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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 337, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009366

RESUMO

Data are scarce regarding the comorbid mental disorders and their management among COVID-19 patients. This study described the clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients treated in psychiatric inpatient settings due to comorbid first-onset mental disorders in Wuhan, China. This electronic medical records-based study included 25 COVID-19 patients with first-onset mental disorders and 55 patients with first-onset mental disorders without COVID-19 (control group). Data collected included ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorders, psychiatric and respiratory symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Adjustment disorder (n = 11, 44.0%) and acute and transient psychotic disorders, with associated acute stress (n = 6, 24.0%) were main clinical diagnoses in the COVID-19 group while serious mental illnesses (i.e., schizophrenia, 24.5%) and alcohol use disorders (10.9%) were overrepresented in the control group. On admission, the most common psychiatric symptom in COVID-19 patients was insomnia symptoms (n = 18, 72.0%), followed by aggressive behaviors (n = 16, 64.0%), delusion (n = 10, 40.0%), and severe anxiety (n = 9, 36.0%). In addition to respiratory treatments, 76.0% COVID-19 patients received antipsychotics, 40.0% sedative-hypnotics, and 24.0% mood stabilizers. At the end of inpatient treatment, 4 (16.0%) COVID-19 patients were transferred to other hospitals to continue respiratory treatment after their psychiatric symptoms were controlled while the remaining 21 (84.0%) all recovered. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (21.2 vs. 37.4 days, P < 0.001). Adjustment disorder and acute and transient psychotic disorders are the main clinical diagnoses of COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings. The short-term prognosis of these patients is good after conventional psychotropic treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicotrópicos , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicotrópicos/classificação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942345

RESUMO

Background: There is a paucity of studies on treatment of childhood-onset bipolar disorder and its associated comorbidities, which leads to a wide diversity of opinion on choice and sequencing of treatment options. Methods: From December 2018 to January 2019, a graphic depiction of medications and weekly ratings of symptoms of mania, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional behavior that parents had rated on their 9-year-old child over a period of several years was sent to experts in child and adult bipolar disorder. These responding medical doctors (MDs, 8 child and 18 adult psychiatrists) rated a comprehensive list of medications that they would choose (and with what priority) to treat the child's now improved mood (mania and depression) but continued mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and oppositional behavior. Results: In the whole group, the drugs most highly endorsed were lamotrigine: 69%, lithium: 62%, lurasidone: 62%, quetiapine: 54%, aripiprazole: 46%, and valproate: 42%. Among the antidepressants, 38% endorsed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 12% a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and 27% bupropion. Of the child MDs, 75% suggested increasing the 1-mg dose of risperidone, while few adult MDs suggested this. Conversely, 56% of the adult MDs suggested using valproate, while only 1 child MD did so. There was little consensus on how to manage ADHD symptoms unresponsive to methylphenidate 36 mg/d. How these treatment options were sequenced also varied widely. Conclusions: There was wide variation in suggestions on to how to treat persistent symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and oppositional behavior in a child whose mania and depression had been brought under good control. We surmise that this great diversity in recommendations among experts in child and adult bipolar disorder stems at least partially from inadequate literature on treatment and that a new emphasis on funding and conducting studies on efficacy and effectiveness is needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Criança , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Prevenção Primária , Indução de Remissão
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007667, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, relationship difficulties, and premature death. Certain types of medication (drugs) may help people with AsPD. This review updates a previous Cochrane review, published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for adults with AsPD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 13 other databases and two trials registers up to 5 September 2019. We also checked reference lists and contacted study authors to identify studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials in which adults (age 18 years and over) with a diagnosis of AsPD or dissocial personality disorder were allocated to a pharmacological intervention or placebo control condition. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four authors independently selected studies and extracted data. We assessed risk of bias and created 'Summary of findings tables' and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE framework. The primary outcomes were: aggression; reconviction; global state/global functioning; social functioning; and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies (three new to this update), involving 416 participants with AsPD. Most studies (10/11) were conducted in North America. Seven studies were conducted exclusively in an outpatient setting, one in an inpatient setting, and one in prison; two studies used multiple settings. The average age of participants ranged from 28.6 years to 45.1 years (overall mean age 39.6 years). Participants were predominantly (90%) male. Study duration ranged from 6 to 24 weeks, with no follow-up period. Data were available from only four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. All the available data came from unreplicated, single reports, and did not allow independent statistical analysis to be conducted. Many review findings were limited to descriptive summaries based on analyses carried out and reported by the trial investigators. No study set out to recruit participants on the basis of having AsPD; many participants presented primarily with substance abuse problems. The studies reported on four primary outcomes and six secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes were aggression (six studies) global/state functioning (three studies), social functioning (one study), and adverse events (seven studies). Secondary outcomes were leaving the study early (eight studies), substance misuse (five studies), employment status (one study), impulsivity (one study), anger (three studies), and mental state (three studies). No study reported data on the primary outcome of reconviction or the secondary outcomes of quality of life, engagement with services, satisfaction with treatment, housing/accommodation status, economic outcomes or prison/service outcomes.   Eleven different drugs were compared with placebo, but data for AsPD participants were only available for five comparisons. Three classes of drug were represented: antiepileptic; antidepressant; and dopamine agonist (anti-Parkinsonian) drugs. We considered selection bias to be unclear in 8/11 studies, attrition bias to be high in 7/11 studies, and performance bias to be low in 7/11 studies. Using GRADE, we rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome in this review as very low, meaning that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates reported. Phenytoin (antiepileptic) versus placebo One study (60 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that phenytoin (300 mg/day), compared to placebo, may reduce the mean frequency of aggressive acts per week (phenytoin mean = 0.33, no standard deviation (SD) reported; placebo mean = 0.51, no SD reported) in male prisoners with aggression (skewed data) at endpoint (six weeks). The same study (60 participants) reported no evidence of difference between phenytoin and placebo in the number of participants reporting the adverse event of nausea during week one (odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 16.76; very low-certainty evidence). The study authors also reported that no important side effects were detectable via blood cell counts or liver enzyme tests (very low-certainty evidence). The study did not measure reconviction, global/state functioning or social functioning. Desipramine (antidepressant) versus placebo One study (29 participants) reported no evidence of a difference between desipramine (250 to 300 mg/day) and placebo on mean social functioning scores (desipramine = 0.19; placebo = 0.21), assessed with the family-social domain of the Addiction Severity Index (scores range from zero to one, with higher values indicating worse social functioning), at endpoint (12 weeks) (very low-certainty evidence). Neither of the studies included in this comparison measured the other primary outcomes: aggression; reconviction; global/state functioning; or adverse events. Nortriptyline (antidepressant) versus placebo One study (20 participants) reported no evidence of a difference between nortriptyline (25 to 75 mg/day) and placebo on mean global state/functioning scores (nortriptyline = 0.3; placebo = 0.7), assessed with the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) Global Severity Index (GSI; mean of subscale scores, ranging from zero to four, with higher scores indicating greater severity of symptoms), at endpoint (six months) in men with alcohol dependency (very low-certainty evidence). The study measured side effects but did not report data on adverse events for the AsPD subgroup. The study did not measure aggression, reconviction or social functioning. Bromocriptine (dopamine agonist) versus placebo One study (18 participants) reported no evidence of difference between bromocriptine (15 mg/day) and placebo on mean global state/functioning scores (bromocriptine = 0.4; placebo = 0.7), measured with the GSI of the SCL-90 at endpoint (six months) (very low-certainty evidence). The study did not provide data on adverse effects, but reported that 12 patients randomised to the bromocriptine group experienced severe side effects, five of whom dropped out of the study in the first two days due to nausea and severe flu-like symptoms (very low-certainty evidence). The study did not measure aggression, reconviction and social functioning. Amantadine (dopamine agonist) versus placebo The study in this comparison did not measure any of the primary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence summarised in this review is insufficient to draw any conclusion about the use of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of antisocial personality disorder. The evidence comes from single, unreplicated studies of mostly older medications. The studies also have methodological issues that severely limit the confidence we can draw from their results. Future studies should recruit participants on the basis of having AsPD, and use relevant outcome measures, including reconviction.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/tratamento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/tratamento farmacológico , Amantadina/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Bromocriptina/uso terapêutico , Desipramina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nortriptilina/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 215, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pandemic calls for a rapid adaptation of conventional medical practices to meet the evolving needs of such vulnerable patients. People with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may frequently require treatment with psychotropic medications, but are at the same time at higher risk for safety issues because of the complex underlying medical condition and the potential interaction with medical treatments. METHODS: In order to produce evidence-based practical recommendations on the optimal management of psychotropic medications in people with COVID-19, an international, multi-disciplinary working group was established. The methodology of the WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines in the context of a public health emergency and the principles of the AGREE statement were followed. Available evidence informing on the risk of respiratory, cardiovascular, infective, hemostatic, and consciousness alterations related to the use of psychotropic medications, and drug-drug interactions between psychotropic and medical treatments used in people with COVID-19, was reviewed and discussed by the working group. RESULTS: All classes of psychotropic medications showed potentially relevant safety risks for people with COVID-19. A set of practical recommendations was drawn in order to inform frontline clinicians on the assessment of the anticipated risk of psychotropic-related unfavorable events, and the possible actions to take in order to effectively manage this risk, such as when it is appropriate to avoid, withdraw, switch, or adjust the dose of the medication. CONCLUSIONS: The present evidence-based recommendations will improve the quality of psychiatric care in people with COVID-19, allowing an appropriate management of the medical condition without worsening the psychiatric condition and vice versa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Interações Medicamentosas , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Saúde Pública , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 1-6, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650900

RESUMO

In this nation-wide cohort study we report the first long-term results of the association between having a atrial septal defects (ASD) on psychiatric disorders and use of psychotropic agents. Through population-based registries we included Danish individuals born before 1994 who received an ASD diagnosis between 1959and 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards regression and Fine and Grey competing risk regression to estimate the risk of receiving a psychiatric diagnosis and use of psychotropic medicine compared with a gender and age matched background population cohort. In 2,277 patients with a median follow-up from ASD diagnosis of 23.4 years (range 0.2 to 59.3 years) we found ASD patients to have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4 to 4.5) compared with the comparison cohort and a cumulative incidence of using psychotropic agents 30 years after the ASD diagnosis of 47.4% (95% CI: 40.3 to 55.1) in the ASD patients and 25.5%, (95% CI: 23.5 to 27.8) in the comparison cohort. Diagnosis of the ASD before the age of 15 years (adjusted HR: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 4.0) and surgical correction of the defect (HR: 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2 to 1.8), p <0.0001) had a higher risk than those with an ASD diagnosis after the age of 15 years and those with transcatheter closure of the defect. In conclusion, ASD patients had increased long-term risk of psychiatric disorder and use of psychotropic agents compared with a gender and age matched general population controls.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interatrial/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interatrial/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(4)2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A recent randomized controlled trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in veterans raised the question of whether comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) negatively impacted the outcome of TMS in veterans. To address this, a quality database was analyzed to compare outcomes of MDD treated with TMS in veterans with and without comorbid PTSD. METHODS: The clinical outcomes of all consecutive veterans with MDD treated with TMS at the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital as outpatients from October 2013 through September 2018 were included. Patients were initially evaluated by an experienced psychiatrist, and the diagnosis of MDD was made by clinical evaluation per DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 criteria. At the start of treatment, after every 5 treatments, and at the end of treatment, patients were assessed with self-report and clinician-rated scales of depression. All data were abstracted from an existing quality database. RESULTS: Among the 118 patients treated with TMS for depression, 55 (47%) had comorbid PTSD and 63 (53%) had no comorbid PTSD. Response and remission rates by score on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale were similar between patients with PTSD (52.5% and 40.9%, respectively) and without PTSD (53.8% and 35.6%, respectively). No seizures or persistent adverse effects were observed or reported in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid PTSD did not impact the outcome of TMS for depression in this sample of veterans. Future studies should include formal ratings of PTSD to determine if the severity of PTSD affects the outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(4)2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an important therapy for treatment-resistant depression and is especially effective for elderly individuals with depression. This is the first US nationally representative description of ECT in the elderly. METHODS: Using 2014-2015 Medicare claims data, we compared elderly individuals with major depressive disorder (using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes) who received ECT with those who did not on demographic and clinical measures. We characterized treatment patterns by setting and the proportion of individuals receiving index and continuation/maintenance courses, subtherapeutic courses of ECT, and post-ECT follow-up care. RESULTS: Of all Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older diagnosed with depression in 2014-2015, 7,817 (0.41%) received 1 or more ECT sessions. Compared to the general population of elderly Medicare beneficiaries with depression, recipients of ECT were slightly younger and more likely to be male, non-Hispanic, and white and live in a zip code with a higher median income. Among those who received any ECT, 33.7% received < 5 total treatments. Of those who received an index ECT treatment, 33.7% received a continuation/maintenance course of ECT, while 60.9% received some form of post-ECT follow-up treatment (additional ECT or new psychotropic medication). Receipt of psychotherapy was the strongest predictor of those who received ≥ 5 ECT treatments (adjusted odds ratio = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial evidence of efficacy, ECT use remains rare among elderly patients with depression. Findings suggest a potential need for efforts to increase the proportion of patients receiving adequate courses of ECT and evidence-based post-ECT follow-up care.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/normas , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
10.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(4)2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of antidepressants and other therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive impairment in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a database search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase through Ovid on May 7, 2019. The year of publication was not restricted. The search terms "Major Depressive Disorder," "depress*," "cognit*," and "therapeutics" were used. STUDY SELECTION: The studies included in this review were clinical trials of antidepressants and other therapeutic agents in MDD populations. Participants were aged between 18 and 65 years and had a DSM-III, -IV, or -5 diagnosis of MDD. In total, 2,045 research papers were screened, 53 full-text articles were assessed, and 26 articles were eligible to be included in this systematic review. DATA EXTRACTION: The data and quality of research papers were assessed and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Discrepancies were resolved through a third reviewer. RESULTS: Overall, studies demonstrated that tricyclic antidepressants do not have procognitive effects, while vortioxetine and bupropion have demonstrated procognitive effects in MDD populations relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Several non-antidepressant agents, such as modafinil, amphetamines, and erythropoietin, have also demonstrated significant positive effects on cognition in depression. CONCLUSIONS: Present-day antidepressants and other agents have demonstrated procognitive effects in MDD, but the findings between various agents are mixed. Further research looking at objective measures of cognitive performance would be helpful to obtain more definitive results regarding the efficacy of therapeutics for cognitive impairment in MDD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Humanos
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use and psychotherapeutic polypharmacy is increasing. This study was designed to assess annual rates of ADHD medication prescribing and psychotherapeutic polypharmacy among patients 2 to 24 years old in the United States, identify commonly prescribed ADHD medications and concomitant psychotropic agents, and assess if specific characteristics are associated with polypharmacy. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used publicly available ambulatory health care data sets to evaluate ADHD and psychotropic polypharmacy use in patients 2 to 24 years old from 2006 to 2015. National rates were estimated by using sampling weights, and common ADHD and psychotropic drugs prescribed were identified. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the strength of association between polypharmacy and patient or provider characteristics. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2015, ADHD medication prescribing increased from 4.8% to 8.4%. ADHD polypharmacy increased from 16.8% to 20.5%, whereas psychotropic polypharmacy increased from 26.0% to 40.7%. The most common ADHD combinations were stimulants and α-2 agonists (67.1%), whereas the most common concomitant psychotropic agents were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (14.4%) and second-generation antipsychotics (11.8%). Factors associated with polypharmacy were age, female sex (psychotropic), nonprivate insurance, northeast and south regions (ADHD), receipt of mental health counseling or psychotherapy, and calendar year. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD and psychotropic polypharmacy use is increasing and associated with specific patient characteristics. These patterns should spark further inquiry about the appropriateness, efficacy, and safety of psychotherapeutic polypharmacy in children and young adults, particularly within subgroups in which the use is high.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Polimedicação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 294, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Involuntary treatment for individuals who lack sufficient capacity to make informed decisions regarding treatment has been associated with increased rates of injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic polytherapy, and/or high doses. However, little is known about non-antipsychotic psychotropic prescription, or psychotropic medication burden as a more encompassing approach for people treated involuntarily. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Mental Health Act (MHA) status and psychotropic polypharmacy and/or high-dose medication prescribing practices in an Australian inpatient mental health unit. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 800 adults discharged from a large metropolitan Queensland mental health unit was undertaken. Data was collected for 200 individuals, discharged on at least one psychotropic medicine, at four time periods; Cohort 1 (on or before 31st January 2014), Cohort 2 (2015), Cohort 3 (2016) and Cohort 4 (2017). The number of prescribed medicines and total daily doses were recorded and reviewed for alignment with current clinical guidelines. Participant demographics and clinical characteristics were compared by individual MHA status using chi-square test for categorical variables and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Associations between MHA status and prescribing practices (psychotropic polypharmacy and/or high-dose prescribing) were assessed using bivariate and multivariate binomial logistic regression models. Age, gender, birth country, year of admission, admissions in previous 12 months, primary diagnosis, ECT/clozapine treatment, and other psychotropic medications were adjusted as covariates. RESULTS: Regression analysis found that compared to their voluntary counterparts, individuals treated involuntarily were 2.7 times more likely to be prescribed an antipsychotic at discharge, 8.8 times more likely to be prescribed more than one antipsychotic at discharge and 1.65 times more likely to be prescribed high-dose antipsychotic treatment at discharge. The adjusted model also found that they were half as likely to be prescribed an antidepressant at discharge. CONCLUSION: Implicit review of justifications for increased psychotropic medication burden (antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-doses) in those treated involuntarily is required to ensure clinical outcomes and overall quality of life are improved in this vulnerable group. Clearly documented medication histories, reconciliation at discharge and directions for medication management after discharge are necessary to ensure quality use of medicines.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento Involuntário/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Mental , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Polimedicação , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Queensland , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant use is increasing worldwide, but national data on psychotropic drug use by depressed patients in Brazil is lacking. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2014, a representative sample of urban adult individuals were asked if they had a diagnosis of chronic disease, had a medical indication for drug treatment, and were taking chronic medications at the time for each reported diagnosis. We analyzed the frequencies of reported depression and the medications related to this disease. RESULTS: Overall, 6.1% of respondents reported depression. The prevalence increased with age - 9.5% among the elders - was higher among women (8.9%) and in the south of the country (8.9%). As a single disease, the prevalence of depression was higher among young people (17.6%). Among those with multimorbidity, the prevalence of depression rose to 25.7%. Of those who reported depression, 81.3% had medical indication for treatment and 90.3% were under treatment - this proportion was lower among young people (84.5%) and those living in the poorest region (78.6%). Antidepressants accounted for 47.2% of psychotropic drugs taken by respondents with depression, with regional differences - only 30% used antidepressants in the North. Polypharmacy was reported by 22% of those with depression and other chronic diseases. CONCLUSION: Depression in Brazil, is common among young adults as a single chronic disease and highly prevalent among people with chronic multimorbidity, especially the young. The treatment gap was larger among young people and in the less developed regions of the country.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Autorrelato , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S93-S98, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507556

RESUMO

Although the "panic" word has been abundantly linked to the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic in the press, in the scientific literature very few studies have considered whether the current epidemic could predispose to the onset or the aggravation of panic attacks or panic disorder. Indeed, most studies thus far have focused on the risk of increase and aggravation of other psychiatric disorders as a consequence of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Yet, risk of onset or aggravation of panic disorder, especially the subtype with prominent respiratory symptoms, which is characterized by a fear response conditioning to interoceptive sensations (e.g., respiratory), and hypervigilance to these interoceptive signals, could be expected in the current situation. Indeed, respiratory symptoms, such as coughs and dyspnea, are among the most commonly associated with the SARS-CoV-2 (59-82% and 31-55%, respectively), and respiratory symptoms are associated with a poor illness prognosis. Hence given that some etiological and maintenance factors associated with panic disorder - i.e., fear conditioning to abnormal breathing patterns attributable or not to the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), as well as hypervigilance towards breathing abnormalities - are supposedly more prevalent, one could expect an increased risk of panic disorder onset or aggravation following the COVID-19 epidemic in people who were affected by the virus, but also those who were not. In people with the comorbidity (i.e., panic disorder or panic attacks and the COVID-19), it is particularly important to be aware of the risk of hypokalemia in specific at-risk situations or prescriptions. For instance, in the case of salbutamol prescription, which might be overly used in patients with anxiety disorders and COVID-19, or in patients presenting with diarrhea and vomiting. Hypokalemia is associated with an increased risk of torsade de pointe, thus caution is required when prescribing specific psychotropic drugs, such as the antidepressants citalopram and escitalopram, which are first-line treatments for panic disorder, but also hydroxyzine, aiming at anxiety reduction. The results reviewed here highlight the importance of considering and further investigating the impact of the current pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of panic disorder (alone or comorbid with the COVID-19).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Catastrofização , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Torsades de Pointes/etiologia
17.
Neurotox Res ; 38(1): 1-7, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244976

RESUMO

As a severe and highly contagious infectious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several case reports have demonstrated that the respiratory system is the main target in patients with COVID-19, but the disease is not limited to the respiratory system. Case analysis indicated that the nervous system can be invaded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that 36.4% of COVID-19 patients had neurological symptoms. Importantly, the involvement of the CNS may be associated with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we discussed the symptoms and evidence of nervous system involvement (directly and indirectly) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible mechanisms. CNS symptoms could be a potential indicator of poor prognosis; therefore, the prevention and treatment of CNS symptoms are also crucial for the recovery of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Transtornos da Consciência/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tontura/epidemiologia , Tontura/etiologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/virologia , Nervo Olfatório/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Psicoterapia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
19.
Neurotox Res ; 38(1): 1-7, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399719

RESUMO

As a severe and highly contagious infectious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several case reports have demonstrated that the respiratory system is the main target in patients with COVID-19, but the disease is not limited to the respiratory system. Case analysis indicated that the nervous system can be invaded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that 36.4% of COVID-19 patients had neurological symptoms. Importantly, the involvement of the CNS may be associated with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we discussed the symptoms and evidence of nervous system involvement (directly and indirectly) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible mechanisms. CNS symptoms could be a potential indicator of poor prognosis; therefore, the prevention and treatment of CNS symptoms are also crucial for the recovery of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Transtornos da Consciência/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tontura/epidemiologia , Tontura/etiologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/virologia , Nervo Olfatório/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Psicoterapia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
20.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S116-S118, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360037
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