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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 199-218, May-Sep, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232715

RESUMO

La comorbilidad es más la regla que la excepción en salud mental y, sobre todo, en el caso de la ansiedad y la depresión. Los modelos transdiagnósticos estudian los procesos subyacentes para mejorar el tratamiento y la comprensión de la salud mental. Objetivo: Esta revisión sistemática busca evidencias sobre los factores de riesgo transdiagnósticos para la ansiedad y la depresión en la población clínica diagnosticada de estas condiciones psicopatológicas, analizando los diferentes tipos o categorías de factores identificados. Método: Se registró una revisión sistemática en PROSPERO (número de registro CRD42022370327) y se diseñó de acuerdo con las guías PRISMA-P. La calidad del estudio fue evaluada por dos revisores independientes con conocimiento del campo para reducir el posible sesgo. Resultados: Cincuenta y tres artículos fueron examinados y las variables transdiagnósticas fueron agrupadas en tres categorías: psicológicas, biológicas y socioculturales. Conclusiones: La categoría más estudiada fue la de variables psicológicas, en especial los procesos cognitivos, afecto negativo y neuroticismo, intolerancia a la incertidumbre, sensibilidad a la ansiedad. Los factores biológicos y socioculturales requieren más estudio para sustentar su enfoque transdiagnóstico.(AU)


Comorbidity is more the rule than the exception in mental health, specifically in the case of anxiety and depression. Transdiagnostic models studied the underlying processes to improve mental health treat-ment and understating. Objective:This systematic review searchs for evi-dence on transdiagnostic risk factors for anxiety and depression in the clin-ical population diagnosed with these psychopathological conditions, by an-alysing the different types or categories of factors identified.Methods:A sys-tematic review was registered in PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022370327) and was designed according to PRISMA-P guidelines. Two independent reviewers with field knowledge assessed the study quality to reduce bias.Results: Fifty-three articles were examined, and the transdi-agnostic variables were grouped into three categories: psychological, bio-logical, and sociocultural.Conclusions:The most studied category was that of psychological variables, especially cognitive processes, negative affect, and neuroticism, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity. Biological and sociocultural factors require more study to support their transdiagnos-tic approach.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Ansiedade , Depressão , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Mentais
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 235, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830892

RESUMO

There is a lack of knowledge regarding the relationship between proneness to dimensional psychopathological syndromes and the underlying pathogenesis across major psychiatric disorders, i.e., Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), Schizoaffective Disorder (SZA), and Schizophrenia (SZ). Lifetime psychopathology was assessed using the OPerational CRITeria (OPCRIT) system in 1,038 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD, BD, SZ, or SZA. The cohort was split into two samples for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. All patients were scanned with 3-T MRI, and data was analyzed with the CAT-12 toolbox in SPM12. Psychopathological factor scores were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT). Finally, factor scores were used for exploratory genetic analyses including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and polygenic risk score (PRS) association analyses. Three factors (paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome, PHS; mania, MA; depression, DEP) were identified and cross-validated. PHS was negatively correlated with four GMV clusters comprising parts of the hippocampus, amygdala, angular, middle occipital, and middle frontal gyri. PHS was also negatively associated with the bilateral superior temporal, left parietal operculum, and right angular gyrus CT. No significant brain correlates were observed for the two other psychopathological factors. We identified genome-wide significant associations for MA and DEP. PRS for MDD and SZ showed a positive effect on PHS, while PRS for BD showed a positive effect on all three factors. This study investigated the relationship of lifetime psychopathological factors and brain morphometric and genetic markers. Results highlight the need for dimensional approaches, overcoming the limitations of the current psychiatric nosology.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Substância Cinzenta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Fatorial , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicopatologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 133(4): 333-346, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709616

RESUMO

Externalizing psychopathology has been found to have small to moderate associations with neighborhood and family sociodemographic characteristics. However, prior studies may have used suboptimal operationalizations of neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and externalizing psychopathology, potentially misestimating relations between these constructs. To address these limitations, in the current study we test different measurement models of these constructs and assess the structural relations between them. Using a population-representative sample of 2,195 twins and siblings from the Georgia Twin Study and data from the National Neighborhood Data Archive and 2000 U.S. Census, we assessed the fit of competing measurement models for family sociodemographic, neighborhood sociodemographic, and neighborhood environment characteristics. In structural models, we regressed a general externalizing dimension on different operationalizations of these variables separately and then simultaneously in a final model. Latent variable operationalizations of family sociodemographic, neighborhood sociodemographic, and neighborhood environment characteristics explained no more variance in broad externalizing psychopathology than other operationalizations. In an omnibus model, family sociodemographic characteristics showed a small association with externalizing psychopathology, while neighborhood sociodemographic and environmental characteristics did not. Family sociodemographic characteristics showed small associations with neighborhood sociodemographic and environmental characteristics, and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics were moderately associated with neighborhood environment. These findings suggest that family sociodemographic characteristics are more associated with the development of broad externalizing psychopathology in youth than neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and neighborhood environment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Adolescente , Georgia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Características da Vizinhança , Família/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Gêmeos/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia
4.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 47(2): 287-300, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724120

RESUMO

In this article, the authors critically evaluate contemporary models of psychopathology and therapies, underscoring the limitations of traditional symptom-based classification approaches in mental health. The authors introduce a paradigm shift in the field, toward a process-oriented and dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy that offers deeper insights into the complex interplay of symptoms and individual experiences in psychopathology. These approaches offer a more personalized and effective understanding and treatment of mental health issues, moving beyond static and 1-dimensional views. The authors discuss the implications for clinical practice, emphasizing improved assessment, diagnosis, and tailored treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos
6.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2966, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600830

RESUMO

Decades of research implicate perfectionism as a risk factor for psychopathology. Most research has focused on trait perfectionism (i.e., needing to be perfect), but there is a growing focus on perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) (i.e., the need to seem perfect). The current article reports the results of a meta-analysis of previous research on the facets of PSP and psychopathology outcomes (either clinical diagnoses of psychiatric disorders or symptoms of these disorders). A systematic literature search retrieved 30 relevant studies (37 samples; N = 15,072), resulting in 192 individual effect-size indexes that were analysed with random-effect meta-analysis. Findings support the notion of PSP as a transdiagnostic factor by showing that PSP facets are associated with various forms of psychopathology, especially social anxiety, depression, vulnerable narcissism and-to lesser extent-grandiose narcissism and anorexia nervosa. The results indicated that there both commonalities across the three PSP and some unique findings highlighting the need to distinguish among appearing perfect, avoiding seeming imperfect and avoiding disclosures of imperfections. Additional analyses yielded little evidence in the results across studies including undergraduates, community samples and clinical samples. Our discussion includes a focus on factors and processes that contribute to the association between PSP and psychopathology.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor , Narcisismo , Psicopatologia
7.
J Pers Disord ; 38(2): 126-137, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592909

RESUMO

The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) has become influential in the dimensional assessment of personality dysfunction. Though most studies have examined links between PID-5 trait domains and personality pathology, a number of investigations have assessed relationships between PID-5 scores and symptom disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety). We employed meta-analytic techniques to synthesize findings in this area, identifying 26 publications assessing associations between PID-5 scores and symptom disorders (N of effect sizes across the five trait domains = 260). PID-5 domain score effect sizes (rs) ranged from 0.20 for Antagonism to 0.35 for Negative Affect (all ps < .00001). Relationships between PID-5 scores and specific forms of psychopathology were generally consistent with expectations, with some unanticipated relationships as well. Findings confirm that the pathological personality traits assessed by the PID-5 predict symptom disorders as well as personality dysfunction, extending the heuristic value and clinical utility of the measure.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia
8.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 133(3): 257-272, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619461

RESUMO

Women and men are at different risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, how studies on PTSD risk factors integrate this knowledge into their research. Moreover, the temporal development of women's higher PTSD risk is unknown. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we examine how prospective studies on PTSD development (k = 47) consider sex and gender across four domains (samples, terminology, analyses, and reporting). Further, we differentially analyze sex/gender differences within five time intervals from 1 month to 5 years posttrauma. PTSD prevalence (OR = 1.72 [1.27-2.34]) and severity (g = 0.31 [0.09, 0.53]) were increased for women relative to men at 1 month posttrauma already, that is, at the first timepoint of a possible PTSD diagnosis. PTSD severity was elevated for women compared to men across all time intervals, but evidence for increased PTSD prevalence for women relative to men was less stable with longer follow-ups. Despite women's higher PTSD burdens, they were clearly underrepresented in samples (68.3% male, 31.7% female participants). Only 5.0% of studies explained or described their understanding of sex and gender, and only 2.6% used sex as discovery variable, that is, investigating sex-dependent risk mechanisms. Sex and gender aspects in design, data, and discussion were considered by only one-third of studies each. Trauma research falls short of its potential to adequately consider sex and gender. Sex- and gender-sensitive practices can advance rigor, innovation, and equity in psychopathology research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 259, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine levels of agreement between parents, teachers and children on mental symptoms in the children. Teachers, children and parents constitute the TRIAD in the perception of psychopathology in children. Analyzing the perceptions of psychopathology from the perspectives of parents, teachers, and children is essential for a comprehensive understanding of a child's mental health. METHODS: We identified 195 participants across ten randomly sampled primary schools in South East Kenya. Potential participants were randomly selected and a sampling interval calculated to determine the study participants. The children (Class 5-8; aged 11-14) completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale, the parents the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) on their children and the teachers completed the Teachers Rating Form (TRF) on the children. Only parents and teachers who gave consent as well as children who gave assent were included in the study. Analysis was conducted using Stata 14.1 and Pearson correlation coefficients used to calculate the correlations between CBCL, YSR and TRF. RESULTS: The children agreed least with the parents and more with the teachers. There was a greater agreement between the children and their teachers in 5 (2 internalizing disorders and 3 externalizing disorders) out of the 8 conditions. Children and parents agreed only on somatic disorders and conduct disorders. YSR mean scores were significantly lower than those for CBCL for all problem scales. Mean scores of TRF and YSR were comparable in the majority of the problems measured. CONCLUSION: We suggest broad-based psychoeducation to include children, parents/guardians and teachers to enhance shared awareness of psychopathology and uptake of treatment and for the consideration of an integrated mental health system.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Transtorno da Conduta , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Quênia , Estudos Transversais , Psicopatologia , Pais , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
10.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 165-180, Abr 1, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232227

RESUMO

El temperamento difícil es un conjunto de características conductuales asociadas a la salud mental y un predictor significativo de psicopatología. El objetivo de este estudio era investigar qué características temperamentales pueden considerarse atributos del temperamento difícil en adultos lituanos. La muestra consistió en 429 adultos de entre 18 y 79 años de edad. Se utilizó el “Cuestionario de temperamento adulto” para evaluar las características temperamentales y el temperamento difícil percibido. Los datos se analizaron mediante un enfoque de métodos mixtos. Los resultados mostraron que el conjunto de atributos percibidos como constitutivos del temperamento difícil incluye características como el estado de ánimo negativo, la intensidad de las reacciones emocionales, la baja adaptabilidad, el retraimiento y la baja regularidad. El análisis de los datos cuantitativos reveló una inesperada relación negativa entre el temperamento difícil percibido y la característica de ritmicidad, mientras que en los datos cualitativos surgió una nueva categoría de terquedad. Estos hallazgos aportan nuevos conocimientos tanto sobre las especificidades culturales del temperamento difícil como sobre el contenido del constructo temperamento en general. Estos resultados también pueden ayudar en el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones sobre el temperamento difícil, así como en la planificación de intervenciones de salud mental y asesoramiento psicológico.(AU)


Difficult temperament is a set of behavioral characteristics that areassociated with mental health and a significant predictor of psychopathology.This study aims to investigate which temperamental characteristics can beconsidered attributes of difficult temperament in Lithuanian adults. The sampleconsisted of 429 adults between 18 and 79 years of age. The Adult TemperamentQuestionnaire was used to assess temperamental characteristics and perceiveddifficult temperament. Data were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. Theresults revealed that the set of attributes perceived as constituting difficulttemperament includes characteristics such as negative mood, intensity ofemotional reactions, low adaptability, withdrawal, and low regularity.Quantitative data analysis uncovered an unexpected negative relationshipbetween perceived difficult temperament and the rhythmicity characteristic, whilea new category of stubbornness emerged in the qualitative data. The findingsprovide new knowledge about both the cultural specifics of difficult temperamentand the content of the temperament construct in general. These results can alsoaid in the development of further research on difficult temperament, as well as inthe planning of mental health interventions and psychological counseling.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Comportamento , Temperamento , Temperamento/classificação , Saúde Mental , Psicopatologia
11.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2967, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572780

RESUMO

Transdiagnostic models of psychopathology address many of the shortcomings common to categorical diagnostic systems. These empirically derived models conceptualize psychopathology as a few broad interrelated and hierarchically arranged dimensions, with an overarching general psychopathology dimension, the p-factor, at the apex. While transdiagnostic models are gaining prominence in mental health research, the lack of available tools has limited their clinical translation. The present study explored the potential of creating transdiagnostic scales from the joint factor structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory, Alternative Model of Personality Disorder trait scales (AMPD), and the clinical scales of the SPECTRA: Indices of Psychopathology (SPECTRA). Exploratory factor analysis in a clinical sample (n = 212) identified five factors corresponding to the Negative Affect/Internalizing, Detachment, Antagonism/Externalizing, Disinhibition/Externalizing, and Thought Disorder transdiagnostic dimensions. Goldberg's "Bass-Ackward" method supported a hierarchical structure. Five composite transdiagnostic scales were created by summing each factor's highest loading PAI and SPECTRA scales. A global psychopathology scale was created by summing the five composite scales. All the composite scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Correlations between the composite scales and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 provide initial validity evidence for four composite and global scales. The composite thought disorder scale had no conceptually corresponding NEO domain. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
12.
JMIR Ment Health ; 11: e50136, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As depression is highly heterogenous, an increasing number of studies investigate person-specific associations of depressive symptoms in longitudinal data. However, most studies in this area of research conceptualize symptom interrelations to be static and time invariant, which may lead to important temporal features of the disorder being missed. OBJECTIVE: To reveal the dynamic nature of depression, we aimed to use a recently developed technique to investigate whether and how associations among depressive symptoms change over time. METHODS: Using daily data (mean length 274, SD 82 d) of 20 participants with depression, we modeled idiographic associations among depressive symptoms, rumination, sleep, and quantity and quality of social contacts as dynamic networks using time-varying vector autoregressive models. RESULTS: The resulting models showed marked interindividual and intraindividual differences. For some participants, associations among variables changed in the span of some weeks, whereas they stayed stable over months for others. Our results further indicated nonstationarity in all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Idiographic symptom networks can provide insights into the temporal course of mental disorders and open new avenues of research for the study of the development and stability of psychopathological processes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia
13.
Qual Life Res ; 33(7): 1937-1947, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656406

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) may request hormone therapy and various surgical operations to change their physical characteristics. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of two treatments, mastectomy and gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT), on adults with GD who were assigned female at birth (GD AFAB). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we gathered data from a total of 269 individuals in three groups: (a) untreated group (n = 121), (b) GAHT group (n = 84) who had been receiving treatment for at least 6 months, and (c) GAHT-MAST group (n = 64) who had been using GAHT for at least 6 months and had undergone mastectomy at least 3 months prior. All participants were asked to complete the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), and the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire- Brief Form, Turkish Version (WHOQOL-BREF-Tr). RESULTS: We found that individuals in the untreated group had higher psychopathological symptoms and body uneasiness scores, and lower quality of life scores compared to both GAHT and GAHT-MAST groups. There was no difference in psychopathology between the GAHT-MAST group and the GAHT group, but body uneasiness scores were lower, and quality of life scores were higher in the GAHT-MAST group. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that individuals receiving GAHT improved mental health, body satisfaction, and overall quality of life. Combining mastectomy with GAHT may further enhance these benefits.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Disforia de Gênero , Mastectomia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Disforia de Gênero/cirurgia , Disforia de Gênero/tratamento farmacológico , Mastectomia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 133, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438352

RESUMO

Aberrations to metacognition-the ability to reflect on and evaluate self-performance-are a feature of poor mental health. Theoretical models of post-traumatic stress disorder propose that following severe stress or trauma, maladaptive metacognitive evaluations and appraisals of the event drive the development of symptoms. Empirical research is required in order to reveal whether disruptions to metacognition cause or contribute to symptom development in line with theoretical accounts, or are simply a consequence of ongoing psychopathology. In two experiments, using hierarchical Bayesian modelling of metacognition measured in a memory recognition task, we assessed whether distortions to metacognition occur at a state-level after an acute stress induction, and/or at a trait-level in a sample of individuals experiencing intrusive memories following traumatic stress. Results from experiment 1, an in-person laboratory-based experiment, demonstrated that heightened psychological responses to the stress induction were associated with poorer metacognitive efficiency, despite there being no overall change in metacognitive efficiency from pre- to post-stress (N = 27). Conversely, in experiment 2, an online experiment using the same metamemory task, we did not find evidence of metacognitive alterations in a transdiagnostic sample of patients with intrusive memory symptomatology following traumatic stress (N = 36, compared to 44 matched controls). Our results indicate a relationship between state-level psychological responses to stress and metacognitive alterations. The lack of evidence for pre- to post-stress differences in metamemory illustrates the importance for future studies to reveal the direction of this relationship, and consequently the duration of stress-associated metacognitive impairments and their impact on mental health.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Saúde Mental , Fenótipo , Psicopatologia
15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0288386, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466678

RESUMO

Impaired executive functions (EF) have been found within various mental disorders (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia spectrum disorders) as described in DSM-5. However, although impaired EF has been observed within several categories of mental disorders, empirical research on direct relations between EF and broader dimension of psychopathology is still scarce. Therefore, in the current investigation we examined relations between three EF performance tasks and self-reported dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., the internalizing, externalizing, and thought disorder spectra) in a combined dataset of patients with a broad range of mental disorders (N = 440). Despite previously reported results that indicate impaired EF in several categories of mental disorders, in this study no direct relations were found between EF performance tasks and self-reported broader dimensions of psychopathology. These results indicate that relations between EF and psychopathology could be more complex and non-linear in nature. We evaluate the need for integration of EF and dimensional models of psychopathology and reflect on EF as a possible transdiagnostic factor of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Função Executiva , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 152, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503761

RESUMO

Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been well characterized in adults, its epidemiology in children is unclear. The current study provides the first population-based examination of the prevalence of PTSD, sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates, clinical sequelae, and associations with psychiatric treatment in preadolescents 9-10 years old in the United States. Data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (release 5.0) was analyzed. Participants (unweighted n = 11,875) were recruited from 21 sites across the United States. Current and lifetime PTSD prevalence were estimated, as was treatment use among children with PTSD. Sociodemographic, psychiatric correlates and sequelae of PTSD were analyzed using logistic regression, as was the association between PTSD and psychiatric treatment. After the application of propensity weights, lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 2.17%. Sexual minority status, being multiracial, having unmarried parents, and family economic insecurity were associated with greater odds of PTSD. Among psychiatric disorders, separation anxiety was most strongly associated with PTSD, although general comorbid psychopathology was associated with greater odds of PTSD. Prior history of PTSD predicted a new onset of other psychiatric disorders after PTSD remission. Nearly one in three children with lifetime PTSD did not receive psychiatric treatment, despite negative long-term outcomes of PTSD and significant psychiatric comorbidity. Even among preadolescents who experience full remission of PTSD, a significant risk for future psychiatric illness remains. Further, the current findings underscore the need for improved efforts to reduce unmet treatment needs among those with PTSD at this age.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Comorbidade , Psicopatologia , Progressão da Doença
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7050, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528096

RESUMO

Childhood adversity, a prevalent experience, is related to a higher risk for externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Alterations in the development of cognitive processes, for example in the attention-interference domain may link childhood adversity and psychopathology. Interfering stimuli can vary in their salience, i.e. ability to capture attentional focus, and valence. However, it is not known if interference by salience or valence is associated with self-reported adversity. In two independent study samples of healthy men (Study 1: n = 44; mean age [standard deviation (SD)] = 25.9 [3.4] years; Study 2: n = 37; 43.5 [9.7] years) we used the attention modulation task (AMT) that probed interference by two attention-modulating conditions, salience and valence separately across repeated target stimuli. The AMT measures the effects of visual distractors (pictures) on the performance of auditory discrimination tasks (target stimuli). We hypothesized that participants reporting higher levels of childhood adversity, measured with the childhood trauma questionnaire, would show sustained interference in trials with lower salience. Due to conflicting reports on the valence-modulation, we tested the valence condition in an exploratory manner. Linear mixed models revealed an interaction between reported childhood adversity and the salience condition across tone presentations in both study samples (Sample 1: p = .03; Sample 2: p = .04), while there were no effects for the valence condition across both studies. Our study suggests that higher self-reported childhood adversity is related to faster processing of target cues during high salience, but slower during low salience conditions. These results hint to the mechanisms linking childhood adversity and psychopathological symptoms in the attentional domain.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Testes Psicológicos , Masculino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Atenção , Psicopatologia
18.
Psychiatr Hung ; 39(1): 68-79, 2024.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502017

RESUMO

Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka, the great Hungarian artist was called a sort of a "crazy painter" by his contemporaries. Retrospectively, he was diagnosed as suffering not from psychosis but a schizotypal personality disorder based on seven out of nine diagnostic criteria. However, we still need a more precise definition of these criteria. It was also said that his paintings are like those made by the mentally ill. But following the principles and methods of the psychopathological art, especially that of Rennert, we find definitely more dissimilitudes than resemblances. In order to obtain a more accurate profile of this extraordinary creator, we still need further research focusing on the facts.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Psiquiatria , Masculino , Humanos , Hungria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Psicopatologia
19.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 30(2): 147-156, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to assess psychosocial functioning in older patients with bipolar I disorder compared with healthy subjects and to identify the psychopathological factors associated with poor functioning in patients. METHODS: We recruited 68 euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder from the outpatient unit and 89 healthy controls who were older than 50 years of age. In addition to clinical variables, we used other standardized measures, including the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Functional Assessment Short Test, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. RESULTS: Older patients with bipolar I disorder had poorer psychosocial functioning in general and in the domains of occupation, autonomy, and cognition than the healthy controls on the basis of previously defined Functional Assessment Short Test cutoff scores. We found that 35.3% (95% CI: 23%-47%) of the patients did not have clinically significant functional impairment, 38.2% (95% CI: 26%-50%) had mild impairment, and 26.5% (95% CI: 16%-37%) had moderate impairment. Depressive symptoms and impaired cognition were associated with poor overall functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The level of psychosocial functioning was heterogeneous among the patients. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms, even at low levels, and impaired cognition predicted poor functioning in euthymic middle-aged and older patients with bipolar I disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Cognição , Psicopatologia
20.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 133(3): 223-234, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483518

RESUMO

Sex differences in psychopathology are well-established, with females demonstrating higher rates of internalizing (INT) psychopathology and males demonstrating higher rates of externalizing (EXT) psychopathology. Using two waves of data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (N = 6,778 at each wave), the current study tested whether the relations between sex and psychopathology might be accounted for by structural brain differences. In general, we found robust, relatively consistent relations between sex and structural morphometry across waves. Relatively few morphometric brain variables were significantly related to INT or EXT across waves, however, with very small effect sizes when present. Next, we tested the extent to which each morphometric brain variable could account for the associations of sex with INT and EXT psychopathology. We found a total of 26 brain regions that accounted for significant portions of the associations between sex and psychopathology across both waves (almost all related to EXT), although the effects present were very small. The current evidence suggests that in children aged 9-12, multiple whole-brain and regional brain variables appear to statistically account for small portions of the sex-psychopathology links, especially for externalizing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Caracteres Sexuais
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