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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(1): 144-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050885

RESUMO

Avian chlamydiosis, is a highly contagious, systemic disease occuring in domestic and wild birds. Chlamydia psittaci, the causative agent of the disease, is a gram-negative bacterium in the Chlamydiaceae family that can only live within the cell. The agent can be transmitted directly to humans by contact with infected animals or feces of infected animals. It can also be transmitted by inhalation of fecal dust. Since the disease has a zoonotic character, it is also important in terms of public health. By using the monoclonal antibodies against cell wall proteins (OMP) of C.psittaci, six (A-F) and two (WC and M56) serotypes were determined in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate and genotype the presence of C.psittaci ompA gene in domestic pigeon feces grown in family management style in ten different districts in Ankara in winter and summer seasons. Within the scope of the study, 100 pigeon stool samples were collected from birdhouses in 10 different districts of Ankara (Beypazari, Haymana, Kizilcahamam, Cubuk, Pursaklar, Bala, Cankaya, Polatli, Golbasi and city center) in two different seasons. DNA extraction from fecal samples was performed by classical methods. The presence of the agent in the extracted DNA samples was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the ompA gene. Two-way sequence analysis of the ompA gene was performed with the primers used in the study from the target DNA products amplified by PCR. The results of sequence analysis were compared with the international database and serotyping/genotyping was performed. In the study, C.psittaci ompA gene was detected in 6 (6%) samples of 100 pigeon stool samples. Among these positive samples, two were from Bala (one sample from winter, one sample from summer), two were from Haymana (one sample from winter, one sample from summer) and two were from Golbasi (one sample from winter, one sample from summer); where the same agent was isolated in the same aviaries in different seasons. In this study, no difference was found between the presence of C.psittaci in pigeon droppings and season. In addition when the sequence analysis of the isolated samples were compared with the World database; all isolates were found to be 100% genotype B and 99% genotype E. In this study, the sequence analysis of the ompA gene of C.psittaci from domestic pigeon feces was determined for the first time in Turkey. Although the presence of C.psittaci in domestic pigeons is low, it is a zoonotic bacterium and is important for the public health.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Doenças das Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci , Columbidae , Fezes , Psitacose , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbidae/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia , Turquia
2.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 22-28, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124608

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Columbiformes , Genótipo , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbiformes/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 2002-2010, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127977

RESUMO

Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) is an avian pathogen associated with systemic wasting disease in birds, as well as a public health risk. Although duck-related cases of psittacosis have been reported, the pathogenicity and shedding status of C. psittaci in ducks are unclear. In this study, we reported that C. psittaci (genotype A) is responsible for a disease outbreak characterized by poor laying performance and severe lesions in multiple organs of ducks. Oral administration of antibiotic, doxycycline, was found to effectively control the C. psittaci infection in laying ducks. Collectively, our new findings provide evidence that C. psittaci was the major pathogen responsible for the outbreak of this disease in ducks. In order to reduce economic losses incurred by this disease, effective control measures must be taken to prevent infection in laying duck farms.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Psitacose/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , China , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Psitacose/tratamento farmacológico , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/fisiopatologia , Reprodução
4.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 51(2): 130-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017323

RESUMO

In order to determine the presence and genetic diversity of Chlamydia spp. in the north-eastern area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, conjunctival, oropharyngeal, cloacal swab and tissues were collected from a total of 90 psittacine pet birds of different age and clinical manifestations. Through molecular methods, Chlamydiaceae was detected in 30% (27/90) of the samples, out of which 70.3% (19/27) were positive for Chlamydia psittaci and 14.9% (4/27) for Chlamydia abortus. Nine C. psittaci positive samples were genotyped by ompA gene sequences, 8 clustered within genotype A and 1 within genotype B. A significant association was observed between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and the manifestation of clinical signs compatible with chlamydiosis, as well as with the age of the birds (younger than one year old). This report contributes to the improvement of our understanding of chlamydial agents in our country.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Genótipo , Psitacose/microbiologia
5.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 50(11-12): 817-821, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For more than 200 years people in the Faroe Islands have supplemented their food by hunting different species of wild birds in the Faroe Islands. Traditionally, juvenile fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) are caught at sea in late August. The fulmars may be infected or colonized with the bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci which may infect the hunter by the respiratory route and mostly presents as an atypical pneumonia, also called psittacosis or ornithosis or parrot fever. In the Faroe Islands it is called 'nátasjúka' meaning 'fulmar disease'. Historically, it has also been called 'September Pneumonia' in the Faroe Islands. METHODS: A case series with patients infected with Chlamydophila psittaci. RESULTS: All four cases presented in this article occurred around the month of September. Improved hygiene measures during the last 50 years in handling the fulmar birds have led to a decline of verified psittacosis in the Faroe Islands. After the last two hunting seasons (2016-2017), four cases of psittacosis were diagnosed and treated in the Faroe Islands. Only nine cases of verified psittacosis have been reported to the Chief Medical Officer of the Faroe Islands during the last 27 years. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between catching and handling Fulmarus glacialis and human psittacosis disease in the Faroe Islands. Clinicians treating patients with contact with fulmars should be aware of this zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psitacose/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Animais , Aves , Dinamarca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Radiografia , Zoonoses
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 25(2): 320-325, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936804

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium causing respiratory disease (chlamydiosis) or asymptomatic carriage in poultry. In humans, it is a zoonotic agent of ornithosis/psittacosis. Due to low awareness of the disease and variable clinical presentation, psittacosis is often remains unrecognised as such by general practitioners. Zoonotic transfer occurs through inhalation of contaminated aerosols, and originates from feathers, faecal material and respiratory tract exudates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate chickens for the presence of Chlamydia sp. from pharyngeal and cloacal swabs and review the zoonotic risk for humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 138 clinically healthy chickens from farms in Slovakia were examined for the presence of Chlamydia sp. The age of the chickens was 6 months. Two different samples were used - pharyngeal swabs and cloacal swabs. Each sample was examined by the molecular PCR method, and in the case of a positive result the identity of the obtained sequences was examined by a BLAST search. RESULTS: Of the total number of 276 examined samples from 138 chickens, 19 (6.9%) showed positivity for C. psittaci infection, 12 (8.7%) which were positive from pharyngeal swabs and 7 (5.1%) from cloacal swabs. None of the chickens were positive in both samples. Phylogenetic examination of the 19 isolates identified in the study, based on the 23S rRNA gene sequence, revealed that the isolates obtained were identical with C. psittaci, and genetically very close to genotypes B and genotype E. CONCLUSIONS: C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Psitacose/transmissão , Eslováquia , Zoonoses/transmissão
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 7(1): 88, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765033

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen capable of spill-over infections to humans. A parrot C. psittaci strain was recently detected in an equine reproductive loss case associated with a subsequent cluster of human C. psittaci infections. In this study, we screened for C. psittaci in cases of equine reproductive loss reported in regional New South Wales, Australia during the 2016 foaling season. C. psittaci specific-PCR screening of foetal and placental tissue samples from cases of equine abortion (n = 161) and foals with compromised health status (n = 38) revealed C. psittaci positivity of 21.1% and 23.7%, respectively. There was a statistically significant geographical clustering of cases ~170 km inland from the mid-coast of NSW (P < 0.001). Genomic analysis and molecular typing of C. psittaci positive samples from this study and the previous Australian equine index case revealed that the equine strains from different studs in regional NSW were clonal, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. psittaci strains from both Australian equine disease clusters belong to the parrot-associated 6BC clade, again indicative of spill-over of C. psittaci infections from native Australian parrots. The results of this work suggest that C. psittaci may be a more significant agent of equine reproductive loss than thought. A range of studies are now required to evaluate (a) the exact role that C. psittaci plays in equine reproductive loss; (b) the range of potential avian reservoirs and factors influencing infection spill-over; and


Assuntos
Feto Abortado/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Cavalos , Tipagem Molecular , Papagaios , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(3): 911-915, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352509

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is an important avian pathogen with spillover from infected wild and domesticated birds also posing a risk to human health. We recently reported a case of C. psittaci equine placentitis associated with further spillover to humans. Molecular typing of this case revealed it belonged to the 6BC clade of C. psittaci, a globally distributed highly virulent set of strains, typically linked to infection spillover from parrots. Equine chlamydiosis associated with C. psittaci infection has previously been reported elsewhere in countries where parrots are not endemic, however, raising questions over the identity of infecting C. psittaci strains and the potential infection reservoirs. In this study, we describe the detection and molecular characterization of C. psittaci in a case of equine abortion in southern Queensland. Equine placenta and fresh liver and lung tissue from the necropsied foetus were positive by C. psittaci-specific qPCR. Chlamydia psittaci-specific multilocus sequence typing and ompA genotyping were used to further characterize the detected equine strains and an additional strain obtained from a dove from a different geographic region presenting with psittacosis. Molecular typing of this case revealed that the infecting equine strains were closely related to the C0sittaci detected in dove, all belonging to an evolutionary lineage of C. psittaci strains typically associated with infections of pigeons globally. This finding suggests a broader diversity of C. psittaci strains may be detected in horses and in association with reproductive loss, highlighting the need for an expansion of surveillance studies globally to understand the epidemiology of equine chlamydiosis and the associated zoonotic risk.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/patogenicidade , Columbidae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Feminino , Cavalos , Fígado/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Psitacose/microbiologia , Queensland
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 248-260, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369723

RESUMO

In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds ( Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, US was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was present in conjunctival-choanal or cloacal swabs in 93% (43/46) of lovebirds and 10% (14/142) of sympatric birds. Antibodies to C. psittaci were detected in 76% (31/41) of lovebirds and 7% (7/102) of sympatric birds. Among the sympatric birds, Rock Doves ( Columba livia) had the highest prevalence of C. psittaci DNA (75%; 6/8) and seroprevalence (25%; 2/8). Psittacine circovirus 1 DNA was also identified, using real-time PCR-based testing, from the same swab samples in 69% (11/16) of species sampled, with a prevalence of 80% (37/46) in lovebirds and 27% (38/142) in sympatric species. The presence of either Rosy-faced Lovebirds or Rock Doves at residential bird feeders may be cause for concern for epizootic and zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci in this region.


Assuntos
Agapornis , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Columbidae , Passeriformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Agapornis/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Arizona/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Columbidae/microbiologia , Passeriformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/mortalidade
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(3): 303-305, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361998

RESUMO

Psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) can have diverse presentations in humans, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic disease. Awareness of psittacosis and its presentations are low among clinicians and the general public. Therefore, underdiagnosis and thereby underestimation of the incidence and public health importance of psittacosis is very likely. We used the methodology developed for the Burden of communicable diseases in Europe toolkit of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, to construct a model to estimate disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to psittacosis. Using this model, we estimated the disease burden caused by psittacosis in the Netherlands to have been 222 DALY per year (95% CI 172-280) over the period 2012-2014. This is comparable with the amount of DALYs estimated to be due to rubella or shigellosis in the same period in the Netherlands. Our results highlight the public health importance of psittacosis and identify evidence gaps pertaining to the clinical presentations and prognosis of this disease.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
12.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(1): 218-221, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984040

RESUMO

Psittacosis is a rare but potentially fatal zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci, an organism that is typically associated with bird contact. However C. psittaci is capable of infecting other non-avian hosts, such as horses, sheep, cattle and goats. Stud staff and veterinarians have significant exposure to parturient animals and reproductive materials in their routine work. To investigate the zoonotic potential associated with the emergence of C. psittaci as an abortifacient agent in horses, we established a programme of joint human and animal surveillance in a sentinel horse-breeding region in Australia. This programme comprised cross-notification of equine cases to public health agencies, and active follow-up of known human contacts, including stud workers, foaling staff, veterinarians and laboratory staff. We identified no confirmed cases of acute psittacosis despite intensive surveillance and testing of heavily exposed contacts; however, further work in the area is needed.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Saúde Única , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Psitacose/complicações , Psitacose/microbiologia , Zoonoses
13.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189321, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281663

RESUMO

In rodent models of experimentally induced fever, the important role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a circulating endogenous pyrogen is well established. Studies employing larger animal species and real infections are scarce. Therefore, we assessed bioactive IL-6 in peripheral blood and in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of calves after intra-bronchial inoculation with vital Chlamydia psittaci (Cp), with inactivated Cp, or with BGM cells. Only calves inoculated with vital Cp developed fever (peak at 2-3 days after challenge) and significantly increased IL-6 activity. Controls inoculated with either inactivated Cp or BGM cells also expressed increased bioactive IL-6, but no fever developed. Activity of IL-6 in BALF was significantly higher compared to blood serum. This experimental model of Cp infection revealed no apparent relation between IL-6 in blood and body temperature, but did reveal a relation between IL-6 and other markers of inflammation in BALF. We conclude that a local inflammatory response in the lungs of infected calves caused fever, which developed by mechanisms including other mediators besides IL-6.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psitacose/microbiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13997, 2017 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070907

RESUMO

Since 2007, most areas of China have seen outbreaks of poultry airsacculitis, which causes hugely economic losses to the poultry industry. However, there are no effective measures to combat the problem. In this study, 105 rations were collected to isolate Aspergillus spp. from the diseased farms. In subsequent experiments, SPF chickens were inoculated with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus), and mortality rate, body weight gain and lesion score were evaluated. Of these ration samples, 63 (60.0%) were A. fumigates, 21 (20.0%) were Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and 11 (10.5%) were Aspergillus candidus (A. candidus). Furthermore, SPF birds infected with C. psittaci, ORT, H9N2 virus and A. fumigatus conidia exhibited a mortality rate of 40%, while simultaneous co-infection with C. psittaci, ORT and A. fumigatus resulted in a mortality rate of 20%. The avian airsacculitis was manifested in the C. psittaci + ORT/A. fumigatus, C. psittaci + H9N2 + ORT/A. fumigatus and C. psittaci + H9N2/A. fumigatus groups while others had transient respiratory diseases without mortality. Our survey indicates that feed-borne A. fumigatus is prevalent in poultry rations. The combination of C. psittaci, ORT, H9N2 and A. fumigatus conidia contributes to the replication of avian airsacculitis by aggravating the severe damage to the air sacs and lungs of chickens.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/complicações , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/complicações , Influenza Aviária/complicações , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/mortalidade , Psitacose/complicações , Animais , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/etiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Ornithobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
15.
Pathog Dis ; 75(7)2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981630

RESUMO

The JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway is a key regulator of cell growth, motility, migration, invasion and apoptosis in mammalian cells. Infection with intracellular pathogens of the genus Chlamydia can inhibit host cell apoptosis, and here we asked whether the JAK-STAT3 pathway participates in chlamydial anti-apoptotic activity. We found that, compared with uninfected cells, levels of JAK1 and STAT3 mRNA as well as total and phosphorylated JAK1 and STAT3 protein, were significantly increased in C. psittaci-infected HeLa cells. Moreover, the apoptosis rate of infected cells was higher after treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-490 (2-cyano-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-(phenylmethyl)-2-propenamide). Immunoblotting of apoptosis-related proteins showed that C. psittaci infection reduces Bax, but increases Bcl-2, protein levels, resulting in reduced activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and PARP; AG490 attenuates these effects. Together, our data suggest that the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway facilitates the anti-apoptotic effect of C. psittaci infection by reducing the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic switch ratio, and by inhibiting the intracellular activation of key pro-apoptotic enzymes.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinases/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Psitacose/genética , Psitacose/metabolismo , Psitacose/microbiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
Mol Med Rep ; 16(4): 4835-4842, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765948

RESUMO

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans. The capability of this zoonotic pathogen to develop a persistent phase may serve a role in the chronicity of infections, in addition to the failure of antibiotic therapy or immunoprophylaxis. In the present study, a C. psittaci strain 6BC persistent infection cell model was induced using interferon (IFN)­Î³, alterations in the infectivity and morphology of the pathogen were analyzed, and the transcript profile of seven selected genes was analyzed. Following treatment with IFN­Î³, the infectivity of C. psittaci 6BC was decreased, the inclusion bodies appeared to be smaller, reticulate bodies were larger and the number of infectious elementary bodies was decreased compared with acute infection. In IFN­Î³­induced persistently infected cells, the relative mRNA expression levels of the genes CPSIT­0208, CPSIT­0310, CPSIT­0846, CPSIT­0844 and CPSIT­0594 were upregulated at 2­48 h post­infection (p.i.). The genes CPSIT­0959 and CPSIT­0057 were downregulated at 2­36 h p.i. The results of the present study advanced the understanding of C. psittaci persistent infection and demonstrated a number of previously unknown alterations in chlamydial gene expression, which may provide novel targets to further analyze this particular host­pathogen interaction.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética , Células Cultivadas , Chlamydophila psittaci/ultraestrutura , Imunofluorescência , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1616: 171-181, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600769

RESUMO

The advances in molecular biology of the last decades have dramatically improved the field of diagnostic bacteriology. In particular, PCR-based technologies have impacted the diagnosis of infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria such as pathogens from the Chlamydiacae family. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based method using the Taqman technology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus infection. The method presented here can be applied to various clinical samples and can be adapted on opened molecular diagnostic platforms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydophila/diagnóstico por imagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/microbiologia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Chlamydophila psittaci/patogenicidade , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Psitacose/microbiologia
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(11): 2263-2268, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554339

RESUMO

Zoonotic diseases are a significant health threat for humans and animals. To better understand the epidemiology, etiology, and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals combined approaches are needed. Here we describe an epidemiological investigation conducted by physicians and veterinarians after a reported case of psittacosis. Upon admission suffering from respiratory distress syndrome in a hospital and with a history of bird contact, a female patient was serologically diagnosed with psittacosis. After the case notification, veterinarians were able to investigate the source of infection by detecting Chlamydia psittaci in her pet cockatiel. The bird was hospitalized and successfully treated. In addition, the establishment where the pet bird was purchased was traced and through molecular techniques other birds intended to be sold as pets tested positive for C. psittaci. As a result, sanitary measures were applied and the establishment then was closed down. The birds intended for the pet commerce were treated and retested with negative molecular results for C. psittaci, thus avoiding disease propagation. Reliable data about zoonotic diseases can only be generated through the application of multidisciplinary approaches which take into account the epidemiological factors and interactions of humans, animals and their environments as an integrated system.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Papagaios , Psitacose/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Psitacose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/microbiologia
20.
Avian Dis ; 61(1): 40-45, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301242

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci, an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria, causes an important zoonotic disease in humans, namely, psittacosis. The objective of this study was to determine the persistent viability of C. psittaci at various temperature conditions. The cloacal swab samples were collected from feral and racing pigeons to find a C. psittaci field strain. The bacterial isolation showed that 1.3% of feral pigeons were PCR positive, while all samples of racing pigeons were PCR negative. Also, bacterial characterization suggested that it belonged to genotype B, which had bacterial titers 3.2 and 3.89 log 50% lethal dose/ml, respectively. A bacterial persistence test was performed, and the results showed that C. psittaci could survive at 56 C for up to 72 hr. In conclusion, C. psittaci could be found in feral pigeons in central Thailand. The bacteria can survive in equatorial temperature areas. This study was the first to report that C. psittaci could survive and has infectivity at 56 C for 72 hr. Therefore, awareness of C. psittaci infection in humans is necessary and should be a public health concern.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/fisiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Columbidae/microbiologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Psitacose/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Tailândia
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