Through a matched-control study including 114 participants in the intervention group and 39 in a treatment as usual group participating in traditional rehabilitation offers, we found that there was no statistically significant development in self-perceived interpersonal problems in the nature-based rehabilitation offer. Though promising with regards to a number of mental challenges, including relational challenges, nature-based group-rehabilitation may require a more elaborate and thoroughgoing intervention, including e.g., a therapist and more time to be an effective intervention against interpersonal problems. We conclude that perhaps due to the fundamental aspect of self-perceived interpersonal problems, exposure to nature, and being in a group of men in a similar situation for the duration that this intervention lasted, may not be enough to address such underlying perceptions of self.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265577, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303035

RESUMO

AIMS: Higher levels of externalizing characteristics, i.e. impulsivity, novelty seeking and aggression, could contribute to the development, progression and severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study aims to explore whether these externalizing characteristics together have a potential group-forming role in AUD using latent profile analysis (LPA). METHODS: Externalizing characteristics of 102 AUD patients were analyzed using LPA to explore the group-forming role of externalizing symptoms; groups were compared in terms of demographic and alcohol-related variables, indices of psychopathological, depressive and anxiety symptom severity. RESULTS: LPA revealed and supported a two-group model based on externalizing symptoms. The group with higher levels of externalizing symptoms showed significantly elevated levels of alcohol-related and anxio-depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Externalizing characteristics converge and have a group-forming role in chronic AUD, and are associated with a more severe form of AUD. By making the diagnostic category less heterogeneous, these different subtypes within AUD may provide aid in tailoring treatments to patients' specific needs.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Psicopatologia
17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 115: 152306, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) assesses bipolar spectrum psychopathology and risk for bipolar disorders. Despite the developers' intent to create a scale that provides a unitary score, several studies have examined whether the HPS has a multidimensional structure. These models have been unable to identify a replicable multidimensional structure, with models varying from fairly similar to entirely dissimilar, and have suffered from theoretical and methodological concerns. PROCEDURES: We therefore examined the multidimensional structure of the HPS in a large undergraduate and adult sample (n = 5002). MAIN FINDINGS: We failed to reproduce factors with equal congruence to those of previously published models. PRINCIPLE CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the HPS lacks factorial validity in previous research as a multidimensional measure of bipolar spectrum psychopathology. We further recommend the creation of a novel multidimensional assessment of bipolar spectrum psychopathology developed from a theoretically driven, comprehensive model, rather than examining a multidimensional model of a pre-existing measure, such as the HPS.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Ciclotímico , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Personalidade , Psicopatologia
18.
Am J Psychiatry ; 179(3): 189-203, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236119

RESUMO

Rare genomic disorders (RGDs) confer elevated risk for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In this era of intense genomics discoveries, the landscape of RGDs is rapidly evolving. However, there has not been comparable progress to date in scalable, harmonized phenotyping methods. As a result, beyond associations with categorical diagnoses, the effects on dimensional traits remain unclear for many RGDs. The nature and specificity of RGD effects on cognitive and behavioral traits is an area of intense investigation: RGDs are frequently associated with more than one psychiatric condition, and those studied to date affect, to varying degrees, a broad range of developmental and cognitive functions. Although many RGDs have large effects, phenotypic expression is typically influenced by additional genomic and environmental factors. There is emerging evidence that using polygenic risk scores in individuals with RGDs offers opportunities to refine prediction, thus allowing for the identification of those at greatest risk of psychiatric illness. However, translation into the clinic is hindered by roadblocks, which include limited genetic testing in clinical psychiatry, and the lack of guidelines for following individuals with RGDs, who are at high risk of developing psychiatric symptoms. The Genes to Mental Health Network (G2MH) is a newly funded National Institute of Mental Health initiative that will collect, share, and analyze large-scale data sets combining genomics and dimensional measures of psychopathology spanning diverse populations and geography. The authors present here the most recent understanding of the effects of RGDs on dimensional behavioral traits and risk for psychiatric conditions and discuss strategies that will be pursued within the G2MH network, as well as how expected results can be translated into clinical practice to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Cognição , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Saúde Mental , Psicopatologia
19.
Am Psychol ; 77(1): 140-142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357857

RESUMO

Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect 13%-18% of young men and women. EDs are associated with substantial psychiatric and medical morbidity and mortality, indicating a critical need for improved identification and treatment. Despite the relatively high prevalence and severity of EDs, they are often omitted from discussions of mental health. This comment is in response to Gruber et al. (2020), who wrote an important article on the challenges and opportunities facing clinical scientists in the time of COVID-19. Our response extends Gruber et al.'s article by noting additional challenges facing people with an ED during COVID-19 and recognizing opportunities for improved evidence-based assessment and treatment of this important population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Psicopatologia
20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 179(3): 182-188, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236113

RESUMO

The rapid progress in psychiatric genetics over the past 10 years, while exciting from a research perspective, has not yet had an impact on clinical practice. How will we really be able to put genetics to work in the psychiatric clinic? This overview will attempt to answer this question. A survey of widely used methods and major study designs highlights key findings that have emerged so far. These findings inform a broad conceptual model of how genetic risk may act to influence dimensions of psychopathology and clinical presentations. The overview concludes with highlights of some of the most clinically relevant findings to date and their implications for psychiatric practice in the near future.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Psicopatologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
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