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1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(12): 1069-1084, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis is a cornerstone of clinical practice for mental health care providers, yet traditional diagnostic systems have well-known shortcomings, including inadequate reliability, high comorbidity, and marked within-diagnosis heterogeneity. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a data-driven, hierarchically based alternative to traditional classifications that conceptualizes psychopathology as a set of dimensions organized into increasingly broad, transdiagnostic spectra. Prior work has shown that using a dimensional approach improves reliability and validity, but translating a model like HiTOP into a workable system that is useful for health care providers remains a major challenge. METHOD: The present work outlines the HiTOP model and describes the core principles to guide its integration into clinical practice. RESULTS: Potential advantages and limitations of the HiTOP model for clinical utility are reviewed, including with respect to case conceptualization and treatment planning. A HiTOP approach to practice is illustrated and contrasted with an approach based on traditional nosology. Common barriers to using HiTOP in real-world health care settings and solutions to these barriers are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: HiTOP represents a viable alternative to classifying mental illness that can be integrated into practice today, although research is needed to further establish its utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Teóricos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
2.
Psychopathology ; 52(4): 221-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610542

RESUMO

Recently, there has been renewed interest in Schneider's first-rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia, thanks in part to a meta-analysis of their diagnostic accuracy, which deserves much credit for its methodological rigor. Conceptualising FRS as a diagnostic test whose performance can be measured in terms of sensitivity and specificity involves some issues that require reflection. First, the full adequacy of sensitivity as a measure of diagnostic accuracy for FRS might be questioned. However, it is conceptually acceptable, though FRS are at a disadvantage as compared with many other psychiatric "diagnostic tests" that should have perfect sensitivity under ideal conditions. Also, from a psychopathological perspective it may well be argued that FRS cannot be conceptualised as a simple, inexpensive diagnostic test suitable for screening purposes; however, the history of the concept reveals some reasons why it may be legitimate to view them this way. While no other relevant study has appeared after the publication of the meta-analysis, data on a further 166 patients from a study that could not be included due to incompletely reported data were located. This brought the total to 4,236 patients from 17 studies on the ability of FRS to differentiate schizophrenia from other psychoses. The resulting summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios are 60.2%, 75.9%, 2.50, and 0.52, respectively. FRS have a kind of double nature, as they can be legitimately considered as belonging to both a sophisticated framework grounded in phenomenological psychopathology and an eminently pragmatic framework grounded in clinical epidemiology. When FRS are conceptualised as simple clinical indicators that require low levels of inference, the available estimates of their diagnostic accuracy are a fairly valid appraisal of their performance and usefulness, and suggest that FRS have some value in differential diagnosis. However, when FRS are conceptualised as profoundly anomalous experiences that can be properly identified and evaluated only by using a phenomenological approach, these estimates can hardly be seen as a valid evaluation of their diagnostic significance. Phenomenologically informed studies are needed to address this research gap.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Psychopathology ; 52(4): 271-274, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593965

RESUMO

Denial of pregnancy (DOP) is a challenging condition with poorly understood psychopathology. DOP is reported to be associated with problems such as severe psychological conflicts, obstetric complications, risks to the newborn, and difficulties in bonding with the infant. In this paper, we present and discuss the clinical manifestations of a severe form of DOP that lasted until the time of delivery with resultant multifaceted complications. Our paper highlights the severity of psychopathology and the need for coordinated management. Descriptions from different cultural backgrounds would improve the conceptual understanding of DOP.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
4.
J Pers Disord ; 33(5): 577-622, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621543

RESUMO

Personality disorders have long been bedeviled by a host of conceptual and methodological quandaries. Starting from the assumption that personality disorders are inherently interpersonal conditions that reflect folk concepts of social impairment, the authors contend that a subset of personality disorders, rather than traditional syndromes, are emergent interpersonal syndromes (EISs): interpersonally malignant configurations (statistical interactions) of distinct personality dimensions that may be only modestly, weakly, or even negatively correlated. Preliminary support for this perspective derives from a surprising source, namely, largely forgotten research on the intercorrelations among the subscales of select MMPI/MMPI-2 clinical scales. Using psychopathic personality as a case example, the authors offer provisional evidence for the EIS hypothesis from four lines of research and delineate its implications for personality disorder theory, research, and classification. Conceptualizing some personality disorders as EISs elucidates long-standing quandaries and controversies in the psychopathology literature and affords fruitful avenues for future investigation.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome
5.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 187, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many agree that the biopsychosocial contributions to psychopathology are complex, yet it is unclear how we can make sense of this complexity. One approach is to reduce this complexity to a few necessary and sufficient biopsychosocial factors; although this approach is easy to understand, it has little explanatory power. Another approach is to fully embrace complexity, proposing that each instance of psychopathology is caused by a partially unique set of biopsychosocial factors; this approach has high explanatory power, but is impossible to comprehend. Due to deficits in either explanatory power or comprehensibility, both approaches limit our ability to make substantial advances in understanding, predicting, and preventing psychopathology. Thus, how can we make sense of biopsychosocial factor complexity? MAIN TEXT: There is a third possible approach that can resolve this dilemma, with high explanatory power and high comprehensibility. This approach involves understanding, predicting, and preventing psychopathology in terms of a small set of psychological primitives rather than biopsychosocial factors. Psychological primitives are the fundamental and irreducible elements of the mind, mediating all biopsychosocial factor influences on psychopathology. All psychological phenomena emerge from these primitives. Over the past decade, this approach has been successfully applied within basic psychological science, most notably affective science. It explains the sum of the evidence in affective science and has generated several novel research directions. This approach is equally applicable to psychopathology. The primitive-based approach does not eliminate the role of biopsychosocial factors, but rather recasts them as indeterminate causal influences on psychological primitives. In doing so, it reframes research away from factor-based questions (e.g., which situations cause suicide?) and toward primitive-based questions (e.g., how are suicidality concepts formed, altered, activated, and implemented?). This is a valuable shift because factor-based questions have indeterminate answers (e.g., infinite situations could cause suicide) whereas primitive-based questions have determinate answers (e.g., there are specific processes that undergird all concepts). CONCLUSION: The primitive-based approach accounts for biopsychosocial complexity, ties clinical science more directly to basic psychological science, and could facilitate progress in understanding, predicting, and preventing psychopathology.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Fatores Sociológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Previsões , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
6.
Psychopathology ; 52(2): 67-74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394534

RESUMO

Based on the phenomenology of the body and ecological psychology, this paper introduces a series of concepts that enable us to overcome the still prevailing idea of an inner psyche and a corresponding individualistic view of psychopathology. These concepts are the phenomenal field, lived space, intercorporeality, and body memory; they correspond to an embodied, enactive, and ecological view of the mind. On their basis, psychiatric illnesses may be conceived as relational disorders resulting in various restrictions and impairments of the patient's lived space. The main tasks of psychotherapy, then, are to use the interactive phenomenal field as a means of restructuring the patient's relational patterns and to support his or her capacity to engage in more beneficial interactions with others. In this way, phenomenology can valuably contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate processes of the psychotherapeutic encounter.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Nature ; 572(7767): 43-50, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367027

RESUMO

Science fiction notions of altering problematic memories are starting to become reality as techniques emerge through which unique memories can be edited. Here we review memory-editing research with a focus on improving the treatment of psychopathology. Studies highlight two windows of memory vulnerability: initial storage, or consolidation; and re-storage after retrieval, or reconsolidation. Techniques have been identified that can modify memories at each stage, but translating these methods from animal models to humans has been challenging and implementation into clinical therapies has produced inconsistent benefits. The science of memory editing is more complicated and nuanced than fiction, but its rapid development holds promise for future applications.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Psicopatologia/tendências , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(11): 1263-1273, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research evidence suggests the need to identify treatments based on a more precise characterization of psychopathology and psychiatric comorbidity in anorexia nervosa. Network analysis provides a new method to conceptualize psychopathology. We use this approach to investigate the relationships between eating disorder and general psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: Four-hundred and five adolescents with anorexia nervosa and illness duration less than 3 years were consecutively recruited from those admitted to inpatient treatment. They completed the following questionnaires: the Eating Disorder Inventory-3, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the Youth Self Report. A network analysis was conducted, including eating psychopathology measures, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress problems. We employ a novel approach, the bridge function, to identify symptom clusters. RESULTS: Depression symptoms and personal alienation were the nodes with the highest centrality in the network, followed by asceticism, post-traumatic stress problems, drive to thinness, low self-esteem, and anxiety physical symptoms. Three symptom clusters (relative to eating disorder psychopathology, self-esteem problems, and internalizing difficulties) were identified. Depression symptoms, personal alienation, low self-esteem, and interoceptive deficits showed the highest bridge centrality. Besides eating disorder core symptoms, negative affect and internalizing symptoms seem to contribute to anorexia nervosa psychopathology independently from illness duration effects. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that anorexia nervosa is characterized by a broad psychopathological spectrum rather than the mere eating disorder core symptoms, confirm the need to re-conceptualize psychiatric comorbidity in this disorder, and provide intriguing diagnostic and therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meta-Análise em Rede
9.
Psychopathology ; 52(3): 191-197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dispositional mindfulness deficits and psychopathic personality traits have been shown to be closely associated and independent predictors of antisocial behaviors (AB) in young adults. However, the interaction effects of these 2 factors have not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of dispositional mindfulness and psychopathic traits to ABs in a college student sample. METHODS: Participants were 1,572 students from different French universities who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analyses were conducted in order to test a moderation model between psychopathic traits and AB. RESULTS: Moderation analyses revealed that dispositional mindfulness interacted with psychopathic personality traits in predicting AB. In males with high levels of dispositional mindfulness, as psychopathic traits increased, AB increased less than in males with low levels of dispositional mindfulness. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests possible implications for prevention and treatment of AB among non-clinical young adults with relatively high psychopathic traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychopathology ; 52(3): 153-160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide arguments for a phenomenologically informed clinical approach to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including a plea for clinical attention to the self in ASD. METHODS: Central concepts of continental phenomenology, phenomenological psychopathology, and the phenomenological interview are presented, with an emphasis on the potential unifying qualities of an approach which includes the exploration of subjective and intersubjective experience. These phenomenological concepts and methods are contrasted with the current conceptualization of ASD, where the first-person perspective is not in focus. RESULTS: Contemporary phenomenological papers on ASD address key concepts like intersubjectivity, intercorporeality, and intentionality. However, insights from this theoretical field have not been followed up in clinical research and practice. Consequently, there is (to our knowledge) still a lack of phenomenologically informed clinical explorations of experience of self, others, and the world in ASD. CONCLUSION: A phenomenologically informed focus on the form and structure of subjective experience, including a focus on self-experience in ASD, can lead to new and important insights in relation to clinical differentiation between ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Humanos
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(4): e11837, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many empirical studies that demonstrate the associations between problematic internet use, psychopathological symptoms, and personality traits. However, complex models are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build and test a mediation model based on problematic internet use, psychopathological symptoms, and personality traits. METHODS: Data were collected from a medical addiction center (43 internet addicts) and internet cafés (222 customers) in Beijing (mean age 22.45, SD 4.96 years; 239/265, 90.2% males). Path analysis was applied to test the mediation models using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Based on the preliminary analyses (correlations and linear regression), two different models were built. In the first model, low conscientiousness and depression had a direct significant influence on problematic internet use. The indirect effect of conscientiousness-via depression-was nonsignificant. Emotional stability only affected problematic internet use indirectly, via depressive symptoms. In the second model, low conscientiousness also had a direct influence on problematic internet use, whereas the indirect path via the Global Severity Index was again nonsignificant. Emotional stability impacted problematic internet use indirectly via the Global Severity Index, whereas it had no direct effect on it, as in the first model. CONCLUSIONS: Personality traits (ie, conscientiousness as a protective factor and neuroticism as a risk factor) play a significant role in problematic internet use, both directly and indirectly (via distress level).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet/tendências , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Mediador , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Psychol ; 38(6): 553-562, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: General psychopathology (GPP), as reflected by dimensional symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility, has been shown to have a persistent influence on physical health problems. Yet, little is known about longitudinal changes in GPP and the long-term GPP- physical health process within married couples over their midlater years. This study examined the multilevel influence of GPP trajectories on husbands' and wives' physical health problems at the couple- and individual-levels over a period of 25 years. METHOD: A sample of 257 husbands and wives in enduring marriages (Mean age = 40.85 and 38.81 years in 1990 for husbands and wives, respectively) in Iowa self-reported their GPP and physical health from 1990 to 2015. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate the influence of GPP trajectories (as higher-order latent constructs of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and hostility) during midlife (from 1990 to 2001) on physical health problems in later adulthood (2015) at both the individual- and couple-level. RESULTS: Couple-level trajectories of GPP (husbands' and wives' shared trajectories of GPP) in midlife had long-term influences on couple-level health problems in later adulthood. After adjusting for this couple-level association, husbands' and wives' individual-specific GPP trajectories uniquely influenced their own health problems (actor effects), but no effects were found for their partners' health problems (partner effects). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the multilevel, long-term associations between GPP and health problems for older adults in a couple context, emphasizing the value of considering both couple- and individual-level psychopathology when developing interventions targeting health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicopatologia/métodos , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
14.
Psychopathology ; 52(1): 33-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018215

RESUMO

Categorization-based diagnosis, which endeavors to be consistent with the third-person, objective measures of science, is not always adequate with respect to problems concerning diagnostic accuracy, demarcation problems when there are comorbidities, well-documented problems of symptom amplification, and complications of stigmatization and looping effects. While psychiatric categories have proved useful and convenient for clinicians in identifying a recognizable constellation of symptoms typical for a particular disorder for the purposes of communication and eligibility for treatment regimes, the reification of these categories has without doubt had negative consequences for the patient and also for the general understanding of psychiatric disorders. We argue that a complementary, integrated framework that focuses on descriptive symptom-based classifications (drawing on phenomenological interview methods and narrative) combined with a more comprehensive conception of the human subject (found in the pattern theory of self), can not only offer a solution to some of the vexed issues of psychiatric diagnosis but also support more efficacious therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia/métodos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/patologia
15.
Behav Brain Funct ; 15(1): 1, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823933

RESUMO

The use of animals in neurosciences has a long history. It is considered indispensable in areas in which "translational" research is deemed invaluable, such as behavioral pharmacology and comparative psychology. Animal models are being used in pharmacology and genetics to screen for treatment targets, and in the field of experimental psychopathology to understand the neurobehavioral underpinnings of a disorder and of its putative treatment. The centrality of behavioral models betrays the complexity of the epistemic and semantic considerations which are needed to understand what a model is. In this review, such considerations are made, and the breadth of model building and evaluation approaches is extended to include theoretical considerations on the etiology of mental disorders. This expansion is expected to help improve the validity of behavioral models and to increase their translational value. Moreover, the role of theory in improving construct validity creates the need for behavioral scientists to fully engage this process.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências , Animais , Variação Biológica da População , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Conhecimento , Transtornos Mentais , Semântica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos
16.
Psychother Psychosom ; 88(2): 71-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Network analysis (NA) is an analytical tool that allows one to explore the map of connections and eventual dynamic influences among symptoms and other elements of mental disorders. In recent years, the use of NA in psychopathology has rapidly grown, which calls for a systematic and critical analysis of its clinical utility. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of published empirical studies applying NA in psychopathology, between 2010 and 2017, was conducted. We included the literature published in PubMed and PsycINFO using as keywords any combination of "network analysis" with the terms "anxiety," "affective disorders," "depression," "schizophrenia," "psychosis," "personality disorders," "substance abuse" and "psychopathology." RESULTS: The review showed that NA has been applied in a plethora of mental disorders in adults (i.e., 13 studies on anxiety disorders; 19 on mood disorders; 7 on psychosis; 1 on substance abuse; 1 on borderline personality disorder; 18 on the association of symptoms between disorders), and 6 on childhood and adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: A critical examination of the results of each study suggests that NA helps to identify, in an innovative way, important aspects of psychopathology like the centrality of the symptoms in a given disorder as well as the mutual dynamics among symptoms. Yet, despite these promising results, the clinical utility of NA is still uncertain as there are important limitations on the analytic procedures (e.g., reliability of indices), the type of data included (e.g., typically restricted to secondary analysis of already published data), and ultimately, the psychometric and clinical validity of the results.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
17.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(6): 701-711, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety is thought to influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about how, specifically, anxiety influences ED symptoms and vice versa. Network analysis identifies how symptoms within and across disorders are interconnected. In a network, central nodes (i.e., symptoms) have the strongest relations to other nodes and are thought to maintain psychopathology. Bridge nodes are symptoms in one diagnostic cluster that are strongly connected to symptoms in another diagnostic cluster and are thought to explain comorbidity. We identified central and bridge nodes in a network of ED symptoms and trait anxiety features. METHOD: We estimated a regularized partial correlation network in patients with mixed EDs (N = 296). ED symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Trait anxiety was assessed with the Trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Items to include in the network were selected with a statistical algorithm to ensure that all nodes represented unique constructs. Central and bridge nodes were identified with empirical calculations. RESULTS: Central ED nodes were dietary restraint, as well as overvaluation of and dissatisfaction with shape and weight. The central trait anxiety node was low feelings of satisfaction. The strongest ED bridge node was avoidance of social eating. The strongest trait anxiety bridge node was low self-confidence. DISCUSSION: Avoidance of social eating and low self-esteem may be routes through which EDs and trait anxiety are linked.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853733

RESUMO

Modeling the extremes of mental/emotional conditions requires explicit account of evolutionary-developmental sources of human neurodiversity, not merely psychopathology. The target article's approach could be improved by incorporation of a hierarchical scheme wherein mental/emotional infrastructure interacts across differentiated layers of function. The notion "symptom networks" thus calls for differentiation into hierarchically interacting components of mental/emotional evolution and development.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Emoções , Humanos
19.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(6): 746-751, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924958

RESUMO

Treatments for avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) lack strong empirical support. There is a critical need to conduct adequately powered studies to identify effective treatments for ARFID. As a first step, the primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing Family-based Treatment for ARFID (FBT-ARFID) to usual care (UC). The primary outcomes were recruitment, attrition, suitability, and expectancy rates. The secondary aim was to assess changes in percent estimated body weight, eating related psychopathology, and parental self-efficacy from baseline to end of treatment/UC period in both groups. Recruitment rates were 1.87 per month; 28 children with ARFID and their families were randomized and attrition rate was 21%. Therapeutic suitability and expectancy rating suggested that FBT-ARFID was acceptable to families. Effect size (ES) differences on measures of weight and clinical severity were moderate to large, favoring FBT-ARFID over UC. Parental self-efficacy improvement also demonstrated a large ES favoring FBT-ARFID, which was correlated with improvements in ARFID symptoms. There is a research gap between our knowledge base on how to treat children with ARFID and clinical need. The data presented suggest that an RCT comparing FBT-ARFID and UC is feasible to conduct.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (235): 71-82, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183988

RESUMO

Con este artículo se pretende explicar los principales conceptos que están en la base de la aplicación de la psicomotricidad en el área de la psicogeriatría. Se abordarán las bases fundamentales del dominio científico de la psicomotricidad (conexión cuerpo-mente-relación), la especificidad de la relación entre terapeuta y paciente, la formación del psicomotricista y sus marcos profesionales. Se explicarán los efectos del envejecimiento en el sistema psicomotor (especialmente en la selección, programación y ejecución motora), indicando puntos fundamentales en el desempeño al nivel del equilibrio estático y dinámico, del tono, de la marcha, de la coordinación global e fina, de la estructuración espacial e temporal, de la noción y esquema corporal, de la percepción e integración sensorial y finalmente de la comunicación verbal y no verbal. También se explicitarán los principales síntomas psicomotores de síndromes neurodegenerativos como la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias. Seguidamente, se abordará la evaluación psicomotora de personas mayores, principalmente la aplicación de la versión portuguesa del Éxamen Geronto Psychomoteur1. Serán aclarados los principales objetivos de la intervención psicomotora y cómo se la encuadra, planea y ejecuta en el contexto de un equipo interdisciplinario de psicogeriatría. Por fin, se presentará la estructura general de una sesión de intervención psicomotora y los principales materiales utilizados


This article aims to explain the main concepts that are at the base of the application of psychomotricity in the psychogeriatric area. The fundamental bases of the scientific domain of psychomotricity (body-mind-relationship), the specificity of the relationship between psychomotor-therapist and patient, the training of the psychomotor therapist and its professional frameworks will be addressed. The effects of aging in the psychomotor system will be explained (especially in the selection, programming and motor execution), indicating fundamental points in the performance at the level of static and dynamic balance, tone, gait, global and fine coordination, spatial and temporal structuring, body notion and schema, sensory perception and integration', and finally of verbal and non-verbal communication. The main psychomotor symptoms of neurodegenerative syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias will also be explained. Next, psychomotor assessment of older people will be addressed, mainly the application of the Portuguese version of the Éxamen Geronto Psychomoteur1. The main objectives of the psychomotor intervention and how it is framed, planned and executed in the context of an interdisciplinary psychogeriatric team will be clarified. Finally, the general structure of a psychomotor intervention session and the main materials used will be presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/instrumentação , Demência/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Transtornos Psicomotores/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Transtornos Psicomotores/psicologia
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