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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 257-264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383310

RESUMO

Wild birds are known reservoirs of bacterial and viral pathogens, some of which have zoonotic potential. This poses a risk to both avian and human health, since spillover into domestic bird populations may occur. In Victoria, wild-caught cockatoos trapped under licence routinely enter commercial trade. The circovirus Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV), herpesviruses, adenoviruses and Chlamydia psittaci have been identified as significant pathogens of parrots globally, with impacts on both aviculture and the conservation efforts of endangered species. In this study, we describe the results of surveillance for psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs), psittacine adenovirus (PsAdV), BFDV and C. psittaci in wild cacatuids in Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected from 55 birds of four species, and tested using genus or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of known and novel pathogens. There were no clinically observed signs of illness in most of the live birds in this study (96.3%; n = 53). Beak and Feather Disease Virus was detected with a prevalence of 69.6% (95% CI 55.2-80.9). Low prevalences of PsHV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), PsAdV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), and C. psittaci (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6) was detected. Importantly, a novel avian alphaherpesvirus and a novel avian adenovirus were detected in a little corella (Cacatua sanguinea) co-infected with BFDV and C. psittaci. The presence of multiple potential pathogens detected in a single bird presents an example of the ease with which such infectious agents may enter the pet trade and how novel viruses circulating in wild populations have the potential for transmission into captive birds. Genomic identification of previously undescribed avian viruses is important to further our understanding of their epidemiology, facilitating management of biosecurity aspects of the domestic and international bird trade, and conservation efforts of vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Papagaios/virologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Animais , Aviadenovirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Papagaios/microbiologia , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
2.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 22-28, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124608

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Columbiformes , Genótipo , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbiformes/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(2): 402-410, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353983

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 190 swabs were collected from psittacine birds (n = 120) and bird handlers (n = 70) and were tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect the C. psittaci ompA gene. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was detected in 63 (52·5%) of 120 samples collected from psittacine birds. The occurrence of C. psittaci infections was high in Cockatiel birds (60%), followed by Fischer's lovebird (51%) and Rosy-faced lovebird (47·5%). Bird age, location (pet markets and households), housing (caged and aviary), and sampling season were considered significant risk factors for C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds. Of the 70 sputum swabs collected from bird handlers, only 4 (6%) were positive for C. psittaci. Positive cases were closely associated with older persons (≥30 years) who had respiratory signs and handled birds in pet markets. Further, wearing protective gloves and washing hands when handling psittacine birds decreased the frequency of C. psittaci infections in bird handlers. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds in Egypt is high, which has a potential threat to human health in this area. Thus, dissemination of effective prevention and control measures is essential to prevent the spread of C. psittaci among psittacine birds, as well as among humans in contact with birds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Results from this study highlighted the risk factors associated with C. psittaci infections in psittacine birds and bird handlers in Egypt and will aid in developing prevention and control measures to reduce the risk of C. psittaci infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Mal Respir ; 36(3): 298-306, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to compare the features at diagnosis in patients with ornithosis to patients with avian acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Clinical, biological and radiological differences could potentially help clinicians to distinguish these diseases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients admitted from 2000 to 2016 in three hospitals. Ornithosis was diagnosed based on a positive polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydophila psittaci on respiratory samples and/or a seroconversion while HP was diagnosed on the basis of at least one positive serum precipitin. RESULTS: Twelve patients with HP and 13 patients with ornithosis were identified. Compared to HP, ornithosis occurred more frequently in males (P=0.047), with less previous respiratory diseases (P=0.01), shorter symptom duration (P=0.03), less frequently bilateral crackles (P=0.004), more severe disease requiring more frequently intensive care admission (P=0.005), higher CRP values (P=0.005) and more profound lymphopenia (P=0.02). Ground glass shadowing on CT scan (P=0.001) or bronchiectasis (P=0.03) were more frequently noted in patients with HP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with ornithosis and HP have important differences in their clinical, biological, and radiological presentation.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/epidemiologia , Animais , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 442, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psittacosis outbreak investigations require rapid identification of cases in order to trace possible sources and perform public health risk assessments. In recent outbreaks in the Netherlands, such investigations were hampered by the non-specificity of laboratory testing methods to identify human Chlamydia psittaci infections. METHOD: A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus databases of literature published between 01 January, 1986 and 03 July, 2017 was done to find best practices of laboratory-testing methods used in psittacosis outbreaks of two or more human cases. Reference lists of included articles were hand searched to identify additional articles. RESULTS: Thirty-seven eligible articles were identified, describing 44 human psittacosis outbreaks in 12 countries. Laboratory tests performed were PCR (with various targets), serologic tests (complement binding reactions, ELISA's, immunofluorescence tests and immuno-peroxidase tests) and culture, in various combinations. The literature provided no 'gold standard' laboratory testing strategy to identify recent human C. psittaci infections. In most psittacosis outbreaks, for a considerable number of cases (or tested individuals in an exposed cohort), C. psittaci infection could not be confirmed, nor excluded as causative pathogen. None of the testing strategies was found to be suitable for (nearly) full case finding. CONCLUSION: PCR enables rapid identification of human psittacosis patients and helps source finding by genotyping but has the disadvantage that sensitivity is high only in the acute phase. In outbreak situations, there is often a time delay and therefore, there is a need for new serologic testing methods next to PCR, with good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, serum is easier to collect than the preferred diagnostic materials for PCR. A serologic test that can reliably confirm infection status without the necessity of convalescent serum sampling would enhance case finding, source tracing, identification of risk factors and assessment of burden of disease in various settings.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Animais , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/transmissão
6.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(7): 790-797, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984469

RESUMO

Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted by birds. In Sweden, where psittacosis is notifiable, an average of eight cases per year were reported between 2002 and 2012. In 2013, an unusual increase in cases in southern Sweden was associated with exposure to wild birds. To further explore specific risk factors connected to wild birds and identify other risk factors for sporadic psittacosis, we conducted a case-control study including all domestically acquired psittacosis cases reported between December 2014 and April 2016 in Sweden. Cases were age-, sex- and geo-matched to controls randomly selected from a population register. Cases and controls completed a questionnaire investigating detailed exposures to wild and domestic birds. We compared cases to controls, calculating adjusted matched odds ratios (amOR) using conditional logistic regression. Thirty-one cases were notified: all cases lived in southern Sweden and 26 were ill during winter season. Two risk factors were independently associated with psittacosis infection: cleaning a wild bird feeder (amOR = 18.95; 95% CI: 2.11-170.03) and owning domestic birds (amOR = 5.55, 95% CI: 1.16-26.61). Our results suggest that exposure to bird faeces, for example when cleaning a wild bird feeder, was the main route of transmission. Following this study, the Public Health Agency of Sweden published recommendations on good practices when cleaning surfaces contaminated with bird faeces and recommended use of bird feeders with a design limiting faeces accumulation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
7.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 248-260, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369723

RESUMO

In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds ( Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, US was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was present in conjunctival-choanal or cloacal swabs in 93% (43/46) of lovebirds and 10% (14/142) of sympatric birds. Antibodies to C. psittaci were detected in 76% (31/41) of lovebirds and 7% (7/102) of sympatric birds. Among the sympatric birds, Rock Doves ( Columba livia) had the highest prevalence of C. psittaci DNA (75%; 6/8) and seroprevalence (25%; 2/8). Psittacine circovirus 1 DNA was also identified, using real-time PCR-based testing, from the same swab samples in 69% (11/16) of species sampled, with a prevalence of 80% (37/46) in lovebirds and 27% (38/142) in sympatric species. The presence of either Rosy-faced Lovebirds or Rock Doves at residential bird feeders may be cause for concern for epizootic and zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci in this region.


Assuntos
Agapornis , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Columbidae , Passeriformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Agapornis/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Arizona/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Columbidae/microbiologia , Passeriformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/mortalidade
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(3): 303-305, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361998

RESUMO

Psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) can have diverse presentations in humans, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic disease. Awareness of psittacosis and its presentations are low among clinicians and the general public. Therefore, underdiagnosis and thereby underestimation of the incidence and public health importance of psittacosis is very likely. We used the methodology developed for the Burden of communicable diseases in Europe toolkit of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, to construct a model to estimate disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to psittacosis. Using this model, we estimated the disease burden caused by psittacosis in the Netherlands to have been 222 DALY per year (95% CI 172-280) over the period 2012-2014. This is comparable with the amount of DALYs estimated to be due to rubella or shigellosis in the same period in the Netherlands. Our results highlight the public health importance of psittacosis and identify evidence gaps pertaining to the clinical presentations and prognosis of this disease.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(15): 3096-3105, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28946931

RESUMO

Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the transmission of the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci from birds to humans. Infections in humans mainly present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, most cases of CAP are treated without diagnostic testing, and the importance of C. psittaci infection as a cause of CAP is therefore unclear. In this meta-analysis of published CAP-aetiological studies, we estimate the proportion of CAP caused by C. psittaci infection. The databases MEDLINE and Embase were systematically searched for relevant studies published from 1986 onwards. Only studies that consisted of 100 patients or more were included. In total, 57 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. C. psittaci was the causative pathogen in 1·03% (95% CI 0·79-1·30) of all CAP cases from the included studies combined, with a range between studies from 0 to 6·7%. For burden of disease estimates, it is a reasonable assumption that 1% of incident cases of CAP are caused by psittacosis.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 49(4): 323-327, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734713

RESUMO

In Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci infections are still not sufficiently known. A total of 846 respiratory and 10 ocular samples from patients with suspected human psittacosis were tested for C. psittaci from January 2010 to March 2015. Four samples of birds related to these patients were also studied. Forty-eight samples were positive for C. psittaci by a nested PCR. The molecular characterization of twelve C. psittaci PCR-positive samples received in the National Reference Laboratory INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed. Eight positive samples from humans and four from birds were genotyped by ompA gene sequencing. C. psittaci genotype A was found in all human samples and in the related birds. This report contributes to our increasing knowledge of the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of C. psittaci to conduct effective surveillance of its zoonotic infections.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci , Psitacose , Zoonoses , Animais , Argentina , Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/genética
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 519, 2017 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands. METHODS: We analysed data on 700 human cases of psittacosis notified between 01-01-2000 and 01-09-2015. First, we studied the temporal behaviour of psittacosis notifications by applying wavelet analysis. Then, to identify possible spatial patterns, we applied spatial cluster analysis. Finally, we investigated the possible spatial association between psittacosis notifications and data on the Dutch poultry sector at municipality level using a multivariable model. RESULTS: We found a large spatial cluster that covered a highly poultry-dense area but additional clusters were found in areas that had a low poultry density. There were marked geographical differences in the awareness of psittacosis and the amount and the type of laboratory diagnostics used for psittacosis, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the correlation between the large cluster and poultry density. The multivariable model showed that the presence of chicken processing plants and slaughter duck farms in a municipality was associated with a higher rate of human psittacosis notifications. The significance of the associations was influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of farm density in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Our temporal and spatial analyses showed weak associations between poultry-related variables and psittacosis notifications. Because of the low number of psittacosis notifications available for analysis, the power of our analysis was relative low. Because of the exploratory nature of this research, the associations found cannot be interpreted as evidence for airborne transmission of psittacosis from poultry to the general population. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in Dutch poultry. Also, efforts to promote PCR-based testing for C. psittaci and genotyping for source tracing are important to reduce the diagnostic deficit, and to provide better estimates of the human psittacosis burden, and the possible role of poultry.


Assuntos
Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Aves Domésticas , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Galinhas , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
14.
Avian Dis ; 60(2): 540-4, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309302

RESUMO

A mortality episode of endemic and endangered psittacine birds from the genera Ara and Amazona occurred during January 2015. The birds were housed in a management unit for wildlife conservation that receives wild-caught birds from illegal trade. In total, 11 (57%) adult birds of different origins that shared these accommodations died. Only four of them were sent for diagnosis. The main lesions found at necropsy were consistent with those described previously for avian chlamydiosis; the presence of Chlamydiaceae was confirmed through immunofluorescence and amplification with further sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene by using hepatic tissue. Due to the lack of specific diagnostic tools on primary psittacine diseases, the pathogenic effects of systemic, respiratory, or enteric infections with high mortality rates remain unknown in Mexico. In this study, specific molecular identification of avian chlamydiosis was performed using a nested PCR on liver tissues, as well as choanal and cloacal swab samples, confirming the presence of Chlamydia psittaci in all of them. In addition, it was possible to obtain the ompA gene sequence from processed clinical samples, thereby allowing us to determine that the A genotype was affecting these birds. Although this genotype is the most commonly found worldwide in psittacine birds, this case report describes the first avian chlamydiosis outbreak affecting critically endangered and endemic psittacines subjected to reintegration programs in Mexico. Consequently, this study demonstrates the necessity of more exhaustive biosecurity strategies because other pathogens may be present and should be assessed, especially in highly threatened birds, before releasing them into their habitats.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Papagaios , Psitacose/veterinária , Doença Aguda , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , México/epidemiologia , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 23(1): 75-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia psittaci, an obligate intracellular bacterium, which is the etiologic agent of avian chlamydiosis in birds and ornithosis/psittacosis in humans, has been reported to be one of the most common pathogens found in feral pigeons worldwide, and thus constitutes a zoonotic risk. The aim of the study was to investigate pigeons in Slovakia living in areas in close proximity to humans for the presence of C. psittaci, using pharyngeal and cloacal swabs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 122 clinically healthy pigeons from different geographical regions of Slovakia were examined for the presence of C. psittaci. The adult pigeons of both genders were captured during the summer period in the urban centres of Slovakian towns. Each sample was examined by molecular method PCR, and in the case of positive result the identity of the obtained sequence was examined by a BLAST search. RESULTS: Of the total number of 244 examined samples, 14 (5.7%) showed positivity for C. psittaci infection, 5 of which were from pharyngeal swabs (4.1%) and 9 from cloacal swabs (7.4%). A positive result was detected in 13 pigeons (10.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the positive samples are genetically very close to genotypes B and genotype E. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic examination of the 14 isolates of C. psittaci identified in the presented study, based on 23S rRNA gene sequence, revealed their close relationship with C. psittaci genotypes B and E. Both genotypes are predominantly prevalent in pigeons and both can be transmitted to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening examinations of animals and analyse the epidemiological factors affecting the way of transmission and circulation of pathogen.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Columbidae , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Cloaca/microbiologia , Genótipo , Faringe/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
16.
Neth J Med ; 74(2): 75-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of all hospitalised community-acquired pneumonias (CAPs) only a few are known to be caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Most likely the reported incidence, ranging from of 0% to 2.1%, is an underestimation of the real incidence, since detection of psittacosis is frequently not incorporated in the routine microbiological diagnostics in CAP or serological methods are used. METHODS: C. psittaci real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was routinely performed on the sputum of 147 patients hospitalised with CAP, who participated in a clinical trial conducted in two Dutch hospitals. In 119/147 patients the paired complement fixation test (CFT) was also performed for the presence of Chlamydia antibodies. Positive CFTs were investigated by micro- Immunofluorescence for psittacosis specificity. Case criteria for psittacosis were a positive PCR or a fourfold rise of antibody titre in CFT confirmed by micro- Immunofluorescence. Furthermore, we searched for parameters that could discriminate psittacosis from CAPs with other aetiology. RESULTS: 7/147 (4.8%) patients were diagnosed with psittacosis: six with PCR and one patient with a negative PCR, but with CFT confirmed by micro- Immunofluorescence. Psittacosis patients had had a higher temperature (median 39.6 vs. 38.2 °C;) but lower white blood cell count (median 7.4 vs. 13.7 x 109/l) on admission compared with other CAP patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, C. psittaci as CAP-causing pathogen was much higher than previously reported. To detect psittacosis, PCR was performed on all CAP patients for whom a sputum sample was available. For clinical use, PCR is a fast method and sputum availability allows genotyping; additional serology can optimise epidemiological investigations.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 144(8): 1710-6, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669637

RESUMO

In July 2013, a Belgian couple were admitted to hospital because of pneumonia. Medical history revealed contact with birds. Eleven days earlier, they had purchased a lovebird in a pet shop in The Netherlands. The bird became ill, with respiratory symptoms. The couple's daughter who accompanied them to the pet shop, reported similar symptoms, but was travelling abroad. On the suspicion of psittacosis, pharyngeal swabs from the couple were taken and sent to the Belgian reference laboratory for psittacosis. Culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci, and ompA genotyping indicated genotype A in both patients. The patients were treated with doxycycline and the daughter started quinolone therapy; all three recovered promptly. Psittacosis is a notifiable disease in Belgium and therefore local healthcare authorities were informed. They contacted their Dutch colleagues, who visited the pet shop. Seven pooled faecal samples were taken and analysed using PCR by the Dutch national reference laboratory for notifiable animal diseases for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci. Four (57%) samples tested positive, genotyping revealed genotype A. Enquiring about exposure to pet birds is essential when patients present with pneumonia. Reporting to health authorities, even across borders, is warranted to prevent further spread.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde da Família , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Animais de Estimação , Faringe/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Viagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26259278

RESUMO

There have been presented analysis of ornithosis outbreaks among population of Orenburg and Kurgan regions in 2008-2009. Find out factors and conditions that promote conducive of epidemic foci. Have been presented a list of the main preventive measures.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Psitacose/patologia , Federação Russa , Zoonoses/patologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 20(24)2015 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26111240

RESUMO

Eight cases of psittacosis due to Chlamydia psittaci were identified in May 2013 among 15 individuals involved in chicken gutting activities on a mixed poultry farm in France. All cases were women between 42 and 67 years-old. Cases were diagnosed by serology and PCR of respiratory samples. Appropriate treatment was immediately administered to the eight hospitalised individuals after exposure to birds had been discovered. In the chicken flocks, mainly C. gallinacea was detected, a new member of the family Chlamydiaceae, whereas the ducks were found to harbour predominantly C. psittaci, the classical agent of psittacosis. In addition, C. psittaci was found in the same flock as the chickens that the patients had slaughtered. Both human and C. psittaci-positive avian samples carried the same ompA genotype E/B of C. psittaci, which is widespread among French duck flocks. Repeated grassland rotations between duck and chicken flocks on the farm may explain the presence of C. psittaci in the chickens. Inspection by the veterinary service led to temporary closure of the farm. All birds had to be euthanised on site as no slaughterhouses accepted processing them. Farm buildings and grasslands were cleaned and/or disinfected before the introduction of new poultry birds.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Exposição Ocupacional , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Pathog Dis ; 73(1): 1-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854003

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated primarily with avian chlamydiosis also referred as psittacosis. Human psittacosis can lead to severe cases of respiratory disease. The mule duck is one of the main bird hybrids associated with human cases of psittacosis in France. In order to better understand the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis, monitoring studies were performed in both breeder flocks and mule duck flocks. Surveys conducted in one professional duck bredding organization revealed little shedding in breeder flocks, whereas heavy but asymptomatic C. psittaci shedding was observed in most of the mule duck flocks, mostly when birds were reared in open range conditions on farms. Human cases of psittacosis linked to duck breeder flocks and their progeny led to detection of heavy shedders in all the suspected flocks despite no birds showing clinical signs. Offspring of one of the infected female flocks was analyzed and also proved to be infected by C. psittaci. Field studies suggest that C. psittaci infections in duck farms involve horizontal and probably vertical transmission but that the environment also plays an important role in maintaining infection on farms. In the light of the widespread occurrence of C. psittaci on duck farms, it has become urgent to clearly identify sources of contamination in order to take appropriate field management measures to minimize worker exposure.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Patos , Exposição Ocupacional , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
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