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2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008324, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463829

RESUMO

Local anomalies in rainfall and temperature induced by El Niño and La Niña episodes could change the structure of the vector community. We aimed to estimate the effect of the El Niño-La Niña cycle in the potential distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) vector species in Colombia and to compare the richness of the vectors with the occurrence of CL in the state of Norte de Santander. The potential distributions of four species were modeled using a MaxEnt algorithm for the following episodes: La Niña 2010-2011, Neutral 2012-2015 and El Niño 2015-2016. The relationship between the potential richness of the vectors and the occurrence of CL in Norte de Santander was evaluated with a log-binomial regression model. During the El Niño 2015-2016 episode, Lutzomyia ovallesi and Lutzomyia panamensis increased their distribution into environmentally suitable areas, and three vector species (Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia ovallesi and Lutzomyia panamensis) showed increases in the range of their altitudinal distribution. During the La Niña 2010-2011 episode, a reduction was observed in the area suitable for occupation by Lutzomyia gomezi and Lutzomyia spinicrassa. During the El Niño 2015-2016 episode, the occurrence of at least one CL case was related to a higher percentage of rural localities showing a richness of vectors = 4. The anomalies in rainfall and temperature induced by the episodes produced changes in the potential distribution of CL vectors in Colombia. In Norte de Santander, during Neutral 2012-2015 and El Niño 2015-2016 episodes, a higher probability of at least one CL case was related to a higher percentage of areas with a greater richness of vectors. The results help clarify the effect of the El Niño-La Niña cycle in the dynamics of CL in Colombia and emphasize the need to monitor climate variability to improve the prediction of new cases.


Assuntos
El Niño Oscilação Sul , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos
3.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(3): 152-154, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502807

RESUMO

Urogenital myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of Psychoda spp. and it is very rare in humans. A 10- year old female was presented with urogenital myiasis and 4th stage Larvae of Psychoda albipennis (Diptera: Psychodidae) were found in urine. The patient was complained of painful sensation, discomfort and burning while urination. Urinary tract antiseptics were prescribed for the patient and advised to drink plenty of water for hydration. Local health authorities should take proper measures to maintain hygienic conditions for the people under risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/parasitologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Psychodidae/classificação , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/terapia , Humanos , Larva , Líbia , Miíase/terapia , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urina/parasitologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007667, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ochollo is a village in southern Ethiopia burdened with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), where Phlebotomus pedifer is the only vector for Leishmania aethiopica and hyraxes are confirmed reservoir hosts. A detailed description of the different players of transmission, and the ecology and seasonality of the vector needs to be established in order to accomplish efficient control programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between March 2017 and February 2018, a monthly sandfly collection was carried out in different habitats and records of temperature and humidity were taken. Rodents and hyraxes were trapped in the dry and wet season. All samples were screened for Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). Positive samples were further processed for determination of the Leishmania species and the species of the sandfly/small mammal that was found infected. Additionally, the species of 400 sandfly specimens from different habitats and seasons was identified. 17,190 Sergentomyia and Phlebotomus sandflies were caught and showed an overall kDNA prevalence of 2.6%, all were L. aethiopica infections only found in P. pedifer. The overall sandfly and P. pedifer abundance peaked in the dry season and was negatively correlated with the %RH. The kDNA prevalence varied over the months and was negatively correlated with the temperature. Total sandfly abundance did not differ between the sampled habitats, but P. pedifer was the distinct predominant species only in caves. Moreover, significantly more infected sandflies were found in caves. Only 1/192 rodents were kDNA positive, while 20.0% (5/25) of Heterohyrax brucei were found infected. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that caves may be a source of multiplication of the infection. If an outdoor control program would be considered, it would be useful to focus on caves in the wet season, when the sandfly abundance is lowest. The captured rodent species appear not important for transmission and the contribution of hyraxes in transmission should be further investigated.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças , Vetores de Doenças , Procaviídeos/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Prevalência , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2469, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792449

RESUMO

Sand flies are responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease claiming more than 50,000 lives annually. Leishmaniasis is an emerging health risk in tropical and Mediterranean countries as well as temperate regions in North America and Europe. There is an increasing demand for predicting population dynamics and spreading of sand flies to support management and control, yet phenotypic diversity and complex environmental dependence hamper model development. Here, we present the principles for developing predictive species-specific population dynamics models for important disease vectors. Based on these principles, we developed a sand fly population dynamics model with a generic structure where model parameters are inferred using a surveillance dataset collected from Greece and Cyprus. The model incorporates distinct life stages and explicit dependence on a carefully selected set of environmental variables. The model successfully replicates the observations and demonstrates high predictive capacity on the validation dataset from Turkey. The surveillance datasets inform about biological processes, even in the absence of laboratory experiments. Our findings suggest that the methodology can be applied to other vector species to predict abundance, control dispersion, and help to manage the global burden of vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose/transmissão , Vigilância da População/métodos , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Chipre/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Grécia/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Processos Estocásticos , Turquia
6.
Geospat Health ; 13(2)2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451468

RESUMO

Historically leishmaniasis is most prevalent in established urban centres but this research shows that refugees and, most significantly, internally displaced persons are now commonly in areas characterized by the presence of fly habitats potentially leading to higher prominence of Leishmania infection. Areas engulfed by the Syrian civil war has thus caused the dispersal of humans into previously unpopulated areas amid habitats of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi that hosts the parasite Leishmania. The addition of new places of exposure to this disease add to difficulties with respect to diagnosis as well as provision of care and treatment. We used geospatial methodology adapting it to remotely identifying and analyzing sand fly habitats with the aim of measuring how common it is. Our methodology helps avoid the issue of resolution in satellite imagery by measuring likelihood rather than strictly known locations. We followed up this information with spatial analysis identifying which civilian populations are most prone to sand fly exposure, and therefore leishmaniasis, due to their geographical situation. Our results suggest that those most likely to be exposed to Leishmania are internally displaced persons, those camps less likely to receive medical relief and typically having temporary residents migrating elsewhere.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Refugiados , Imagens de Satélites , Análise Espacial , Animais , Conflitos Armados , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Síria/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006846, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent is a fatal disease if left untreated. Between 1994 to 2013, the Ministry of Health of Bangladesh reported 1,09,266 cases of VL and 329 VL related deaths in 37 endemic districts. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by the national programme in the 1960s to control malaria. Despite findings of research trials demonstrating that the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin 5 WP was very effective at reducing vector densities, no national VL vector control operations took place in Bangladesh between 1999 to early 2012. In 2012, IRS using deltamethrin 5 WP was re-introduced by the national programme, which consisted of pre-monsoon spraying in eight highly endemic sub-districts (upazilas). The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of IRS on VL vectors, as well as the process and performance of the spraying activities by national programme staff. METHODS: Five highly endemic upazilas of Mymensingh district were purposively selected (Fulbaria, Trishal, Mukthagacha, Gaforgaon and Bhaluka) to conduct the present study using the WHO/TDR monitoring and evaluation tool kit. IRS operations, conducted by 136 squads/teams, and 544 spraymen, were observed using check lists and questionnaires included in the WHO/TDR monitoring and evaluation tool kit. A household (HH) acceptability survey of IRS was conducted in all study areas using a structured questionnaire in 600 HHs. To measure the efficacy of IRS, pre-IRS (two weeks prior) and post-IRS (at one and five months after), vector density was measured using CDC light traps for two consecutive nights. Bioassays, using the WHO cone-method, were carried out in 80 HHs (40 sprayed and 40 unsprayed) to measure the effectiveness of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces. RESULTS: Of the 544 spraymen interviewed pre-IRS, 60%, 3% and 37% had received training for one, two and three days respectively. During spraying activities, 64% of the spraying squads had a supervisor in 4 upazilas but only one upazila (Mukthagacha) achieved 100% supervision of squads. Overall, 72.8% of the spraying squads in the study upazilas had informed HHs members to prepare their houses prior to spraying. The required personal protective equipment was not provided by the national programme during our observations and the spraying techniques used by all sprayers were sub-standard compared to the standard procedure mentioned in the M&E toolkit. In the HH interviews, 94.8% of the 600 respondents said that all their living rooms and cattle sheds had been sprayed. Regarding the effectiveness measurements (i.e. reduction of vector densities), a total of 4132 sand flies were trapped in three intervals, of which 3310 (80.1%) were P. argentipes; 46.5% (1540) males and 53.5% (1770) females. At one month post-IRS, P. argentipes densities were reduced by 22.5% but the 5 months post-IRS reduction was only 6.4% for both male and female. The bioassay tests showed a mean corrected mortality of P. argentipes sand flies at one month post-IRS of 87.3% which dropped to 74.5% at 4 months post-IRS in three upazilas, which is below the WHO threshold level (80%). CONCLUSION: The national programme should conduct monitoring and evaluation activities to ensure high quality of IRS operations as a pre-condition for achieving a fast and sustained reduction in vector densities. This will continue to be important during the maintenance phase of VL elimination on the Indian subcontinent. Further research is needed to determine other suitable vector control option(s) when the case numbers are very low.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bangladesh , Bioensaio , Características da Família , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Densidade Demográfica , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(29): E6920-E6926, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967151

RESUMO

Isoxazolines are oral insecticidal drugs currently licensed for ectoparasite control in companion animals. Here we propose their use in humans for the reduction of vector-borne disease incidence. Fluralaner and afoxolaner rapidly killed Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes and Phlebotomus sand flies after feeding on a drug-supplemented blood meal, with IC50 values ranging from 33 to 575 nM, and were fully active against strains with preexisting resistance to common insecticides. Based on allometric scaling of preclinical pharmacokinetics data, we predict that a single human median dose of 260 mg (IQR, 177-407 mg) for afoxolaner, or 410 mg (IQR, 278-648 mg) for fluralaner, could provide an insecticidal effect lasting 50-90 days against mosquitoes and Phlebotomus sand flies. Computational modeling showed that seasonal mass drug administration of such a single dose to a fraction of a regional population would dramatically reduce clinical cases of Zika and malaria in endemic settings. Isoxazolines therefore represent a promising new component of drug-based vector control.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Humanos
9.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases ; 12(4): 1-14, Abr, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-SUCENPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1065047

RESUMO

Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a neglected tropical disease that in the Americas iscaused by the infection of Leishmania infantum and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) isthe main parasite reservoir in urban areas. The parasite is mainly transmitted by populationsof the sibling species Lutzomyia longipalpis that has been spreading in countries including Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and more recently Uruguay. Although bionomic parameters such as population survival and the duration of the gonotrophic cycle are critical in evaluating vector capacity, field studies have rarely been applied to sand fly populations. The present study sought to evaluate basic bionomic parameters related to the vectorial capacity ofthe (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area of Sao Paulo state. The daily survival rate, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle and the dispersal pattern were evaluated through the mark- release-recapture method. A total of 1,547 males and 401 females were marked and released in five experiment scarried out between February 2013 and February 2014. The higher recapture rates occurred within 100 meters of the release point and the estimated daily survival rates varied between 0.69 and 0.89 for females and between 0.69 and 0.79 for males. The minimum duration of the gonotrophic cycle observed was five days. The absolute population size, calculate dranged from 900 to 4,857 females and from 2,882 to 9,543 males. Our results demonstrate a high survival rate of this vector population and low dispersal that could be associated with the presence of all necessary conditions for its establishment and maintenancein the peridomiciles of this area. Our findings contribute to the basic data necessary for the understanding of ZVL dynamics and the evaluation of the implementation of prevention and control measures...


Assuntos
Animais , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/genética
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 155, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis represents an important public health problem in Brazil. The continuous process of urbanization and expansion of human activities in forest areas impacts natural habitats, modifying the ecology of some species of Leishmania, as well as its vectors and reservoirs and, consequently, changes the epidemiological pattern that contributes to the expansion of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here, we discuss Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani, the main vector of ACL, transmitting two dermotropic Leishmania species including Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (V.) shawi. METHODS: We used the maximum entropy niche modelling approach (MaxEnt) to evaluate the environmental suitability of L. (N.) whitmani and the transmission of ACL in Brazil, in addition to designing models for a future scenario of climate change. MaxEnt was used under the "auto-features" mode and the default settings, with 100-fold repetition (bootstrap). The logistic output was used with higher values in the habitat suitability map, representing more favourable conditions for the occurrence of L. (N.) whitmani and human cases of ACL. RESULTS: Two models were developed: the Lutzomyia (N.) whitmani model (LWM) and the American cutaneous leishmaniasis model (ACLM). LWM identified the species "preferential habitat" included regions with moderate annual precipitation (AP) between 1000-1600 mm, intermediate vegetation density (NDVI) values, mean temperature of the coldest quarter (MTCQ), between 15-21 °C, and annual mean temperature (AMT), between 19-24 °C. ACLM indicates that ACL is strongly associated with areas of intermediate density vegetation, areas with AP between 800-1200 mm, MTCQ above 16 °C and AMT below 23 °C. CONCLUSIONS: The models generated for L. (N.) whitmani and ACL indicated a satisfactory predictive capacity. Future projections of LWM indicate an expansion of climatic suitability for L. (N.) whitmani for the northern and southern regions of Brazil. Future projections of ACL indicate the ongoing process of disease expansion in the face of the predicted climatic changes and reinforce the broad geographical expanse of this disease in Brazil. The models were able to identify that a continuous process of environmental degradation favours the establishment of L. (N.) whitmani and the occurrence of ACL by a strong association of the vector(s) and ACL to areas of intermediate vegetation cover density.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Temperatura
11.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 111(5): 309-315, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950594

RESUMO

Phlebotomine sandflies are bloodsucking insects responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis. The average annual incidence in Morocco, of this pathology, was approximately estimated in 2014 as 7.8 per 100.000 inhabitants according to the Moroccan health information service records. The study of the composition of the Phlebotomian community and its seasonal dynamics are essential for determining the appropriate and adequate means of control at the prefecture of Meknes in Central Morocco. It is with this in mind that two capture sessions per month using sticky paper traps were conducted at the sites of sandflies. A total of 982 sandflies were captured. The identification of the specimens found via the Moroccan key revealed a percentage of 73.3% belonging to the subgenus Paraphlebotomus, 6.3% to the Phlebotomus subgenus, 16.2% to Larroussius, and 4.2% of Sergentomia subgenus. Phlebotomus sergenti, vector of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, was found as the more abundant with 73.3% followed by Larroussius longicuspis with 8.2%. The largest number of species was harvested in July and September with, respectively, 44.8 ph/m2/night and 48.7 ph/m2/night. This study also unveiled that the two high-risk Leishmanian months are July and September, hence, the need to strengthen efforts to monitor and control this disease during the vector activity period.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Vigilância da População , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema de Registros , Estações do Ano
12.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 111(3): 148-151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793579

RESUMO

This is the first record of a case of urinary myiasis in the Palestinian Territories caused by Clogmia albipunctata. Larvae were discharged through urine by a 28-year-old pregnant female whom complained of mild abdominal pain associated with burning sensation while urinating over the past 3 months. Detailed description of the larva was provided.


Assuntos
Miíase/diagnóstico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Psychodidae , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Árabes , Feminino , Humanos , Larva , Miíase/urina , Gravidez , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Urinárias/parasitologia
13.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 93: 47-56, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248738

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the species identification of sand flies at different developmental stages and map changes in their protein profiles during the course of whole life cycle. Specimens of six different species from laboratory colonies at larval and pupal stages were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profiles of larvae were stable from the L2 to L4 developmental stages and clearly distinguishable at the species level. In a validation study, 123 larvae of the six species were queried against reference database resulting in 93% correct species identification (log score values higher than 2.0). The spectra generated from sand fly pupae allow species identification as well and surprisingly, in contrast to biting midges and mosquitoes, they did not change during this developmental stage. For adults, thorax was revealed as the optimal body part for sample preparation yielding reproducible spectra regardless age and diet. Only variations were uncovered for freshly engorged females profiles of which were affected by blood signals first two days post bloodmeal. The findings demonstrate that in addition to adult species differentiation MALDI-TOF MS may also serve as a rapid and effective tool for species identification of juvenile stages of phlebotomine sand flies.


Assuntos
Psychodidae/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/classificação , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Acta Tropica ; 176(1): 455-462, Dez, 2017. map, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-SUCENPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1059334

RESUMO

Black fly and sandfly bites are related to the endemicity of pemphigus foliaceus (PF); however, an immune reaction against the salivary proteins from these flies still requires confirmation in the case of PF patients living in southeastern Brazil. Purpose: To georeference the distribution of Simuliidae (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) and of PF cases in the northeastern region of São Paulo State, and to assess the humoral immune response against salivary gland extracts (SGEs) from biting flies in PF patients, relatives, and neighbours...


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/genética , Pênfigo/classificação , Pênfigo/diagnóstico , Simuliidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/genética
15.
Parasite ; 24: 42, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139377

RESUMO

Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases. Historically, labour-intensive maintenance and low productivity have limited their usefulness for research, especially for species that do not adapt well to laboratory conditions. However, with growing interest in leishmaniasis research, rearing techniques have been developed and refined, and sand fly colonies have become more common, enabling many significant breakthroughs. Today, there are at least 90 colonies representing 21 distinct phlebotomine sand fly species in 35 laboratories in 18 countries worldwide. The materials and methods used by various sand fly workers differ, dictated by the availability of resources, cost or manpower constraints rather than choice. This paper is not intended as a comprehensive review but rather a discussion of methods and techniques most commonly used by researchers to initiate, establish and maintain sand fly colonies, with emphasis on the methods proven to be most effective for the species the authors have colonized. Topics discussed include collecting sand flies for colony stock, colony initiation, maintenance and mass-rearing procedures, and control of sand fly pathogens in colonies.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Galinhas , Cricetinae , Feminino , Cobaias , Abrigo para Animais/classificação , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Índia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Oviposição , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Coelhos , Transportes/métodos
16.
Acta Trop ; 174: 102-105, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28705610

RESUMO

The information in this protocol covers from the basic steps and material necessary to start a sand fly colony up to the specific details which are important to the success of a Nyssomyia neivai colony. The greatest problems in our colony of Ny. neivai were solved with specific care, for instance, using vermiculite and an adequate number of adults in oviposition containers; the control of fungus with the exact amount of diet for the larvae and humidity control; a second blood meal for females and control of the number of times animals are used for blood meals. Currently, our colony is at F22 generation.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento/métodos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino
17.
Parasites & Vectors ; 10: 1-9, Mai, 2017. map, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-SUCENPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1065134

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health challenge in Brazil because of the high number of human and canine cases reported annually. Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of VL and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector. However, evidence suggests that this taxon constitutes a species complex. In Sao Paulo state, there are two populations of Lu. longipalpis, each secreting distinct pheromones, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and Cembrene 1; both have been associated with different patterns of VL transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal distribution and natural infection of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a highly VL endemic area of Sao Paulo state to obtain information that may contribute to the surveillance of this zoonosis and to the planning of preventive and control measures...


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/genética
18.
Cell Tissue Res ; 368(3): 513-529, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285352

RESUMO

During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Metamorfose Biológica , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Digestório/embriologia , Sistema Digestório/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Genes de Insetos , Psychodidae/anatomia & histologia , Psychodidae/genética , Psychodidae/ultraestrutura , Pupa/ultraestrutura
19.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 54(1): 87-95, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ecoepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis and regular monitoring of Lutzomyia species have generated a knowledge base that can be used for control and prevention strategies targeted at the disease transmission dynamics in focal areas of Colombia. In this study, the presence and spatial distribution of phlebotomines of medical importance in the municipalities of Tierralta (El Loro and Tuis Tuis villages) and Valencia (Guadua and Mieles villages) were determined. METHODS: Entomological surveys were performed in 2015 (months of June, September and November) and samples were collected via CDC-traps located in intradomicilary and peridomiciliary areas in the municipalities of Tierralta and Valencia (Department of Córdoba, Colombia). Active searches were also carried out with a mouth aspirator to collect adult phlebotomines from resting sites. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to assess if the differences between the communities of phlebotomines. Spatial distribution maps of the Lutzomyia species were generated. RESULTS: A high species diversity of Lutzomyia was observed with a total of 1677 Lutzomyia individuals belonging to 12 species. Among these species, Lu. panamensis was the most abundant (80.18%). The composition of the intradomicilary and peridomiciliary phlebotomines varied significantly (F = 0.9962; df = 1; p = 0.02895). Species like Lu. carpenteri, Lu. camposi, Lu. dysponeta, Lu. atroclavata and Lu. yuilli yuilli were recorded for the first time in the Department of Córdoba, Colombia. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The spatial distribution shows that Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are predominant and present in areas with high concentration of houses. This study provides basic information on new records of phlebotomines in the Department of Córdoba. The results suggest that greater vector-human contact occurs in the peridomiciliary environment and that a high number of Lutzomyia species associated with the transmission of leishmaniasis are present in Colombia.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Insetos Vetores , Psychodidae/classificação , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Colômbia , Entomologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogeografia , Psychodidae/anatomia & histologia
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 157, 2017 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28340594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before 1996 the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was usually treated as a synonym of the morphologically similar Lutzomyia intermedia, which has long been considered a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of much cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. This report investigates the likely range changes of both sand fly species in response to a stabilisation climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and a high greenhouse gas emissions one (RCP8.5). METHODS: Ecological niche modelling was used to identify areas of South America with climates currently suitable for each species, and then the future distributions of these climates were predicted based on climate change scenarios. Compared with the previous ecological niche model of L. intermedia (sensu lato) produced using the GARP algorithm in 2003, the current investigation modelled the two species separately, making use of verified presence records and additional records after 2001. Also, the new ensemble approach employed ecological niche modelling algorithms (including Maximum Entropy, Random Forests and Support Vector Machines) that have been widely adopted since 2003 and perform better than GARP, as well as using a more recent climate change model (HadGEM2) considered to have better performance at higher resolution than the earlier one (HadCM2). RESULTS: Lutzomyia intermedia was shown to be the more tropical of the two species, with its climatic niche defined by higher annual mean temperatures and lower temperature seasonality, in contrast to the more subtropical L. neivai. These different latitudinal ranges explain the two species' predicted responses to climate change by 2050, with L. intermedia mostly contracting its range (except perhaps in northeast Brazil) and L. neivai mostly shifting its range southwards in Brazil and Argentina. This contradicts the findings of the 2003 report, which predicted more range expansion. The different findings can be explained by the improved data sets and modelling methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that climate change will not always lead to range expansion of disease vectors such as sand flies. Ecological niche models should be species specific, carefully selected and combined in an ensemble approach.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Insetos Vetores , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , América do Sul , Análise Espacial , Especificidade da Espécie
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