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2.
Neuropsychiatr ; 34(3): 101-107, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813228

RESUMO

The first psychiatric chairs and university departments of psychiatry in Austria were founded in Vienna and Graz in 1870: hence they celebrate their 150th anniversary this year 2020. These foundations represent a peak in the development of psychiatry as a scientific medical discipline. It is the aim of this paper to sketch that step by step development in its connection with the development of care institutions of the time and with reference to important personalities in the field. Vienna-as the metropole of the state and the most prominent place in the field-is taken as an example. One can distinguish four developmental periods: (1) The establishment of care institutions (asylums), at first without an own medical staff and unqualified male and female keepers (late 18th century up to early 19th). (2) The growing independance of these institutions-in Vienna the 'Tower of Fools'-and the emergence of 'alienists' who began to reflect on their activities and to share their experiences on academic grounds and the publication of a first Austrian textbook (1st half of 19th century). (3) From the 1850s on several alienists habilitated, partly with special emphasis on forensic psychology or cerebral anatomy and physiology, and developed a systematic academic teaching, again with a new 'modern' textbook, in some connection with a new care institution, and the foundation of a scientific association of psychiatry and forensic psychology in 1868. (4) An early activity of that association was to call for the institution of a chair and a university department of psychiatry within the asylum, both realised in 1870.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Áustria , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Psiquiatria/história , Universidades
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 377-385, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643628

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hungria
7.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 325-340, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349552

RESUMO

This article addresses the implementation of malaria fever therapy in Spain. Neuropsychiatrist Rodríguez-Lafora first used it in 1924, but Vallejo-Nágera was the main advocate for the technique. He had learned the method from Wagner von Jauregg himself, and he worked in the Military Psychiatric Clinic and the San José Mental Hospital, both in Ciempozuelos (Madrid). Vallejo-Nágera worked with the parasitologist Zozaya, who had travelled to England with a Rockefeller Foundation grant in order to learn from British malariologist, Sydney Price James. This article details the results of the uneven implementation of this treatment in Spanish psychiatric institutions. Although syphilologists and internists used fever therapy for the treatment of general paralysis of the insane, they were much less enthusiastic than psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida/história , Malária/história , Neurossífilis/história , Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipertermia Induzida/ética , Neurossífilis/terapia , Espanha
9.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 173-194, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284633

RESUMO

This article examines female sterilisation practices in early twentieth-century Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It argues that the medical profession, particularly obstetricians and psychiatrists, used debates over the issue to solidify its moral and political standing during two political moments of Brazilian history: when the Brazilian government separated church and state in the 1890s and when Getúlio Vargas's authoritarian regime of the late 1930s renewed alliances with the Catholic church. Shifting notions of gender, race, and heredity further shaped these debates. In the late nineteenth century, a unified medical profession believed that female sterilisation caused psychiatric degeneration in women. By the 1930s, however, the arrival of eugenics caused a divergence amongst physicians. Psychiatrists began supporting eugenic sterilisation to prevent degeneration - both psychiatric and racial. Obstetricians, while arguing that sterilisation no longer caused mental disturbances in women, rejected it as a eugenic practice in regard to race. For obstetricians, the separation of sex from motherhood was more dangerous than any racial 'impurities', both phenotypical and psychiatric. At the same time, a revitalised Brazilian Catholic church rejected eugenics and sterilisation point blank, and its renewed ties with the Vargas regime blocked the medical implementation of any eugenic sterilisation laws. Brazilian women, nonetheless, continued to access the procedure, regardless of the surrounding legal and medical proscriptions.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Obstetrícia/história , Médicos/história , Religião e Medicina , Esterilização Reprodutiva/história , Brasil , Eugenia (Ciência)/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/história , Papel do Médico/história , Médicos/ética , Sistemas Políticos/história , Psiquiatria/história , Caracteres Sexuais , Esterilização Reprodutiva/ética , Esterilização Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Esterilização Reprodutiva/psicologia
10.
11.
J Hist Ideas ; 81(2): 303-325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280112

RESUMO

This article examines the role of psychiatry in the life and work of Frantz Fanon. It focuses on Fanon's relationship to institutional psychotherapy, which he discovered at the hospital of Saint-Alban through the figure of François Tosquelles. Institutional psychotherapy confirmed, on a clinical level, what Fanon had already intuited in his early work. If alienation was always political and psychic at the same time, then decolonization needed to involve the disalienation of the mind. This is precisely what Fanon tried to do in his psychiatric work in North Africa and in his last political texts.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Psicoterapia , África do Norte , Instalações de Saúde , História do Século XX , Humanos , Psiquiatria/história , Psicoterapia/história
12.
Memorandum ; 37Abril 01, 2020.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-72078

RESUMO

Este artigo aborda o processo de desinstitucionalização no contexto da reforma psiquiátrica ocorrido em Ímola a partir da narrativa de brasileiros e brasileiras que participaram de seu cotidiano ao longo dos anos noventa. A pesquisa que sustenta o artigo procurou delinear as conexões entre Brasil e Itália no que concerne às contribuições no conjunto de ações que resultaram no fechamento dos manicômios e na constituição dos serviços territoriais (centros de saúde mental, centros diurnos) e de associações e cooperativas que sustentaram projetos de inclusão social. A metodologia utilizada nesta pesquisa qualitativa apoiou-se na realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com integrantes dos serviços de Ímola de ambas as nacionalidades. Assim, foram identificadas práticas relevantes que denotam uma participação efetiva de brasileiros e brasileiras, como educadores profissionais e assistentes de base, que não apenas impactaram o cotidiano assistencial como também colaboraram para a construção de cultura e relações inclusivas, inventivas, reflexivas e propositivas


This paper deals with the process of deinstitutionalization in the context of the psychiatric reform in Imola based on the narrative of Brazilians who participated in daily life there, throughout the nineties. The research that supports this paper sought to delineate the connections between Brazil and Italy regarding the actions that resulted in the closure of asylums and the establishment of territorial services, residences, associations, and cooperatives that supported social inclusion projects. The methodology used in this qualitative research was semi-structured interviews with members of the Imola care services of both nationalities. Relevant practices have been identified that indicate effective participation of Brazilians, as professional educators and basic assistants who have not only affected everyday care but also contributed to the cultural and inclusive, inventive, reflexive, and propositional relationships.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Psiquiatria/história , Saúde Mental , Relações Interpessoais
14.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 341-350, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172607

RESUMO

The British Mandate in Palestine ended abruptly in 1948. The British departure engendered a complex situation which affected all areas of life, and the country's health system was no exception. Gradual transition of the infrastructure was almost impossible owing to the ineffectiveness of the committee appointed by the United Nations. The situation was further complicated by the outbreak of the Arab-Israeli War. We relate for the first time the story of 75 Jewish patients who were left in a former British mental hospital in Bethlehem - deep behind the front lines. Despite the hostilities, there were complex negotiations about relocating those patients. This episode sheds light on the Jewish and Arab relationship as it pertained to mental institutions during and immediately after the British Mandate.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Árabes , História do Século XX , Humanos , Israel , Judeus , Oriente Médio , Psiquiatria/história
15.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 351-358, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202172

RESUMO

Michel Foucault remains one of the most influential intellectuals in the early twenty-first century world. This paper examines the origins and impact of his first major work, Folie et déraison, on the history of psychiatry, particularly though not exclusively in the world of Anglo-American scholarship. The impact and limits of Foucault's work on the author's own contributions to the history of psychiatry are examined, as is the larger influence of Madness and Civilization (as it is known to most Anglophones) on the nascent social history of psychiatry. The paper concludes with an assessment of the sources of the appeal of Foucault's work among some scholars, and notes his declining influence on contemporary scholars working on the history of psychiatry.


Assuntos
Livros/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria/história , Historiografia , História do Século XX , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105273

RESUMO

The University of Leipzig has played an important role in the Russian-German scientific exchange in the fields of psychiatry and neurology in the 19th century. An outstanding but almost forgotten protagonist of that exchange was the psychiatrist and neurologist Paul Flechsig, who enjoyed worldwide recognition for his neuroanatomical works. Famous Russian neurologists and psychiatrists as Vladimir Bekhterev, Liverij Osipovich Darkshevich, Vladimir Chizh not only learned from Flechsig's experience, but also undertook independent research, which gave them impulses for furthering their carriers in Russia.


Assuntos
Neuropatologia/história , Psiquiatria/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Neuroanatomia/história , Federação Russa
18.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 194-207, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050799

RESUMO

Previous historiography has already paid particular attention to well-known 'metropolitan' biographies of I. Balinsky, V. Bekhterev and others, as well as their role in the establishment of a scientific approach in the treatment of mental illnesses in the Russian Empire. Little attention has been paid to 'provincial' physicians and the importance of their scientific activity in bridging the gap between the Russian and European institutions of psychiatry. The primary aim of this article is to show how Alexander Frese's 'mobile' and 'imperial' career influenced the emergence of the transnational origins of Russian psychiatry. It describes his travels to foreign psychiatric hospitals, and his subsequent critical assessment of them. I argue that his ideas, which had been formulated during these trips, determined the design of emerging psychiatric institutions (district hospitals) in the Russian Empire.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Psiquiatria/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , Rússia (pré-1917)
19.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 208-216, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102571

RESUMO

The question of causation in psychiatry is one of the oldest and most difficult in this field. This paper is the first of two published in this journal. First, it traces the development of psychogenic and organogenic views of mental disorders from Pinel until the early twentieth century. This includes the debate as to how a disturbance of function might create a lesion even without a visible pathological trace. The second part of the paper discusses in detail the controversy between functional and organic causes of mental disease. These concepts evolved taking into account psychological factors and also the response of the uninjured parts of the nervous system to trauma of various kinds.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Dissidências e Disputas/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia
20.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(2): 151-170, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100011

RESUMO

Sir Alexander Morison's Physiognomy of Mental Diseases (1838) was created as a didactic tool for physicians, depicting lunatics in both the active and dormant states of disease. Through the act of juxtaposition, Morison constituted his subjects as their own Jekylls and Hydes, capable of radical transformation. In doing so, he marshaled artistic and clinical, visual and textual approaches in order to pose a particular argument about madness as a temporally manifested, visually distinguishable state defined by its contrast with reason. This argument served a crucial function in legitimizing the emergent discipline of psychiatry by applying biomedical methodologies to the observation and classification of distinctly physical symptoms. Robert Louis Stevenson's "quintessentially Victorian parable" serves as a metaphor for the way 19th-century alienists conceptualized insanity, while the theme of duality at the core of Stevenson's story serves as a framework for conceptualizing both psychiatry and the subjects it generates. It was (and is) a discipline formulated around narrative as the primary organizing structure for its particular set of paradoxes, and specifically, narratives of the self as a fluid, dynamic, and contradictory entity.


Assuntos
Fisiognomia , Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XIX , Escócia
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