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1.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374584

RESUMO

Hematophagous insects act as the major reservoirs of infectious agents due to their intimate contact with a large variety of vertebrate hosts. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in the New World, but its role as a host of viruses is poorly understood. In this work, Lu. longipalpis RNA libraries were subjected to progressive assembly using viral profile HMMs as seeds. A sequence phylogenetically related to fungal viruses of the genus Mitovirus was identified and this novel virus was named Lul-MV-1. The 2697-base genome presents a single gene coding for an RNA-directed RNA polymerase with an organellar genetic code. To determine the possible host of Lul-MV-1, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of the viral genome. Dinucleotide composition and codon usage showed profiles similar to mitochondrial DNA of invertebrate hosts. Also, the virus-derived small RNA profile was consistent with the activation of the siRNA pathway, with size distribution and 5' base enrichment analogous to those observed in viruses of sand flies, reinforcing Lu. longipalpis as a putative host. Finally, RT-PCR of different insect pools and sequences of public Lu. longipalpis RNA libraries confirmed the high prevalence of Lul-MV-1. This is the first report of a mitovirus infecting an insect host.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Orthoreovirus/genética , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/virologia , Animais , Códon , Uso do Códon , Amplificação de Genes , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Cadeias de Markov , Filogenia , Prevalência , Interferência de RNA , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES: Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS: Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS: A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Insetos Vetores/genética , Leishmania/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Psychodidae/classificação
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus include medical important species that are Latin American leishmaniases vectors. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of closely-related species in each of these taxonomic groups that are morphologically indistinguishable or differentiated by very subtle details. OBJECTIVES: We inferred the phylogenetic relationships of closely-related species within both the Nyssomyia genus and the Lutzomyia subgenus using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) fragment. METHODS: The sampling was carried out from 11 Argentinean localities. For genetic analyses, we used GenBank sequences in addition to our sequences from Argentina. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distance and nucleotide divergence (Da) was calculated between closely-related species of Nyssomyia genus, Lutzomyia subgenus and between clades of Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. FINDINGS: The K2P and Da values within species of Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus were lower than the divergence detected between clades of Lu. longipalpis complex. The haplotype network analyses within Lutzomyia subgenus showed shared haplotypes between species, contrary to Nyssomyia genus with none haplotype shared. Bayesian inference within Nyssomyia genus presented structuring by species. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: This study evidences the phylogenetic proximity among closely-related species within Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus. The COI sequences of Nyssomyia neivai derived from the present study are the first available in GenBank.


Assuntos
Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Argentina , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Leishmaniose , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520213

RESUMO

Although the chemical control against leishmaniasis began in 1953 in Brazil, little information is available on how this strategy has affected populations of phlebotomine sandflies in the field. The objective of this study was to analyze the susceptibility profile of four populations of phlebotomine sandflies to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Sandflies collected in field in four Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using CDC bottles in different concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin. A total of 1,186 phlebotomine sandflies were used in the bioassays. The LD50 ranged from 1.48 to 2.57 ug/mL in the field populations. For a dose of 5 ug/mL of alpha-cypermethrin, the LT50 and LT95 ranged from 17.9 to 27.5 minutes, and LT95 from 39.7 to 61.5 minutes, respectively. All the populations studied were highly susceptible to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Routine studies are needed to detect changes in sandflies susceptibility to insecticides.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Psychodidae/classificação
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis constitutes a serious but neglected tropical disease. Recently, socio-environmental, biological and physical changes have altered the range of leishmaniasis, causing it to spread into urban areas. In Minas Gerais, the disease is endemic, exhibiting regional differences and reaching urban centers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate entomological aspects related to the ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Itaúna. METHODS: Monthly catches with HP traps were carried out from June 2017 to May 2018, in three ecological areas (urban, rural, and forest). The adaptability of the species to anthropic environments was assessed using the synanthropy index (SI). RESULTS: We collected 1306 specimens of phlebotomine sand flies. Of the species of medical importance, Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum, represented 90.4% of the specimens identified at species level (n=1260). Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of Leishmania braziliensis, represented 1.6% of the total. Lu. longipalpis displayed an SI of +95.8, a value that denotes a marked preference for human environments. For Ny. whitmani, the SI was -25, expressing the tendency of this species to occupy uninhabited areas. The population of the three most numerous species captured increased with rain, high temperatures, and high relative humidity. Although captured at low numbers, Ny. whitmani showed a different profile concerning the climate variables analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the epidemiology of the disease may assist the health services in formulating effective control measures for improving community health and contributing to the establishment of a dynamic relationship and a global awareness of the health/disease process.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Psychodidae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Masculino , População Rural , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1177-1199, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246259

RESUMO

A few data are related to the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. Prior studies focussed mainly to inventories and description of new species. Our goal was to emphasize the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. We worked in the Makira region, using two simultaneous methods: human landing catches (HLC) and CDC light traps. We collected sandflies in three rural communities adjacent to the Makira Natural Park. In each community, three different biotopes were sampled: within community settlements; at the edge of forest, typically in agricultural land; and within the forest. We collected 61 sandflies belonging to two new species presently described: Phlebotomus artemievi sp. nov. and Sergentomyia maroantsetraensis sp. nov. These sandflies were caught exclusively in the forest edge biotope. None were captured within communities or within forests. HLC provided 97% of the collected sandflies, corresponding to a human-biting rate of 15 females per human per night. CDC provided only two females. Ph. artemievi sp. nov. was predominantly captured by HLC and appears to be highly anthropophilic. Here, we update the behavioural ecology of sandflies and describe two new species. Further research is required to understand their vector competence and their ability to transmit arboviruses and other pathogens such as Leishmania.


Assuntos
Florestas , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino , Phlebotomus/classificação , Psychodidae/classificação
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236298

RESUMO

Larvae of Psychodidae develop in a variety of breeding sites, including vertebrate feces. As searching for the larvae can be an extremely difficult task, immatures of many species are little known, with descriptions of coprophagous moth flies all from outside the Neotropics. In an attempt to mitigate this challenge, we tested an oviposition trap using cattle dung as attractant, measured the efficiency and specificity of the traps and the most efficient period of exposition in the field. With 60 traps installed in one fragment of ombrophilous forest, 344 immatures were collected, distributed in four species of Psychoda and one of Feuerborniella. Psychodidae accounted for 75% of the collected Diptera. The high specificity of the trap to Psychodidae contrasts with other studies on coprophagous fauna where they appear in low abundance. Based on the metrics in this study, the most efficient period of trapping exposition was between five to eight days, but the difference was not significant probably due to the high number of zero observations among the traps. Many questions pertaining to coprophagous moth flies remain unanswered. Further research is needed to improve trapping efficiency, elucidate the effects of attractants and determine how environmental factors influence the attractiveness of bait.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Oviposição , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes , Feminino , Psychodidae/classificação
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155171

RESUMO

In this study, the presence of Leishmania DNA and blood feeding sources in phlebotomine sand fly species commonly present in Sicily were investigated. A total of 1,866 female sand flies including 176 blood fed specimens were sampled over two seasons in five selected sites in Sicily (southern Italy). Sergentomyia minuta (n = 1,264) and Phlebotomus perniciousus (n = 594) were the most abundant species at all the sites, while three other species from the genus Phlebotomus (i.e., P. sergenti n = 4, P. perfiliewi n = 3 and P. neglectus n = 1) were only sporadically captured. Twenty-eight out of the 1,866 (1.5%) sand flies tested positive for Leishmania spp. Leishmania tarentolae DNA was identified in 26 specimens of S. minuta, while the DNA of Leishmania donovani complex was detected in a single specimen each of S. minuta and P. perniciosus. Interestingly, seven S. minuta specimens (0.4%) tested positive for reptilian Trypanosoma sp. Blood sources were successfully identified in 108 out of 176 blood fed females. Twenty-seven out of 82 blood sources identified in fed females of P. perniciosus were represented by blood of wild rabbit, S. minuta mainly fed on humans (16/25), while the sole P. sergenti fed specimen took a blood meal on rat. Other vertebrate hosts including horse, goat, pig, dog, chicken, cow, cat and donkey were recognized as blood sources for P. perniciosus and S. minuta, and, surprisingly, no reptilian blood was identified in blood-fed S. minuta specimens. Results of this study agree with the well-known role of P. perniciosus as vector of L. infantum in the western Mediterranean; also, vector feeding preferences herein described support the hypothesis on the involvement of lagomorphs as sylvatic reservoirs of Leishmania. The detection of L. donovani complex in S. minuta, together with the anthropophilic feeding-behaviour herein observed, warrants further research to clarify the capacity of this species in the transmission of pathogens to humans and other animals.


Assuntos
Psychodidae/genética , Psychodidae/patogenicidade , Animais , DNA/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos Vetores , Leishmania/genética , Psychodidae/classificação , Estações do Ano , Sicília , Especificidade da Espécie , Trypanosomatina/genética
10.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 259-265, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346619

RESUMO

The study aims to make an update on the distribution and ecology of sand flies in the Quang Ninh province, Northern Vietnam, where Leishmania cases were reported in 2001. Seventeen sites were chosen in three districts of the province: Ha Long, Cam Pha, and Hoanh Bo. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using 68 CDC light traps from May 30 to 3 June 2016. Captured specimens were transferred individually into Eppendorf tubes with 90% ethanol. The sand fly heads and genitalia were removed and were mounted in Euparal after successive different baths. Specimen identification was determined based on the morphology of the cibarium, pharynx, and/or male genitalia or female spermathecae. A total of 416 sand flies (125 females, 283 males) belonging to four genera were collected and 10 sand fly species were identified: Sergentomyia silvatica, Se. barraudi, Se. hivernus, Se. bailyi, Phlebotomus mascomai, Ph. stantoni, Ph. yunshengensis, Ph. betisi, Chinius junlianensis, Idiophlebotomus longiforceps. The Sergentomyia genus prevailed (79.7% of the collected sand flies), followed by the Phlebotomus genus (13.7%), the Chinius genus (6.1%), and the Idiophlebotomus genus (0.8%). Besides these well-defined taxa, five specimens, named sp1, showed unknown morphological characteristics, requiring further study. The majority of sand flies were collected in rock caves suggesting the cavernicolous character of the species in the Quang Ninh province. However, specimens were also collected in intra and peridomiciliary sites in which Ph. stantoni and Se. hivernus were found as the main species. It is worth noting that two Ph. stantoni were found in the house of a patient affected by Leishmania.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Masculino , Psychodidae/classificação , Vietnã
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800740

RESUMO

Sand fly identification is complex because it depends on the expertise of the taxonomist. The females show subtle morphological differences and the occurrence of the species complexes are usual in this taxon. Therefore, a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is used for taxon barcoding to resolve this kind of problem. This study incorporates barcode sequences, for the first time, for Evandromyia cortelezzii and Migonemyia migonei from Argentina. The nucleotide sequence divergences were estimated to generate a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree. The automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) approach was employed to find the barcode gaps and the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) delimitation. Other species of the subtribe were included. The frequency histogram of divergences showed a barcoding gap. The ABGD analysis identified 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 13 morphological species. Sequences of Ev. cortelezzii and Mg. migonei formed well supported clusters and were diagnosed as primary species. These sequences are useful tools for molecular identification of the sand flies of the New World.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Argentina , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Psychodidae/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 744-749, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800884

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasite that is disseminated by some species of sandflies and hosted by a variety of reservoirs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in the municipalities of the Mato Grosso Pantanal. Human data were obtained from the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, and the canine and vector results from the State Department of Health of Mato Grosso. Between 2007 and 2016, 10 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 499 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis were identified in the Pantanal region. The surveillance studies regarding the canine reservoir demonstrated that the parasite was present in six of the seven municipalities. Vectors of visceral leishmaniasis were present in five municipalities and vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in six. Enhancement of services aimed at controlling this disease is fundamental to prevent an increase in the number of cases in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/classificação
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007887, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869329

RESUMO

Myiasis is the infestation of human tissues by dipterous fly larvae of the class Insecta. Clogmia albipunctatus, family Psychodidae, is one of the most medically important insects that cause human myiasis. The aim of the present study is the morphological identification and the molecular characterization of moth flies causing many cases of urinary myiasis in Egypt, based on sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA of the larvae. Seven urinary samples of patients complaining of urinary symptoms and giving a history of low socioeconomic level were examined. Recovered larvae were identified using light microscopy and SEM. For molecular identification, the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome B (cytB), NADH1, NADH1, and 16S were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The morphological and molecular characterization could accurately diagnose our patients to have C. albipunctatus infestation. Such results provided the initial set of data on the molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of moth flies based on DNA barcoding in Egypt.


Assuntos
Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/genética , Miíase/parasitologia , Psychodidae/anatomia & histologia , Psychodidae/genética , Doenças Urológicas/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Citocromos b/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Masculino , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Psychodidae/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 569-573, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058005

RESUMO

Abstract Phlebotomines of the genus Lutzomyia are important vector for species of Leishmania, the etiological agent of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of sandflies in an endemic area for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Sampling was performed in four localities on the coast of the municipality of Goiana, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly on three consecutive nights, from November 2017 to October 2018. CDC light traps were installed at a height of 1.5 m above the ground, in two ecotypes (i.e. tree and animal facility), both in peridomestic areas. A total of 5,205 sandflies were collected, among which the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (99.85%; 5,197/5,205) was the most common, followed by Lutzomyia evandroi (0.13%; 07/5,205) and Lutzomyia whitmani (0.02%; 01/5,205). Specimens of L. longipalpis were collected throughout the study period and most of them were found near to the animal facilities. The findings from this research indicate that vectors for Leishmania infantum are present in the study area throughout the year, along with occurrences of vectors relating to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Preventive vector control measures need to be implemented in Goiana to reduce the risk of infection for the human and animal populations.


Resumo Flebotomíneos do gênero Lutzomyia são importantes vetores de espécies de Leishmania, agente etiológico das leishmanioses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a diversidade de flebotomíneos em área endêmica para Leishmaniose Visceral (LV). As coletas foram realizadas em quatro localidades do litoral do município de Goiana, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente em três noites consecutivas de novembro de 2017 a outubro de 2018. Foram instaladas armadilhas luminosas modelo CDC a uma altura de 1,5 m acima do solo em dois ecótopos (ex. árvore e instalações de animais), ambos em áreas peridomiciliares. Um total de 5.205 flebotomíneos foi coletado, sendo Lutzomyia longipalpis (99,85%; 5.197/5.205) a mais comum, seguida por Lutzomyia evandroi (0,13%; 07/5.205) e Lutzomyia whitmani (0,02%; 01/5.205). L. longipalpis foi coletada durante todo o período do estudo. A maioria dos espécimes foi detectada perto das instalações dos animais. Os achados deste estudo indicam a presença de vetores de Leishmania infantum na área avaliada ao longo do ano, bem como a ocorrência de vetores relacionados à Leishmaniose Cutânea (LC). Medidas preventivas de controle vetorial devem ser implementadas em Goiana para reduzir o risco de infecção à população humana e animal.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Psychodidae/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Doenças Endêmicas , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 744-749, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058001

RESUMO

Abstract Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasite that is disseminated by some species of sandflies and hosted by a variety of reservoirs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in the municipalities of the Mato Grosso Pantanal. Human data were obtained from the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, and the canine and vector results from the State Department of Health of Mato Grosso. Between 2007 and 2016, 10 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 499 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis were identified in the Pantanal region. The surveillance studies regarding the canine reservoir demonstrated that the parasite was present in six of the seven municipalities. Vectors of visceral leishmaniasis were present in five municipalities and vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in six. Enhancement of services aimed at controlling this disease is fundamental to prevent an increase in the number of cases in the region.


Resumo As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania disseminadas por algumas espécies de flebotomíneos e participação de uma variedade de reservatórios. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a situação epidemiológica das leishmanioses nos municípios abrangentes do Pantanal de Mato Grosso. Os dados humanos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação e os resultados caninos e vetoriais junto à Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso. A região do Pantanal registrou no período de 2007 a 2016, dez casos da forma visceral e 499 casos da forma tegumentar. As ações de vigilância para o reservatório canino demonstraram a circulação do parasito em seis dos sete municípios. A presença dos vetores de leishmaniose visceral ocorreu em cinco municípios e os da leishmaniose tegumentar em seis. O fortalecimento dos serviços voltados para controle desse agravo é fundamental para evitar o aumento no número de casos da região.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Cães , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576903

RESUMO

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Variação Genética/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Argentina , Bolívia , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de Insetos/genética , Haplótipos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Filogeografia , Psychodidae/classificação
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 569-573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576976

RESUMO

Phlebotomines of the genus Lutzomyia are important vector for species of Leishmania, the etiological agent of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of sandflies in an endemic area for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Sampling was performed in four localities on the coast of the municipality of Goiana, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly on three consecutive nights, from November 2017 to October 2018. CDC light traps were installed at a height of 1.5 m above the ground, in two ecotypes (i.e. tree and animal facility), both in peridomestic areas. A total of 5,205 sandflies were collected, among which the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (99.85%; 5,197/5,205) was the most common, followed by Lutzomyia evandroi (0.13%; 07/5,205) and Lutzomyia whitmani (0.02%; 01/5,205). Specimens of L. longipalpis were collected throughout the study period and most of them were found near to the animal facilities. The findings from this research indicate that vectors for Leishmania infantum are present in the study area throughout the year, along with occurrences of vectors relating to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Preventive vector control measures need to be implemented in Goiana to reduce the risk of infection for the human and animal populations.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Psychodidae/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482975

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects a large part of the world population. Knowing the sand fly fauna of a region is of fundamental importance for guiding health surveillance actions related to the prevention and control of leishmaniasis. A total of 86 specimens of sand flies (60 females and 26 males) were collected. Using the classification proposed by Galati (2003), the following species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920), Evandromyia cortelezzi (Brethes, 1923), Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), Nyssomyia whitmani (Atunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), Brumptomyia sp. (França and Parrot, 1921), and Pressatia sp. (Mangabeira, 1942). Using PCR with internal transcribed spacer target to identify infected sand flies, five Lu. longipalpis females were infected with Leishmania spp. Despite the small number of specimens collected, considerable species diversity was found in the study area.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA de Protozoário/genética
19.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(3): 152-154, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502807

RESUMO

Urogenital myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of Psychoda spp. and it is very rare in humans. A 10- year old female was presented with urogenital myiasis and 4th stage Larvae of Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Psychodidae) were found in urine. The patient was complained of painful sensation, discomfort and burning while urination. Urinary tract antiseptics were prescribed for the patient and advised to drink plenty of water for hydration. Local health authorities should take proper measures to maintain hygienic conditions for the people under risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/parasitologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Psychodidae/classificação , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/terapia , Humanos , Larva , Líbia , Miíase/terapia , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urina/parasitologia
20.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433005

RESUMO

Six Phlebotominae sand fly species are incriminated as biological vectors of human pathogens in Panama, but molecular corroboration is still needed. We aim at confirming the identity of Phlebotominae species documented as anthropophilic in Panama. Adult sandflies were collected from August 2010 to February 2012 in Central Panama using CDC light traps. Species confirmation was accomplished through molecular barcodes and allied sequences from GenBank. A total of 53,366 sand fly specimens representing 18 species were collected. Five species were validated molecularly as single phylogenetic clusters, but Psychodopygus thula depicted two genetically divergent lineages, which may be indicative of cryptic speciation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores/genética , Psychodidae/genética , Animais , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Panamá , Filogenia , Psychodidae/classificação
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