Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.044
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580767

RESUMO

In this review, sequential stages of the development of negative disorders doctrine are presented beginning from first description of negative symptoms (Aretaeus of Cappadocia - AD I-II) and the first deficit classification (including two polar types: congenital and acquired dementia by J.-E. Esquirol) to indigenous Russian (I.M. Balinsky, I.P. Merzheevsky, S.S. Korsakov, V.P. Serbsky and others) and foreign (B. Morel, H. Schüle, K. Kahlbaum, E. Hecker) studies of the middle 19th - beginning of 20th century. Special attention in this review of studies in prenosological period is given to the W. Griesinger's development of the main statements of deficit changes' classification and development pathways. Authors' studies created conditions not only for psychopathological construct of negative disorders to be set apart into particular category - «secondary insanity¼ (a group of psychiatric set of symptoms, which accumulate manifestations of mental deficit), but for to be subsequently clinically studied.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Transtornos Psicóticos , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Federação Russa
3.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 29(1): 81-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417376

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article outlines a four-part strategy for future research in mental health and complementary disciplines that will broaden understanding of mass shootings and multi-victim gun homicides. First, researchers must abandon the starting assumption that acts of mass violence are driven primarily by diagnosable psychopathology in isolated "lone wolf" individuals. The destructive motivations must be situated, instead, within larger social structures and cultural scripts. Second, mental health professionals and scholars must carefully scrutinize any apparent correlation of violence with mental illness for evidence of racial bias in the official systems that define, measure, and record psychiatric diagnoses, as well as those that enforce laws and impose criminal justice sanctions. Third, to better understand the role of firearm access in the occurrence and lethality of mass shootings, research should be guided by an overarching framework that incorporates social, cultural, legal, and political, but also psychological, aspects of private gun ownership in the United States. Fourth, effective policies and interventions to reduce the incidence of mass shootings over time-and to prevent serious acts of violence more generally-will require an expanded body of well-funded interdisciplinary research that is informed and implemented through the sustained engagement of researchers with affected communities and other stakeholders in gun violence prevention. Emerging evidence that the coronavirus pandemic has produced a sharp increase both in civilian gun sales and in the social and psychological determinants of injurious behavior adds special urgency to this agenda.


Assuntos
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , /complicações , /psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Carência Cultural , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/prevenção & controle , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
6.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(329): 37-44, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129405

RESUMO

To try to understand acting out, it depends of conciliation between the reality of the act and the psychic life. For that, it is necessary to listen the word of the criminal authors. What transgression represents for them? Based on clinical experience in a correctional center, this article takes a closer look about prisoner, incarcerated after having committed criminal acts. This clinical material could help to raise a new perspective around modern psychopathology. What is the act's difference between neurosis, perversion, borderline and psychosis? Our research will try to differentiate the psychic issues.


Assuntos
Encenação , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psicopatologia
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 343-345, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early neglect and abuse are a major societal problem, with negative consequences for the victim. There is clear evidence that early neglect and abuse are related to an increased prevalence of mental health problems. On the other hand there are children that show resilience towards negative influences in early childhood. In this paper I will describe results of empirical studies that reveal the negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) as well as studies on resilience. METHODS: Studies relevant for the topic are reviewed. RESULTS: In many individuals adverse childhood experiences lead to impaired functioning of neural structures that increase the risk for later psychopathology and maldaptive functioning. However, according to one of the major principles of developmental psychopathology we see multifinality of outcome as some individuals show signs of resilience. CONCLUSION: Efforts to prevent adverse influences on children early in life are urgently needed to prevent long-lasting negative consequences that go along with subjective suffering and enormous societal costs. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms of vulnerability and resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Resiliência Psicológica
9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 811-817, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867523

RESUMO

Causal pathways to disruptive behavior disorders, even within the same diagnostic category, are varied. Both equifinality and multifinality pose considerable challenges to uncovering underlying mechanisms and understanding varied developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. Uncovering genetic causes requires improved granularity in how we operationalize presentation and developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. If we want to integrate the study of genetic, environmental, and neurocognitive factors within a longitudinal framework, we need to improve measurement. Furthermore, brain changes associated with disruptive behavior disorders should not simply be understood as outcomes of genetic and environmental influences, but also as factors that reciprocally influence future social environments over time in ways that are important in contributing to risk and resilience. Advancing the field with regard to these challenges will result in more truly integrated investigation of disruptive behavior disorders, which holds the promise of improving our ability to develop more effective preventive and intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Encéfalo , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/tendências , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
10.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(315): 20-22, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951691

RESUMO

What place should be given to puberty? In France, it is an intimate act that belongs only to the young girl. In Sri Lanka, it is a family and collective act that is ritualized and celebrated. Young girls born into Tamil families living in France have to make these very different logics cohabit. Analyse of a young girl's great suffering at puberty and its methods of reconstruction, which take into account the ways of doing and thinking about puberty here and there.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Puberdade/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Puberdade/psicologia
11.
Rev. med. cine ; 16(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197479

RESUMO

La trama del Joker nos muestra el surgimiento del antihéroe a partir de Arthur, un individuo con un trastorno llamado afectación pseudobulbar, con antecedentes de abandono y abuso físico severo y maltrato con probable traumatismo encefálico, que vive sin vínculos sociales, carente de afecto, como cuidador primario de una familiar dependiente enteramente de él; el protagonista se mueve en un ambiente adverso, hostil en el que la sociedad que espera que él se comporte como si no tuviera ningún trastorno. un comportamiento normal”. Sin recursos y rechazado por su medio, resulta colateralmente afectado por la reducción de presupuesto para terapia y medicamentos. En un momento decisivo, convergen los diferentes detonantes de sus manifestaciones psicopatológicas que dan paso a la transformación del joker y paradójicamente lo llevarán a ser aceptado socialmente. Joker nos invita a reflexionar sobre la importancia de a los programas de salud mental, los valores humanos, la cultura de la Paz y el buen trato como pilares fundamentales para promover la salud mental en la sociedad. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo el revisitar la fisiopatología de la afección pseudobulbar y establecer los aspectos clínicos, familiares, ambientales y socioculturales potencialmente asociados a la conducta destructiva de Joker


The plot of the Joker shows us the emergence of the antihero from Arthur, an individual with a pseudobulbar disorder, a history of abandonment and severe physical abuse and abuse with probable brain trauma, living without social ties, lacking affection, as a primary caregiver of a relative dependent entirely on him; the protagonist moves in an adverse, hostile environment in which the society that expects him to behave as if he had no disorder. normal behavior. «Without resources and rejected by its means, it is collaterally affected by the reduction of budget for therapy and medications. At a decisive moment, the different triggers of his psychopathological manifestations converge that give way to the transformation of the joker and paradoxically lead him to be socially accepted. Joker invites us to reflect on the importance of mental health programs, human values, the culture of Peace and good treatment as fundamental pillars to promote mental health in society. This article aims to revisit the pathophysiology of the pseudobulbar condition and establish the clinical, family, environmental and sociocultural aspects potentially associated with Joker’s destructive behavior


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina nas Artes , Filmes Cinematográficos , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Saúde Mental , Síndrome , Psicopatologia , Riso/psicologia
13.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(6. Vyp. 2): 5-12, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729685

RESUMO

The concepts of schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders have been changed a lot since their beginnings more than century ago due to many factors such as the dominance of a certain hypothesis during a particular period of time, the development of new clinical research and specific treatments as well as different understanding of the boundaries between mental disorders. It was appeared the diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders which still based only on clinical symptoms. Whether psychotic disorders can be better represented dimensionally or categorically remains a challenging question. Regarding schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders, there are some important changes in DSM-5 and ICD-11 concerning the use of quantitative assessment of psychopathological domains, course of psychosis and remission as well as giving more attention to cognitive issues. The main differences between these classifications are the structure of corresponding sections and different criteria of some disorders. Before the ICD-11 implementation in 2022 into clinical practice, it is highly recommended to conduct a set of trainings for clinicians along with the comments to Diagnostic guidelines for Schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Psicopatologia
14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(6. Vyp. 2): 13-22, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729686

RESUMO

The authors consider current and own conceptions about correlations of the processes underlying the pathogenesis of schizophrenia presented by negative and positive disorders. With growth of academic psychiatry, evaluation of a correlation between positive and negative dimensions has changed dramatically: on the one hand presenting in clinical unity - simultaneous psychopathologic structures, and on the other hand being clinically and pathogenetically heterogenic in dimensional structure. According to our clinical and biological findings and an analysis of fundamental neurobiological studies, positive and negative disorders present in the clinical picture of schizophrenia as two separate psychopathological and pathogenetic structures. A new paradigm of the correlation between positive and negative structures - the interaction between positive and deficit symptoms - reveals psychopathological functions differentiated for each of dimensional structures. Negative disorders act as «transformers¼ modifying characteristics of primary transnosological positive disorders to the level of psychopathological structures preferable for schizophrenia; positive disorders, in their turn, act as «moderators¼ augmenting, amplifying manifestations of negative symptoms. This psychopathological construct of the correlation between dimensional structures paves a way for the development of a new concept of psychopharmacological treatment of schizophrenic deficit: both negative symptoms and amplifying positive symptoms are considered as «target symptoms¼ for pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730312

RESUMO

Environmental adversity is associated with a wide range of biological outcomes and behaviors that seem to fulfill a need to favor immediate over long-term benefits. Adversity is also associated with decreased investment in cooperation, which is defined as a long-term strategy. Beyond establishing the correlation between adversity and cooperation, the channel through which this relationship arises remains unclear. We propose that this relationship is mediated by a present bias at the psychological level, which is embodied in the reproduction-maintenance trade-off at the biological level. We report two pre-registered studies applying structural equation models to test this relationship on large-scale datasets (the European Values Study and the World Values Survey). The present study replicates existing research linking adverse environments (both in childhood and in adulthood) with decreased investment in adult cooperation and finds that this association is indeed mediated by variations in individuals' reproduction-maintenance trade-off.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicopatologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 126-132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645701

RESUMO

Authoritative classification systems for psychopathology such as the DSM and ICD are shifting toward more dimensional approaches in the field of personality disorders (PDs). In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the dimensionally oriented DSM-5 alternative model of PDs (AMPD). Since its publication in 2013, the AMPD has inspired a substantial number of studies, underlining its generative influence on the field. Generally speaking, this literature illustrates both the reliability and validity of the constructs delineated in the AMPD. The literature also illustrates empirical challenges to the conceptual clarity of the AMPD, such as evidence of substantial correlations between indices of personality functioning (criterion A in the AMPD) and maladaptive personality traits (criterion B in the AMPD). Key future directions pertain to linking the AMPD literature with applied efforts to improve the lives of persons who suffer from PDs, and surmounting challenges germane to the evolution of the DSM itself.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 354-359, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643623

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Humanos
18.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 157-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663821

RESUMO

Almost all forms of psychopathology, including personality disorders, are arrived at through complex interactions among neurobiological vulnerabilities and environmental risk factors across development. Yet despite increasing recognition of etiological complexity, psychopathology research is still dominated by searches for large main effects causes. This derives in part from reliance on traditional inferential methods, including ordinary factor analysis, regression, ANCOVA, and other techniques that use statistical partialing to isolate unique effects. In principle, some of these methods can accommodate etiological complexity, yet as typically applied they are insensitive to interactive functional dependencies (modulating effects) among etiological influences. Here, we use our developmental model of antisocial and borderline traits to illustrate challenges faced when modeling complex etiological mechanisms of psychopathology. We then consider how computational models, which are rarely used in the personality disorders literature, remedy some of these challenges when combined with hierarchical Bayesian analysis.


Assuntos
Análise Fatorial , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 339-352, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615902

RESUMO

Mindfulness in Trainee Psychotherapies with Children and Adolescents The implementation of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in cognitive-behavioral therapy has greatly increased over the past few years. However, there is little research about the implementation of MBIs in individual child and adolescent psychotherapy. The present paper gives an overview of current MBIs and their efficacy in children and adolescents. A depiction of the implementation of MBIs in individual therapy and a description of the "Mindfulness and Relaxation Study - Children and Adolescents" (MARS-CA) is given. The study aims to examine the effects of short session-introducing interventions with mindfulness elements on juvenile patients' psychopathological symptomatology and therapeutic alliance. For this reason, the authors compare session-introducing interventions with mindfulness elements with session-introducing relaxation interventions and no session-introducing intervention. Qualitative results of the pre-study show that both interventions with mindfulness elements and relaxation interventions work well with juvenile patients.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Psicopatologia
20.
J Behav Addict ; 9(2): 181-183, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663384

RESUMO

With the global expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic, social or physical distancing, quarantines, and lockdowns have become more prevalent. Concurrently, Pornhub, one of the largest pornography sites, has reported increased pornography use in multiple countries, with global traffic increasing over 11% from late February to March 17, 2020. While some substantial increases have coincided with Pornhub making its premium services free to countries in lockdowned or quarantined jurisdictions, countries without such free premium access have also reported increases in the range of 4-24%. In addition, pornography searches using the terms "coronavirus", "corona", and "covid" have reached more than 9.1 million. In this letter, we discuss COVID-19-related pornography-use patterns and the impact they may have with respect to problematic pornography use.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento Aditivo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicopatologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA