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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112939, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeless experts and some federal housing officials are sounding the alarm that the patchwork of government efforts to address the coronavirus outbreak risks leaving out one group of acutely vulnerable people: the homeless. In terms of isolation, it is too unclear what that looks like if you normally sleep on the streets. In this tough moment, when people should be turned away, not only it feels inhumane, but it is also a big public health risk, because where are they going to go? METHOD: The studies were identified using large-sized newspapers with international circulation RESULTS: With more cities suspecting community transmission of the novel coronavirus, people who sleep in shelters or hunker down outside already have a lower life expectancy and often have underlying health conditions that put them at greater risk if they develop COVID-19 (Global News, 2020). These people face lack of sleep, malnutrition, and "extreme stress levels just to meet their daily needs", all of which weakens the immune system. Along with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, they are "incredibly vulnerable to this virus". CONCLUSIONS: Health organizations are well aware of the risks involved in mental health. A large population of homeless people experience their pain and psychological distress intermittently. For low-income patients, the various borderline situations related to health/illness involve growing expectations regarding the basic needs. This is a serious concern when linked to the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(3)jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025640

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar o perfil dos pacientes atendidos por tentativas de suicídio atendidas pelo Hospital Geral Dr. Oswaldo Brandão Vilela (HGE) da cidade de Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo do tipo documental, descritivo e retrospectivo com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra da pesquisa foi todo o universo de pacientes atendidos e diagnosticados por tentativa de suicídio no HGE no período de 2015 a 2017. Resultados:A amostra investigada foi constituída de 824 usuários, 50,1% dos pacientes tem a faixa etária entre 15 a 29 anos e 63% são do sexo feminino, 82,1% utilizou o meio de envenenamento, desses, 58,9% utilizou o agente medica-mento. Conclusão: De 2015 a 2017 a distribuição de ocorrências por atendimentos de suicídio cresceu ao longo dos anos entre os jovens. Infere-se que são necessárias ações que permitam e incentivem a prevenção desse dano à população (AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Presenting the profile of patients treated for suicide attempts at the Oswaldo Brandão Vilela General Hospital (HGE) in the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Methods: This is a documentary, descriptive, and retrospective study with a quantitative approach. The research sample was the entire universe of patients assisted and diagnosed at the HGE for suicide in the period from 2015 to 2017. Results: The sample investigated consisted of 824 users, 50.1% of the patients had the age range between 15 to 29 years and 63% are female, 82.1% used the means of poisoning, of these, 58.9% used the drug agent. Conclusion: From 2015 to 2017, the distribution of occurrences due to suicide calls increased among young people. It is inferred that actions are necessary that allow and encourage the prevention of this damage to the population (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Tentativa de Suicídio , Perfil de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria Comunitária
4.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 37, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gender-specific characteristics of individuals at an increased risk of developing depression currently remain unclear despite a higher prevalence of depression in women than in men. This study clarified socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of subclinical depression in general Japanese men and women. METHODS: Study participants were residents not receiving psychiatric treatments in 300 sites throughout Japan in 2010 (1152 men, 1529 women). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for socioeconomic factors and lifestyle factors were calculated using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Risk of depressive tendencies was significantly higher in men who were single and living alone (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.56-6.88) than those married. The risk was significantly lower in women who were not working and aged ≥ 60 years (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.68) and higher in men who were not working and aged < 60 years (OR, 3.57; 95%CI, 1.31-9.72) compared with those who were working. Current smoking was also associated with a significantly increased risk of depressive tendencies in women (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.68-5.22) but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were associated with an increased risk of depressive tendencies in general Japanese. Related factors were different by sex.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Comunitária/tendências , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(S 01): S60-S68, 2019 03.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743307

RESUMO

Giving appointments to semiotics and social psychiatry the framework of semiotics is characterized with regard to fields of application in social psychiatry. From that point an interdisciplinary cooperation could be achieved with benefit for both sides. By means of the theory of semiosis (sign process) it could be shown, in which way the communicative meaning of all speech acts (illocutionary forces) could be formally represented. Against this background the SRZP-research concepts of structure (PART II), dynamics (PART III) and modelling (PART V) of jeopardizing situations could be unfolded retrospectively.


Assuntos
Coerção , Psiquiatria , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Alemanha , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is high variance in how mental health services across the globe are organized. OBJECTIVES: How do mental health services in an Austrian and German alpine district differ (Austria: Bezirk Reutte in Tirol; Germany: Southern Oberallgäu in Bavaria)? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative data were assessed with the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS). Additionally, 30 expert interviews (15 in each region) were evaluated using qualitative content analysis (Mayring). RESULTS: In both regions there is no psychiatric hospital and a lack of outpatient psychiatrists and psychotherapists. ESMS shows surprising differences in how mental health services are organized in both regions, which are reflected in the expert interviews. DISCUSSION: In regions where medical-psychiatric services tend to become sparse, there is a shift towards non-medical community services, which may cover different spheres of daily life and span from housing to self-help. CONCLUSION: The study highlights that while structural and process quality can be compared, it is difficult to find indicators for outcome quality.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Áustria , Alemanha , Humanos , Psicoterapia
7.
Community Ment Health J ; 55(1): 4-8, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483991

RESUMO

This paper represents a position statement of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists (AACP) regarding treatment plans. We regard treatment plans, a documentation requirement, in this position statement, as distinct from the process of treatment planning. The AACP is concerned that treatment plan documentation in its current state, creates unnecessary administrative burden for physicians, without evidence of benefit for patients, reducing direct patient contact time, thereby negatively impacting quality of care. In this position, we echo the statements made by the American College of Physicians in their position paper entitled "Putting Patients First by Reducing Administrative Tasks in Health Care". We recommend a review of the treatment plan documentation requirement across the nation, engaging consumers, providers, regulatory agencies in all states, as well as national reimbursement and regulatory agencies, in order to promote the process of quality driven care and documentation.


Assuntos
Documentação , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Documentação/métodos , Documentação/normas , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Relações Interprofissionais , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Comportamento Problema , Psiquiatria , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
9.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 39: 29-31, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508774

RESUMO

This summary provides details of a one-day symposium, titled 'Community Psychiatry and District Mental Health Program (DMHP)- An update' that was organized jointly by the Departments of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru in collaboration with the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Karnataka on September 3rd 2018. This symposium was supported by Dr. Ramachandra N Moorthy, foundation for Mental Health and Neurological Sciences, NIMHANS, Bengaluru.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Índia
11.
In. González Menéndez, Ricardo; Sandoval Ferrer, Juan E. Manual de psiquiatría. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2019. .
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71634
12.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 41(11/12,supl): 94-98, nov.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179947

RESUMO

An integrated health perspective emphasizes the importance of assessing mental health literacy in different population groups. The level of literacy in Mental Health indicates individual educational needs for maintaining mental balance. Risk and protective factors for mental health are identified, and there is an urgent need to increase community literacy. The article refers to the study that will be carried out to determine and compare mental health literacy in the young and adult popula-tion of the Region. It will have two stages: pilot study and main study. In this paper, we will use the Questionnaire for Evaluation of Literacy in Mental Health - QuALIS-Mental, developed by Jorm et al. in 1997, in the version adapted for Portugal of the National Survey of Mental Literacy in Young People - Interview version by Loureiro et al. in 2012 and the Inventory of Beliefs on Mental Illness - short version, also by Loureiro in 2008. The results will be representative of the population in study, resi-dent in the Region ́s municipalities. The pilot study will cover four groups residing in two municipalities, two aged between 14 and 18 years and two between 19 and 64. It will be a transversal, exploratory and quantitative study, with the collabora-tion of Health Centres nurses. After analysis, the results will be disseminated in the municipal communities, the population and the local entities. It will be considered useful to identify gaps in mental health literacy and to combine synergies using the knowledge gained to improve community mental health planning


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Mental/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Psiquiatria Comunitária/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Assistência Integral à Saúde/tendências , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
14.
Saúde Soc ; 27(2): 354-366, abr.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-962589

RESUMO

Resumen El artículo analiza las relaciones entre eugenesia y medicalización del crimen en Uruguay hacia fines del siglo XIXy primeras tres décadas del siglo XX. La perspectiva adoptada parte de la consideración de la conversión del crimen y de otros comportamientos socialmente problemáticos en objeto de la medicina psiquiátrica como parte de procesos más amplios de gestión biopolítica de la vida social en contextos urbanos. En ese sentido, se examinan algunas peculiaridades del caso uruguayo en lo que concierne a las relaciones entre eugenesia y medicalización del crimen, destacándose la inexpresiva alusión al factor racial y la importancia superlativa atribuida a los «vicios sociales¼ y, en particular, al consumo de alcohol como elemento disgenésico y criminogénico susceptible de poner en riesgo la composición y calidad de la población.


Abstract The article analyzes the relationship between eugenics and medicalization of crime in Uruguay between the end of the 19th century and the first three decades of the 20th century. The perspective adopted starts from the consideration of the conversion of crime and other socially problematic behaviors in a psychiatric matter, as part of broader processes of biopolitical management of social life in urban contexts. In that sense, some peculiarities of the Uruguayan case are examined concerning the relationship between eugenics and medicalization of crime, standing out the inexpressive allusion to the racial factor and the extreme importance attributed to the "social addictions" and, in particular, to the alcohol consumption as a reproductive and criminogenic element susceptible to put at risk the composition and quality of the population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Crime , Alcoolismo , Eugenia (Ciência) , Medicalização
17.
Nervenarzt ; 89(1): 88-91, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247287

RESUMO

Early experiences and indications are reported that psychopharmacotherapy, particularly as prophylactic long-term medication for prevention of relapses, has led to an increased recognition of social determinants of the course of illness, especially in schizophrenic patients. As a result, institutions combining both social and psychopharmacological treatment have developed, e. g., in Berlin beginning with "Phönix" a transition home ("Übergangsheim") in 1956 to a catamnesis for long-term outpatient treatment of schizophrenic patients in 1957, a social service in 1960, a day and night hospital in 1962 up to a university department of social psychiatry in 1972 with a rich spectrum of facilities for a step by step rehabilitation of mentally ill patients. In comparison with well-known humanistic sources of German psychiatric reform, some less well-known sources based on psychopharmacotherapeutic experiences that need further historical elaboration are considered. Questions include: 1. how psychiatric pharmacotherapy has influenced the development of social psychiatry in Germany, 2. whether the pioneering spirit of the 1950s, initiated by new treatment with psychotropic drugs has influenced or fostered the development of social psychiatry in Germany, 3. whether retardation of the development of social psychiatry in Germany (as opposed to England, France, and Canada and possibly related to its post-war international isolation) has been overcome not least by the new scientific development of psychopharmacology that has encouraged renewal of international contacts. In any case the possible influence of psychopharmacotherapy should not be missing in an overall view of the development of social psychiatry in Germany.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária/história , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , Psicofarmacologia/história , Esquizofrenia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
18.
Schizophr Res ; 193: 406-411, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psychotic patients have poorer health behaviours, including poor diets and sedentary lifestyles increasing their risk for obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia, and tend to have a shorter life expectancy as compared to nonpsychiatric populations. Lifestyle intervention programmes that target modifiable risk factors in such patients have produced uneven results. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a package of health promotion strategies to improve diet and physical exercise in psychotic patients. Our hypothesis was that a pre- to post-treatment improvement in physical activity and dietary habits would occur in the group receiving intervention. METHOD: This randomised controlled trial was carried out in four psychiatric services. The intervention included psychoeducation sessions on diet and physical activity and regular participation in walking groups (experimental group). The control group received routine treatment. The primary outcome was an improvement of at least one World Health Organization recommendation on diet and exercise. RESULTS: Of a total of 326 subjects recruited, 169 were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 157 to the control group. An improvement in one or more World Health Organization criteria over baseline was observed in 25.4% of experimental group subjects and in 12.2% of control group subjects (odds ratio 2.46, 95% confidence interval 1.22-4.97; p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A statistically significant proportion of the sample achieved post-treatment improvement in lifestyle habits, especially as regarded increased physical activity. A post-intervention reduction in lifestyle variability was also noted. Interventions directly addressing dietary habits may be desirable in psychotic patients.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
19.
Community Ment Health J ; 54(5): 507-513, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185153

RESUMO

We sought to understand stakeholder perspectives on barriers to metabolic screening for people with severe mental illness. We additionally assessed the feasibility of expanding psychiatrists' scope of practice to include treatment of cardiometabolic abnormalities. We conducted four focus groups among patients with severe mental illness, community psychiatrists, primary care providers, and public health administrators. Focus group transcripts were thematically analyzed. Three domains emerged: challenges with patient navigation of the complex health care system, problem list prioritization difficulties, and concern that treatment of cardiometabolic abnormalities were beyond the scope of practice of psychiatrists. Stakeholders agreed that navigating the health care system was challenging for this population and led to undertreatment of cardiometabolic risk factors. Expansion of psychiatrists' scope of practice within community mental health appears acceptable to patients and may be a mechanism to improve cardiometabolic care among people with severe mental illness.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Psiquiatria Comunitária/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacientes , São Francisco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia
20.
Acad Psychiatry ; 42(2): 212-216, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to develop a model for understanding the various dimensions of system-based practice (SBP) and determine the extent to which psychiatry residents perform behaviors along these dimensions. METHODS: Sixty-one supervisors from seven psychiatry programs rated resident performance of SBP behaviors using a 60-item instrument. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were conducted to determine how the instrument items related to one another and the larger concept of SBP. Average supervisor ratings between clusters were compared to determine resident performance along the identified SBP dimensions. RESULTS: The data supports a model of SBP defined along two dimensions: (1) from micro (patient) to macro (population-based) interventions and (2) from low to high system complexity. Residents were more likely to perform behaviors at the patient level compared to those at the population-based level. CONCLUSIONS: Training in SBP remains predominately focused on the doctor-patient level and not the greater system of health-care delivery.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Internato e Residência/normas , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos/normas , Psiquiatria/educação , Adulto , Psiquiatria Comunitária/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sistemas
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