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2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD006869, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention of long-term psychological distress following traumatic events is a major concern. Systematic reviews have suggested that individual psychological debriefing is not an effective intervention at preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Over the past 20 years, other forms of intervention have been developed with the aim of preventing PTSD. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of psychological interventions aimed at preventing PTSD in individuals exposed to a traumatic event but not identified as experiencing any specific psychological difficulties, in comparison with control conditions (e.g. usual care, waiting list and no treatment) and other psychological interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and ProQuest's Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) database to 3 March 2018. An earlier search of CENTRAL and the Ovid databases was conducted via the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trial Register (CCMD-CTR) (all years to May 2016). We handsearched reference lists of relevant guidelines, systematic reviews and included study reports. Identified studies were shared with key experts in the field.We conducted an update search (15 March 2019) and placed any new trials in the 'awaiting classification' section. These will be incorporated into the next version of this review, as appropriate. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomised controlled trials of any multiple session (two or more sessions) early psychological intervention or treatment designed to prevent symptoms of PTSD. We excluded single session individual/group psychological interventions. Comparator interventions included waiting list/usual care and active control condition. We included studies of adults who experienced a traumatic event which met the criterion A1 according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) for PTSD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We entered data into Review Manager 5 software. We analysed categorical outcomes as risk ratios (RRs), and continuous outcomes as mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMDs), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We pooled data with a fixed-effect meta-analysis, except where there was heterogeneity, in which case we used a random-effects model. Two review authors independently assessed the included studies for risk of bias and discussed any conflicts with a third review author. MAIN RESULTS: This is an update of a previous review.We included 27 studies with 3963 participants. The meta-analysis included 21 studies of 2721 participants. Seventeen studies compared multiple session early psychological intervention versus treatment as usual and four studies compared a multiple session early psychological intervention with active control condition.Low-certainty evidence indicated that multiple session early psychological interventions may be more effective than usual care in reducing PTSD diagnosis at three to six months' follow-up (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.93; I2 = 34%; studies = 5; participants = 758). However, there was no statistically significant difference post-treatment (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.32; I2 = 0%; studies = 5; participants = 556; very low-certainty evidence) or at seven to 12 months (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.20 to 4.49; studies = 1; participants = 132; very low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis indicated that there was no statistical difference in dropouts compared with usual care (RR 1.34, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.95; I2 = 34%; studies = 11; participants = 1154; low-certainty evidence) .At the primary endpoint of three to six months, low-certainty evidence indicated no statistical difference between groups in reducing severity of PTSD (SMD -0.10, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.02; I2 = 34%; studies = 15; participants = 1921), depression (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.10; I2 = 6%; studies = 7; participants = 1009) or anxiety symptoms (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.10; I2 = 2%; studies = 6; participants = 945).No studies comparing an intervention and active control reported outcomes for PTSD diagnosis. Low-certainty evidence showed that interventions may be associated with a higher dropout rate than active control condition (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.34; studies = 2; participants = 425). At three to six months, low-certainty evidence indicated no statistical difference between interventions in terms of severity of PTSD symptoms (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.26; I2 = 43%; studies = 4; participants = 465), depression (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.23; I2 = 0%; studies = 2; participants = 409), anxiety (SMD 0.00, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.19; I2 = 0%; studies = 2; participants = 414) or quality of life (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.00; studies = 1; participants = 239).None of the included studies reported on adverse events or use of health-related resources. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While the review found some beneficial effects of multiple session early psychological interventions in the prevention of PTSD, the certainty of the evidence was low due to the high risk of bias in the included trials. The clear practice implication of this is that, at present, multiple session interventions aimed at everyone exposed to traumatic events cannot be recommended. There are a number of ongoing studies, demonstrating that this is a fast moving field of research. Future updates of this review will integrate the results of these new studies.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Listas de Espera
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012295, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common neurological problem associated with the highest burden amongst neurological conditions in terms of years lived with disability. Medications can be used as prophylaxis or rescue medicines, but are costly and not always effective. A range of psychological interventions have been developed to manage migraine. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of psychological therapies for the prevention of migraine in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL from their inception until July 2018, and trials registries in the UK, USA, Australia and New Zealand for randomised controlled trials of any psychological intervention for adults with migraine. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of a psychological therapy for people with chronic or episodic migraine, with or without aura. Interventions could be compared to another active treatment (psychological or medical), an attention-placebo (e.g. supportive counselling) or other placebo, routine care, or waiting-list control. We excluded studies where fewer than 15 participants completed each arm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted study characteristics and outcome data at post-treatment and the longest available follow-up. We analysed intervention versus control comparisons for the primary outcome of migraine frequency. We measured migraine frequency using days with migraines or number of migraine attacks measured in the four weeks after treatment. In addition, we analysed the following secondary outcomes: responder rate (the proportion of participants with a 50% reduction in migraine frequency between the four weeks prior to and the four weeks after treatment); migraine intensity; migraine duration; migraine medication usage; mood; quality of life; migraine-related disability; and proportion of participants reporting adverse events during the treatment. We included these variables, where available, at follow-up, the timing of which varied between the studies. We used the GRADE approach to judge the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We found 21 RCTs including 2482 participants with migraine, and we extracted meta-analytic data from 14 of these studies. The majority of studies recruited participants through advertisements, included participants with migraine according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria and those with and without aura. Most intervention arms were a form of behavioural or cognitive-behavioural therapy. The majority of comparator arms were no treatment, routine care or waiting list. Interventions varied from one 20-minute session to 14 hours of intervention. No study had unequivocally low risk of bias; all had at least one domain at high risk of bias, and 20 had two to five domains at high risk. Reporting of randomisation procedures and allocation concealment were at high or unclear risk of bias. We downgraded the quality of evidence for outcomes to very low, due to very serious limitations in study quality and imprecision. Reporting in trials was poor; we found no preregistrations stipulating the outcomes, or demonstrating equivalent expectations between groups. Few studies reported our outcomes of interest, most only reported outcomes post treatment; follow-up data were sparse.Post-treatment effectsWe found no evidence of an effect of psychological interventions for migraine frequency in number of migraines or days with migraine (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.17 to 0.13; 4 studies, 681 participants; very low-quality evidence).The responder rate (proportion of participants with migraine frequency reduction of more than 50%) was greater for those who received a psychological intervention compared to control: 101/186 participants (54%) with psychological therapy; 37/152 participants (24%) with control (risk ratio (RR) 2.21, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.98; 4 studies, 338 participants; very low-quality evidence). We found no effect of psychological therapies on migraine intensity (SMD -0.13, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.02; 4 studies, 685 participants). There were no data for migraine duration (hours of migraine per day). There was no effect on migraine medication usage (SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.24; 2 studies, 483 participants), mood (mean difference (MD) 0.08, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.49; 4 studies, 432 participants), quality of life (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.26; 4 studies, 565 participants), or migraine-related disability (SMD -0.67, 95% CI -1.34 to 0.00; 6 studies, 952 participants). The proportion of participants reporting adverse events did not differ between those receiving psychological treatment (9/107; 8%) and control (30/101; 30%) (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.00 to 7.85; 2 studies, 208 participants). Only two studies reported adverse events and so we were unable to draw any conclusions.We rated evidence from all studies as very low quality.Follow-upOnly four studies reported any follow-up data. Follow-ups ranged from four months following intervention to 11 months following intervention. There was no evidence of an effect on any outcomes at follow-up (very low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review identified 21 studies of psychological interventions for the management of migraine. We did not find evidence that psychological interventions affected migraine frequency, a result based on four studies of primarily brief treatments. Those who received psychological interventions were twice as likely to be classified as responders in the short term, but this was based on very low-quality evidence and there was no evidence of an effect of psychological intervention compared to control at follow-up. There was no evidence of an effect of psychological interventions on medication usage, mood, migraine-related disability or quality of life. There was no evidence of an effect of psychological interventions on migraine frequency in the short-term or long-term. In terms of adverse events, we were unable to draw conclusions as there was insufficient evidence. High and unclear risk of bias in study design and reporting, small numbers of participants, performance and detection bias meant that we rated all evidence as very low quality. Therefore, we conclude that there is an absence of high-quality evidence to determine whether psychological interventions are effective in managing migraine in adults and we are uncertain whether there is any difference between psychological therapies and controls.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia/métodos , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16446, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is estimated to be as high as 15% and a number of different non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments have been used to manage IBS in clinical practice, which poses great challenges for clinicians to make appropriate decisions. Hence, a systematic review and network meta-analysis on all available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for IBS is needed to provide reliable evidence. METHODS: We will search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical medicine (CBM) from inception to 31, May 2019. Randomized controlled trials of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for IBS will be included. Study quality will be assessed on the basis of the methodology and categories described in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. Primary outcomes are global or clinical improvement and quality of life. A Bayesian network meta-analysis would be performed, and relative ranking of agents would be assessed. A node splitting method will be used to examine the inconsistency between direct and indirect comparisons when a loop connecting 3 arms exists. RESULTS: Researchers will rank the effectiveness and safety of the potentials interventions for IBS according the characteristics of patients by conducting an advanced network meta-analysis based on Bayesian statistical model, and interpret the results by using GRADE approach. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide updated evidence to rank the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for IBS. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not applicable since this study is a network meta-analysis based on published trials. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018083844.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Dieta , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Meta-Análise em Rede , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 788, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is the leading cause of disability in young people (aged 15-25) globally. Loneliness is a major factor in the development and relapse of depression in young people, yet few interventions directly address loneliness. Groups 4 Health (G4H) - a novel, theoretically derived group psychotherapy intervention - may address this disconnect. Previous trials (Phase I and Phase II) have found G4H to be efficacious in reducing symptoms of depression. However, the efficacy of G4H compared to current evidence-based treatments (Phase III) has not been investigated. This protocol details the design and methodology of the Connecting Adolescents to Reduce Relapse (CARR) trial, a randomised control trial assessing the efficacy of G4H in young people relative to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). METHODS: The CARR trial is a two-arm non-inferiority randomised controlled trial that will compare the efficacy of G4H to the most widely used evidence-based treatment for depression, CBT, at program completion and 6- and 12-month follow up. Participants will be 200 young people (aged 15-25) with symptoms of depression and/or loneliness recruited from community and university mental health services. We hypothesise that the interventions will be comparable in reducing depression symptoms, but that G4H will be superior in reducing loneliness. Because loneliness is a primary risk factor for depression relapse in young people, we therefore expect the benefits of Groups 4 Health to be particularly apparent at 12-month follow up. DISCUSSION: This trial will be the first to evaluate an intervention that targets loneliness, in comparison to the current gold standard treatment approach - CBT. If found to be effective, this program offers a new approach to treatment and relapse prevention of depression among young people. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial prospectively registered on ANZCTR ( ACTRN12618000440224 ), registered on 27/03/2018.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Psicoterapia/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 128, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mood disorder after stroke is common but drug and psychosocial treatments have been assessed with disappointing results. Preventing mood disorder from developing in the first place could be a better approach and might reduce the need for pharmacotherapy in this predominantly older patient group. We used a brief problem-solving therapy and evaluated its effect in reducing mood disorder in the 12 months after stroke. METHODS: A 3-group, parallel, randomised controlled trial. Four hundred fifty patients with stroke were randomised within 1 month of hospital admission to problem-solving therapy from a psychiatric nurse, non-specific support given by volunteers or treatment-as-usual. Follow up took place at 6 and 12 months after stroke. Standardised measures of mood (Present State Examination, GHQ-28), cognitive state (mini-mental state examination) and function (Barthel ADL index, Frenchay Activities Index) were taken at baseline, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. Satisfaction with care was recorded at follow up. RESULTS: At 6 months, all psychological and activity measures favoured problem-solving therapy. At 12 months, patients in the problem-solving therapy group had significantly lower GHQ-28 scores and lower median Present State Examination symptom scores. There were no statistically significant differences in activity. The problem-solving therapy group were more satisfied with some aspects of care. CONCLUSIONS: The results are encouraging and suggest it is possible to prevent mood disorder in stroke patients using a psychological intervention. The differences between the groups at 12 months may indicate a sustained impact of psychological therapies, by comparison with non-specific support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN33773710 Registered: 23/01/2004 (Retrospectively).


Assuntos
Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtornos do Humor/prevenção & controle , Resolução de Problemas , Psicoterapia/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(4-5): 248-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081436

RESUMO

Purpose and aim: Out from the sparse literature on risk assessment for violence committed by women the Female Additional Manual (FAM) was developed to be a complement to the HCR-20v2. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the psychometrics of the HCR-20v2 with and without the FAM on risk for inpatient physical violence for female forensic psychiatric patients. Methods: The participants were 100 female patients admitted to forensic psychiatric care in a high-security clinic, assessed by clinicians with the HCR-20v2 during their admission. Researchers performed the FAM, both retrospectively and prospectively. The follow-up period was 12 months before being discharged. Results: Four main results were found; first, many risk factors were present although the summary risk ratings were mainly low to moderate. Secondly, the reliability was in general good, where the HCR-20v2 mainly showed higher reliability without than with the FAM, indicating that FAM risk factors did equal or did not contribute to a higher reliability. Third, the internal validity was higher for the HCR-20v2 than for the FAM. Risk factors correlated stronger with the summary risk ratings for the HCR-20v2 than for the FAM. Fourth, the validity for inpatient physical violence was high for the total score of both the HCR-20v2 and the FAM, but contradictory to previous finding the validity for summary risk ratings was not significant. Conclusions: The results support the use of HCR-20v2 when assessing risk for inpatient violence for female forensic psychiatric patients, but with only some support for adding or changing risk factors according to the FAM.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Legal/normas , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Abuso Físico/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
8.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(4): 316-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044673

RESUMO

Voluntariness in Outpatient Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents Voluntariness is no selective construct in psychotherapy with children and adolescents. Generally psychotherapy is utilized under external pressure, at least partially. At any rate it is crucial to painstakingly analyze the motivation for change and possible obstacles to motivation. On that basis different strategies to foster motivation for change can be applied. Problems regarding the efficiency of voluntary or involuntary utilization of outpatient psychotherapy for children and adolescents should be subjects to further research.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Tratamento Psiquiátrico Involuntário/ética , Psicologia do Adolescente/ética , Psicologia do Adolescente/normas , Psicologia da Criança/ética , Psicologia da Criança/normas , Psicoterapia/ética , Psicoterapia/normas
9.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(4): 253-270, 2019 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044679

RESUMO

"I Would Never have done it Without Coercion …" - Experiences with Coercion and Compulsion in a Family Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Day Clinic Coercion and compulsion have negative connotations, especially in psychiatric therapy. But in families, children are always also affected if parents do not want or are not able to make use of therapy. The avoidance of therapy can be a symptom of illness, e. g. separation anxiety. Perceived or real external coercion, e. g. from the youth welfare office or school, can be used to initially open up access to therapy and to allow parents to become capable of acting again. Coercion can initially reduce the ambivalence of the parents. The Family Therapeutic Centre (FaTZ) is a psychiatric and psychotherapeutic day clinic for parents and children. Family constellations are described in which initial coercion was a door-opener to therapy. During courses of treatment therapeutic alliances could be established, hope for positive change emerged, and the outcome was favourable. School avoidance of the child (e. g. due to separation anxiety) in combination with mentally ill parents is an exemplary constellation in which initial coercion can pave the way to therapy for families that otherwise wouldn't get access. Afterwards, voluntary cooperation should be intended, as the overriding objective is to reduce coercive measures to a minimum.


Assuntos
Coerção , Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Tratamento Psiquiátrico Involuntário/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade de Separação , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/ética , Humanos , Tratamento Psiquiátrico Involuntário/ética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Psicoterapia/ética
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012855, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is defined as a depressive disorder with a minimum illness duration of two years, including four diagnostic subgroups (dysthymia, chronic major depression, recurrent major depression with incomplete remission between episodes, and double depression). Persistent forms of depression represent a substantial proportion of depressive disorders, with a lifetime prevalence ranging from 3% to 6% in the Western world. Growing evidence indicates that PDD responds well to several acute interventions, such as combined psychological and pharmacological treatments. Yet, given the high rates of relapse and recurrences of depression following response to acute treatment, long-term continuation and maintenance therapy are of great importance. To date, there has been no evidence synthesis available on continuation and maintenance treatments of PDDs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological and psychological (either alone or combined) continuation and maintenance treatments for persistent depressive disorder, in comparison with each other, placebo (drug/attention placebo/non-specific treatment control), and treatment as usual (TAU). Continuation treatments are defined as treatments given to currently remitted people (remission is defined as depressive symptoms dropping below case level) or to people who previously responded to an antidepressant treatment. Maintenance therapy is given during recovery (which is defined as remission lasting longer than six months). SEARCH METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950- ), Embase (1974- ), PsycINFO (1967- ) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 28 September 2018. An earlier search of these databases was also conducted for RCTs via the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trial Register (CCMD-CTR) (all years to 11 Dec 2015). In addition we searched grey literature resources as well as the international trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP to 28 September 2018. We screened reference lists of included studies and contacted the first author of all included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) in adults with formally diagnosed PDD, receiving pharmacological, psychological, or combined continuation and maintenance interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted and analyzed data. The primary efficacy outcome was relapse/recurrence rate of depression. The primary acceptance outcome was dropout due to any reason other than relapse/recurrence. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 studies (seven RCTs, three NRCTs) involving 840 participants in this review, from which five studies investigated continuation treatments and five studies investigated maintenance treatments. Overall, the included studies were at low-to-moderate risk of bias. For the three NRCTs, the most common source of risk of bias was selection of reported results. For the seven RCTs, the most common sources of risk of bias was non-blinding of outcome assessment and other bias (especially conflict of interest due to pharmaceutical sponsoring).Pharmacological continuation and maintenance therapiesThe most common comparison was antidepressant medication versus tablet placebo (five studies). Participants taking antidepressant medication were probably less likely to relapse or to experience a recurrent episode compared to participants in the placebo group at the end of the intervention (13.9% versus 33.8%, RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.79; participants = 383; studies = 4; I² = 54%, moderate quality evidence). Overall dropout rates may be similar between participants in the medication and placebo group (23.0% versus 25.5%, RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.39 to 2.11; RCTs = 4; participants = 386; I² = 64%, low quality evidence). However, sensitivity analyses showed that the primary outcome (rate of relapse/recurrence) showed no evidence of a difference between groups when only including studies with low risk of bias.None of the studies compared pharmacological or psychological treatments versus TAU.Psychological continuation and maintenance therapiesOne study compared psychological therapies versus attention placebo/non-specific control. One study compared psychotherapy with medication. The results of the studies including psychotherapy might indicate that continued or maintained psychotherapy could be a useful intervention compared to no treatment or antidepressant medication. However, the body of evidence for these comparisons was too small and uncertain to draw any high quality conclusions.Combined psychological and pharmacological continuation and maintenance therapiesThree studies compared combined psychological and pharmacological therapies with pharmacological therapies alone. One study compared combined psychological and pharmacological therapies with psychotherapeutic therapies alone. However, the body of evidence for these comparisons was too small and uncertain to draw any high quality conclusionsComparison of different antidepressant medications Two studies reported data on the direct comparison of two antidepressants. However, the body of evidence for this comparison was too small and uncertain to draw any high quality conclusions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, it is uncertain whether continued or maintained pharmacotherapy (or both) with the reviewed antidepressant agents is a robust treatment for preventing relapse and recurrence in people with PDD, due to moderate or high risk of bias as well as clinical heterogeneity in the analyzed studies.For all other comparisons, the body of evidence was too small to draw any final conclusions, although continued or maintained psychotherapy might be effective compared to no treatment. There is need for more high quality trials of psychological interventions. Further studies should address health-related quality of life and adverse events more precisely, as well as assessing follow-up data.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD004780, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterised by a failure to maintain a normal body weight due to a paucity of nutrition, an intense fear of gaining weight or behaviour that prevents the individual from gaining weight, or both. The long-term prognosis is often poor, with severe developmental, medical and psychosocial complications, high rates of relapse and mortality. 'Family therapy approaches' indicate a range of approaches, derived from different theories, that involve the family in treatment. We have included therapies developed on the basis of dominant family systems theories, approaches that are based on or broadly similar to the family-based therapy derived from the Maudsley model, approaches that incorporate a focus on cognitive restructuring, as well as approaches that involve the family without articulation of a theoretical approach.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of family therapy approaches compared with standard treatment and other treatments for AN. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMDCTR) and PsycINFO (OVID) (all years to April 2016). We ran additional searches directly on Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and PsycINFO (to 2008 and 2016 to 2018). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov, together with four theses databases (all years to 2018). We checked the reference lists of all included studies and relevant systematic reviews. We have included in the analyses only studies from searches conducted to April 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of family therapy approaches compared to any other intervention or other types of family therapy approaches were eligible for inclusion. We included participants of any age or gender with a primary clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors selected the studies, assessed quality and extracted data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis. We used the risk ratio (with a 95% confidence interval) to summarise dichotomous outcomes and both the standardised mean difference and the mean difference to summarise continuous measures. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 trials in this version of the review (13 from the original 2010 review and 12 newly-included studies). Sixteen trials were of adolescents, eight trials of adults (seven of these in young adults aged up to 26 years) and one trial included three age groups: one adolescent, one young adult and one adult. Most investigated family-based therapy or variants. Reporting of trial conduct was generally inadequate, so that in a large number of studies we rated the risk of bias as unclear for many of the domains. Selective reporting bias was particularly problematic, with 68% of studies rated at high risk of bias in this area, followed by incomplete outcome data, with 44% of studies rated at high risk of bias in this area. For the main outcome measure of remission there was some low-quality evidence (from only two studies, 81 participants) suggesting that family therapy approaches might offer some advantage over treatment as usual on rates of remission, post intervention (risk ratio (RR) 3.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49 to 8.23; I2 = 0%). However, at follow-up, low-quality evidence from only one study suggested this effect was not maintained. There was very low-quality evidence from only one trial, which means it is difficult to determine whether family therapy approaches offer any advantage over educational interventions for remission (RR 9.00, 95% CI 0.53 to 153.79; 1 study, N = 30). Similarly, there was very low-quality evidence from only five trials for remission post-intervention, again meaning that it is difficult to determine whether there is any advantage of family therapy approaches over psychological interventions (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.67; participants = 252; studies = 5; I2 = 37%) and at long-term follow-up (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.28; participants = 200; studies = 4 with 1 of these contributing 3 pairwise comparisons for different age groups; I2 = 0%). There was no indication that the age group had any impact on the overall treatment effect; however, it should be noted that there were very few trials undertaken in adults, with the age range of adult studies included in this analysis from 20 to 27. There was some evidence of a small effect favouring family based therapy compared with other psychological interventions in terms of weight gain post-intervention (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.32, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.63; participants = 210; studies = 4 with 1 of these contributing 3 pairwise comparisons for different age groups; I2 = 11%) . Overall, there was insufficient evidence to determine whether there were any differences between groups across all comparisons for most of the secondary outcomes (weight, eating disorder psychopathology, dropouts, relapse, or family functioning measures), either at post-intervention or at follow-up. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a limited amount of low-quality evidence to suggest that family therapy approaches may be effective compared to treatment as usual in the short term. This finding is based on two trials that included only a small number of participants, and both had issues about potential bias. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether there is an advantage of family therapy approaches in people of any age compared to educational interventions (one study, very low quality) or other psychological therapies (five studies, very low quality). Most studies contributing to this finding were undertaken in adolescents and youth. There are clear potential impacts on how family therapy approaches might be delivered to different age groups and further work is required to understand what the resulting effects on treatment efficacy might be. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether one type of family therapy approach is more effective than another. The field would benefit from further large, well-conducted trials.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Psychother ; 72(2): 47-57, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070452

RESUMO

Bipolar II disorder causes significant suffering among patients and their families, some of which may be alleviated by psychotherapy alone or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Psychotherapies may be more effective if modified to meet the specific needs of patients with bipolar II disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Humanos
13.
Am J Psychother ; 72(2): 38-46, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945559

RESUMO

As a complement to multicultural competence, the multicultural orientation (MCO) perspective has been proposed as a pragmatic way to enhance cultural understandings about psychotherapeutic dynamics, processes, and outcomes. Consisting of three core components-cultural humility, cultural comfort, and cultural opportunities-the MCO is considered relevant for both individual and group treatment. However, the MCO perspective has yet to be specifically applied to psychotherapy supervision. Because supervision often provides multicultural oversight for individual and group psychotherapy services, considering the ramifications of MCO for psychotherapy supervision (MCO-S) is important. In this article, the implications of MCO-S are reviewed, with attention given to the impacts of cultural humility, cultural comfort, and cultural opportunities on the supervisor-supervisee relationship. Case examples are provided to illustrate the ways in which MCO can affect the psychotherapy supervision process and outcome. Supervision research possibilities are also proposed.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Psicoterapia/métodos , Diversidade Cultural , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Masculino , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Psychother ; 92(2): 164-189, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932302

RESUMO

Fragmentation of processes and interventions plague the psychotherapies (Gilbert & Kirby, ). Part of the problem is that we have not agreed on a framework that could be the basis for integrating knowledge and the scientific enquiry of processes and interventions. This paper outlines an approach that brings together a variety of different disciplines in the service of consilience (Wilson, , Consilience: The unity of knowledge, Vintage, New York, NY; Siegel, ). It presents the importance of an evolutionary framework for understanding the proclivities and dispositions for mental suffering and antisocial behaviour, and how they are choreographed in different sociodevelopmental contexts. Building on earlier models (Gilbert, , Human nature and suffering, Routledge, London, UK; Gilbert, , Clin. Psychol. Psychother., 2, 135; Gilbert, , Br. J. Med. Psychol., 71, 353; Gilbert, , Case formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy: The treatment of challenging cases, Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 50-89) the call is for an integrative, evolutionary, contextual, biopsychosocial approach to psychology and psychotherapy. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Evolutionary functional analysis is part of an evolutionary, contextual, biopsychosocial approach to mental health that can serve as a scientific platform for the future developments of psychotherapy. Therapist skills and training will increasing need to focus on the multidimensional textures of mental states especially the context-social-body linkages. Therapies of the future will also focus more on the moral aspects of therapy and address the need to promote prosocial and ethical behaviour to self and others.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Comportamento Social , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicoterapia/ética
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD011118, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first update of a review published in 2015, Issue 1. Chronic pain is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes, such as increased severity of pain, reduced function, and low mood. Psychological therapies, traditionally delivered face-to-face with a therapist, are efficacious at reducing pain intensity and disability. To address barriers to treatment access, such as distance and cost of treatment, technology is being used to deliver these psychological therapies remotely. Therapies delivered remotely, such as via the Internet, computer-based programmes, and smartphone applications, can be used to deliver treatment to children and adolescents with chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of psychological therapies delivered remotely compared to waiting list, treatment as usual, or active control treatments, for the management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched four databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) from inception to May 2018 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of remotely-delivered psychological interventions for children and adolescents with chronic pain. We searched for chronic pain conditions including, but not exclusive to, headache, recurrent abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain. We also searched online trial registries, reference sections, and citations of included studies for potential trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs that investigated the efficacy of a psychological therapy delivered remotely via technology in comparison to an active, treatment as usual, or waiting-list control. We considered blended treatments, which used a combination of technology and up to 30% face-to-face interaction. Interventions had to be delivered primarily via technology to be included, and we excluded interventions delivered via telephone. We included studies that delivered interventions to children and adolescents (up to 18 years of age) with a chronic pain condition or where chronic pain was a primary symptom of their condition (e.g. juvenile arthritis). We included studies that reported 10 or more participants in each comparator arm, at each extraction point. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We combined all psychological therapies in the analyses. We split pain conditions into headache and mixed (non-headache) pain and analysed them separately. We extracted pain severity/intensity, disability, depression, anxiety, and adverse events as primary outcomes, and satisfaction with treatment as a secondary outcome. We considered outcomes at two time points: first immediately following the end of treatment (known as 'post-treatment'), and second, any follow-up time point post-treatment between three and 12 months (known as 'follow-up'). We assessed risk of bias and all outcomes for quality using the GRADE assessment. MAIN RESULTS: We found 10 studies with 697 participants (an additional 4 studies with 326 participants since the previous review) that delivered treatment remotely; four studies investigated children with headache conditions, one study was with children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, one included children with sickle cell disease, one included children with irritable bowel syndrome, and three studies included children with different chronic pain conditions (i.e. headache, recurrent abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain). The average age of children receiving treatment was 13.17 years.We judged selection, detection, and reporting biases to be mostly low risk. However, we judged performance and attrition biases to be mostly unclear. Out of the 16 planned analyses, we were able to conduct 13 meta-analyses. We downgraded outcomes for imprecision, indirectness of evidence, inconsistency of results, or because the analysis only included one study.Headache conditionsFor headache pain conditions, we found headache severity was reduced post-treatment (risk ratio (RR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 3.01); P < 0.001, number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) = 5.36, 7 studies, 379 participants; very low-quality evidence). No effect was found at follow-up (very low-quality evidence). There were no effects of psychological therapies delivered remotely for disability post-treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.13; P = 0.28, 5 studies, 440 participants) or follow-up (both very low-quality evidence). Similarly, no effect was found for the outcomes of depression (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.23, P = 0.69, 4 studies, 422 participants) or anxiety (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.12; P = 0.45, 3 studies, 380 participants) at post-treatment, or follow-up (both very low-quality evidence).Mixed chronic pain conditionsWe did not find any beneficial effects of psychological therapies for reducing pain intensity post-treatment for mixed chronic pain conditions (SMD -0.90, 95% CI -1.95 to 0.16; P = 0.10, 5 studies, 501 participants) or at follow-up. There were no beneficial effects of psychological therapies delivered remotely for disability post-treatment (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.18; P = 0.24, 3 studies, 363 participants) and a lack of data at follow-up meant no analysis could be run. We found no beneficial effects for the outcomes of depression (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.26; P = 0.73, 2 studies, 317 participants) and anxiety (SMD 0.53, 95% CI -0.63 to 1.68; P = 0.37, 2 studies, 370 participants) post-treatment, however, we are cautious of our findings as we could only include two studies in the analyses. We could not conduct analyses at follow-up. We judged the evidence for all outcomes to be very low quality.All conditionsAcross all chronic pain conditions, six studies reported minor adverse events which were not attributed to the psychological therapies. Satisfaction with treatment is described qualitatively and was overall positive. However, we judged both these outcomes as very low quality. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are currently a small number of trials investigating psychological therapies delivered remotely, primarily via the Internet. We are cautious in our interpretations of analyses. We found one beneficial effect of therapies to reduce headache severity post-treatment. For the remaining outcomes there was either no beneficial effect at post-treatment or follow-up, or lack of evidence to determine an effect. Overall, participant satisfaction with treatment was positive. We judged the quality of the evidence to be very low, meaning we are very uncertain about the estimate. Further studies are needed to increase our confidence in this potentially promising field.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Psychiatry ; 82(1): 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994418

RESUMO

INTEGRATING and sealing-over are terms that are frequently used to describe a patient's general style of coping with stress, especially the stress of an acute psychotic break. Work to date (McGlashan et al., 1975, 1976, in press; Levy et al., 1975) has defined these terms both clinically and dynamically within the context of a patient's relationship to his own psychosis. Integration and sealingover as concepts have also proved useful in understanding and describing interpersonal and group behavior on an inpatient psychiatric unit. A patient's ultimate style of recovery from an acute psychotic episode results from many forces-internal and environmental. The tendency to either review and assimilate (integrate) or deny and repudiate (seal-over) the often painful affects and ideas prominent during psychosis mobilizes various forces within the patient's social environment. The way in which the therapeutic milieu and patient interact with one another reflects and, in part, determines the manner and degree to which each party comes to master the patient's psychotic experience. This report explores this interaction as observed in an inpatient therapeutic community established to treat acutely schizophrenic patients.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunidade Terapêutica
17.
Psychol Psychother ; 92(2): 151-163, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932325

RESUMO

Psychotherapy is plagued with fragmentation of models, theories, and interventions. The future of psychotherapy requires an integrative framework rooted in the expanding science of psychology, neuroscience, and social contextualism. The papers in this special issue address these challenges for psychotherapy, ranging from explorations of the implications of epigenetics, evolutionary functional analysis, interpersonal neurobiology, the importance of social relationships as physiological regulators, through to the challenges of ethnic diversities and the growing digital technologies. PRACTITIONER POINTS: As therapists, we should be aware of the challenges posed by the proliferating 'schools of therapy' and consider commonalities rooted in a scientific understanding of the mind. The science of understanding the causes, alleviation, and prevention of mental health problems is increasingly multidimensional taking into consideration the interactions between biological, psychological and social processes and in the process dissolving the boundaries between different schools of psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
18.
Trials ; 20(1): 196, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder is often lengthy and resource-intensive. However, the current length of outpatient treatments is arbitrary and based on trials that never tested if the treatment intensity could be reduced. As a result, there is insufficient evidence to inform the decision between short-term and long-term psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Mentalization-based therapy is one treatment option for borderline personality disorder and consists traditionally of an 18-month treatment program. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial is an investigator-initiated single-center randomized clinical superiority trial of short-term (20 weeks) compared to long-term (14 months) mentalization-based therapy for outpatients with subthreshold or diagnosed borderline personality disorder. Participants will be recruited from the Outpatient Clinic for Personality Disorders at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark. Participants will be included if they meet a minimum of four DSM-V criteria for borderline personality disorder. Participants will be assessed before randomization, and at 8, 16, and 24 months after randomization. The primary outcome is severity of borderline symptomatology assessed with the Zanarini Rating Scale for borderline personality disorder. Secondary outcomes include self-harm incidents, functional impairment (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning) and quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey 36). Severity of psychiatric symptoms (Symptom Checklist 90-R) will be included as an exploratory outcome. Measures of personality functioning, attachment, borderline symptoms, group alliance, and mentalization skills will be included to explore potential predictors and mechanisms of change. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the beneficial and harmful effects of short-term compared to long-term mentalization-based therapy for outpatients with subthreshold or diagnosed borderline personality disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03677037 . Registered on September 19, 2018.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Mentalização , Psicoterapia Breve , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Dinamarca , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(6): 491-500, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It has been widely demonstrated that the process of change many patients undergo in therapy is not linear. Some patients benefit greatly from large sudden improvements, commonly referred to as "sudden gains." It is less clear whether certain baseline characteristics make patients more prone to displaying sudden gains, as well as what mechanisms are responsible for the lasting effects of sudden gains. METHOD: In a sample of 547 patients receiving treatment in an outpatient mental health clinic, a machine learning approach was used to search for potential predictors of sudden gains. A within-patient mediation model was used to investigate whether alliance serves as a mechanism underlying the sustained effect of sudden gains. RESULTS: Twelve percent of patients showed sudden gains. Consistent with previous studies, no robust predictors of sudden gains were found, even when using an approach capable of evaluating the contributions of multiple predictors and their interactions. A significant within-patient mediation model was found, according to which sudden gains predict subsequent strengthening in alliance, which in turn predict subsequent improvement in life satisfaction and psychological dysfunction. These findings support the proposed theoretical framework whereby alliance is an important ingredient of an upward spiral that may results in sustained sudden gains. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide first evidence of the presence of an ingredient responsible for the sustained effect of sudden gains, using a within-patient mediation model. The findings support the important role alliance may play in the consolidation and subsequent expansion of the effect of sudden gains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 344, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study protocol describes the clinical trial of the Fex-Can intervention, a web-based self-help program targeting sexual dysfunction and fertility-related distress. The psycho-educational intervention has been developed in collaboration with young patients with cancer and shown to be feasible. The primary objective is to determine whether the Fex-Can intervention, provided in addition to standard care, is superior to standard care in terms of reduction of sexual dysfunction and fertility-related distress directly after end of the 12-week program. The trial also aims to determine whether the intervention has an effect on the secondary outcomes including health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression, body image, fertility knowledge, and self-efficacy related to sexuality and fertility. METHODS: The trial has an randomized clinical trial (RCT) design with two parallel arms. The active groups receive either the version of the Fex-Can intervention targeting sexual problems or the version targeting fertility-related distress. Control groups receive standard care. Primary outcomes will be sexual function assessed with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure version 2.0 (SexFS) and fertility-related distress assessed with the Reproductive Concerns After Cancer scale (RCAC). The effect of the intervention will be evaluated directly after end of the program. Primary and secondary outcomes will also be assessed at the short- (12 weeks after end of program) and long-term (20 and 44 months after end of program) follow-up. At least 64 completers will be needed in each arm (total n = 256) to achieve adequate statistical power in the analyses. In order to increase the understanding of how the intervention brings about a possible change, semi-structured interviews will additionally be conducted with a purposeful sample shortly after completion of the intervention. DISCUSSION: If the Fex-Can intervention proves to be efficacious the necessary steps will be taken to implement it in routine care for young adults diagnosed with cancer. Healthcare could thereby be provided with an easily accessible, cost-effective intervention to offer to young adults suffering from fertility-related distress or sexual problems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN36621459 . Registered 25 January 2016.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Autogestão/métodos , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/reabilitação , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/reabilitação , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Neoplasias/terapia , Psico-Oncologia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoeficácia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
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