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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946444

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania chagasi, whose main vector in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis. The disease was diagnosed in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo (ES) for the first time in 1968. Currently, this disease has been considered endemic in 10 municipalities. Furthermore, the presence of L. longipalpis has been detected in eight other municipalities where the transmission has not been reported thus far. In this study, we performed species distribution modeling (SDM) to identify new and most likely receptive areas for VL transmission in ES. The sandflies were both actively and passively collected in various rural area of ES between 1986 and 2017. The collection points were georeferenced using a global positioning system device. Climatic data were retrieved from the WorldClim database, whereas geographic data were obtained from the National Institute for Space Research and the Integrated System of Geospatial Bases of the State of Espírito Santo. The maximum entropy algorithm was used through the MIAmaxent R package to train and test the distribution models for L. longipalpis. The major contributor to model generation was rocky outcrops, followed by temperature seasonality. The SDM predicted the expansion of the L. longipalpis-prone area in the Doce River Valley and limited the probability of expanding outside its watershed. Once the areas predicted suitable for L. longipalpis occurrence are determined, we can avoid the inefficient use of public resources in conducting canine serological surveys where the vector insect does not occur.


Assuntos
Clima , Geografia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espacial
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236298

RESUMO

Larvae of Psychodidae develop in a variety of breeding sites, including vertebrate feces. As searching for the larvae can be an extremely difficult task, immatures of many species are little known, with descriptions of coprophagous moth flies all from outside the Neotropics. In an attempt to mitigate this challenge, we tested an oviposition trap using cattle dung as attractant, measured the efficiency and specificity of the traps and the most efficient period of exposition in the field. With 60 traps installed in one fragment of ombrophilous forest, 344 immatures were collected, distributed in four species of Psychoda and one of Feuerborniella. Psychodidae accounted for 75% of the collected Diptera. The high specificity of the trap to Psychodidae contrasts with other studies on coprophagous fauna where they appear in low abundance. Based on the metrics in this study, the most efficient period of trapping exposition was between five to eight days, but the difference was not significant probably due to the high number of zero observations among the traps. Many questions pertaining to coprophagous moth flies remain unanswered. Further research is needed to improve trapping efficiency, elucidate the effects of attractants and determine how environmental factors influence the attractiveness of bait.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Oviposição , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes , Feminino , Psychodidae/classificação
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0220268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155153

RESUMO

Caves are extreme and inhospitable environments that can harbor several species of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Among these animals are phlebotomine sand flies, vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania that cause leishmaniasis. This study aimed to evaluate the species composition of sand flies of four caves, a cave located at Moeda Sul (MS) and three at Parque Estadual Serra do Rola Moça (PESRM), in the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Sand flies were collected with automatic light traps. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling, using a dissimilarity matrix calculated with the Jaccard index, and Multivariate Permutation Analysis were used to evaluate sand fly species composition among entrance, interior, and the surrounding environments of each sampled cave and to infer biological mechanisms from patterns of distribution among these different cave environments. A total of 375 phlebotomine sand flies representing 14 species and six genera were collected. The most abundant species were Evandromyia tupynambai (54.7%), Brumptomyia troglodytes (25.6%), Evandromyia edwardsi (6.1%), Psathyromyia brasiliensis (4.8%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (4.3%). Thirty individuals were collected at MS, 16 inside the cave and 14 from its surroundings. At PESRM, five individuals were collected from the surroundings of cave RM38, 190 individuals from cave RM39 (48 in the cave and 142 from its surroundings) and 150 individuals from cave RM40 (42 in the cave and 108 from its surroundings). The results revealed a rich sand fly fauna with similar species compositions among the entrance, interior, and surrounding environments of each sampled cave, suggesting that both caves and their surroundings are important for maintaining sand fly communities.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Geografia , Phlebotomus/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(4): 768-776, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043444

RESUMO

After the first autochthonous case of cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in the Atlántico department in the Caribbean region of Colombia, entomological sampling was conducted in the specific areas where the infection might have occurred. CDC traps were installed inside and outside dwellings in the peri-urban and rural areas of a settlement in the municipality of Luruaco. Sampling was performed during the night with protected human bait, and phlebotomine sand flies were actively sampled from potential diurnal resting sites within dwellings. Ten species of the genus Lutzomyia were identified; Lutzomyia evansi was the dominant species (78%) in the rural and peri-urban areas as well as in the different sampled habitats, followed by Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia gomezi. There was a 100% household infestation by Lu. evansi, and its indoor mean abundance was 13.3 sand flies/CDC trap/night. The indoor mean abundance of Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi was only 0.9 and 0.8 sand flies/CDC trap/night, respectively. Female Lu. evansi were collected with protected human bait, mostly in the peridomestic area, with sustained activity during the night and a slight increase in the activity from 19:00 to 23:00 hours. Of the total sand flies captured in the diurnal resting sites, 73.1% were collected from the walls of bedrooms and corresponded to Lu. evansi, Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis, and Lutzomyia trinidadensis. Owing to their vectorial importance, the species on which entomological surveillance should be focused are Lu. evansi, Lu. panamensis, and Lu. gomezi. The biting and resting behavior reported in this study will help guide vector prevention and the control of leishmaniasis within the study area.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 10, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A visceral leishmaniasis outbreak was reported from a village in a low-endemic district of Bihar, India. METHODS: Outbreak investigation with house-to-house search and rapid test of kala-azar suspects and contacts was carried out. Sandfly collection and cone bio-assay was done as part of entomological study. RESULTS: A spatially and temporally clustered kala-azar outbreak was found at Kosra village in Sheikhpura district with 70 cases reported till December 2018. Delay of more than a year was found between diagnosis and treatment of the index case. The southern hamlet with socio-economically disadvantaged migrant population was several times more affected than rest of the village (attack rate of 19.0% vs 0.5% respectively, ORMH = 39.2, 95% CI 18.2-84.4). The median durations between onset of fever to first contact with any health services, onset to kala-azar diagnosis, diagnosis to treatment were 10 days (IQR 4-18), 30 days (IQR 17-73) and 1 day (IQR 0.5 to 3), respectively, for 50 kala-azar cases assessed till June 2017. Three-fourths of these kala-azar cases had out-of-pocket medical expenditure for their condition. Known risk factors for kala-azar such as illiteracy, poverty, belonging to socially disadvantaged community, migration, residing in kutcha houses, sleeping in rooms with unplastered walls and non-use of mosquito nets were present in majority of these cases. Only half the dwellings of the kala-azar cases were fully sprayed. Fully gravid female P. argentipes collected post indoor residual spraying (IRS) and low sandfly mortality on cone-bioassay indicated poor effectiveness of vector control. CONCLUSIONS: There is need to focus on low-endemic areas of kala-azar. The elimination programme should implement a routine framework for kala-azar outbreak response. Complete case-finding, use of quality-compliant insecticide and coverage of all sprayable surfaces in IRS could help interrupt transmission during outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Migrantes , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Controle de Insetos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/terapia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105358, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987778

RESUMO

Vector control is one of the main aspects to reach the target of eliminating visceral leishmaniasis from Indian sub-continent as set by the World Health Organisation. Data on different aspects of vector like ecology, behaviour, population dynamics and their association with environmental factors are very important for formulating an effective vector control strategy. The present work was designed to study the species abundance and impact of environmental factors on population dynamics of vector P. argentipes in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal. Adult sand flies were collected using light traps and mouth aspirators from twelve kala-azar affected villages of Habibpur block of Malda district, on a monthly basis from January to December, 2018. Morphological and molecular methods were used for species identification. Population dynamics were assessed by man hour density and per night per trap collection. Data were analysed using SPSS software to determine the impact of environmental factors on vector population P. argentipes was found to the predominant species and prevalent throughout the year. A significantly higher number of sand flies were collected from cattle sheds than human dwellings and peri-domestic vegetation. A portion of the P. argentipes population was exophilic and exophagic as evidenced by their collection from peri-domestic vegetation. The highest population density was recorded during April to September. Population dynamics were mostly influenced by average temperature along humidity and rain fall. Resting behaviour of sand flies was not restricted to the lower portion of the wall but equally distributed throughout the wall and ceiling. Programme officials should consider management of outdoor populations of the sand flies and timings of indoor residual spray for chemical control purpose.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ecologia , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura
7.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 312-317, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502639

RESUMO

Hydroelectric power stations may affect the population dynamics of mosquitoes and sand flies, a group with impact on public health due to the possibility to transmit pathogens to humans. This work characterized and compared the fauna of mosquitoes and sand flies in a hydroelectric power station and peridomicile areas in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Insect collections were performed in August 2015 at dry season and February 2016 in rainy season. Ten HP light traps were set at each of two sites for three consecutive days in each of two seasons (dry and rainy). Furthermore, collections with Shannon traps were made in each sampling area (hydropower plant and peridomicile area) from 4:00 p.m. being shut down at 8:00 p.m. for two consecutive days in each of two seasons (dry and rainy). In total, 1,222 insects from 13 genera and 27 species were collected. The most plentiful species were respectively Culex declarator (Dyar and Knab, 1906) and Pintomyia pessoai (Coutinho & Barretto, 1940). A high number of insects (78.5%) were collected during the rainy period (P < 0.05). About equitability, statistical significance was observed in the peridomicile area (dry season J = 0.75 and rainy season J = 0.82). The highest values of species diversity were observed in the hydropower plant (H = 2.68) and peridomicile area (H = 2.38) both in the rainy season with statistical significance comparing with dry season. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of vector species in this region increases the potential risk of transmission of pathogens, especially arbovirus and Leishmania Ross, 1903.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Culicidae/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Dinâmica Populacional , Centrais Elétricas , Estações do Ano
8.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 281-288, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550368

RESUMO

In urban ecotourism parks, the life cycle of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) agents can remain established, where phlebotomines may comprise potential risks for visitors. The present study aimed to survey the phlebotomine fauna of a forest park 'Bosque Rodriques Alves-Jardim Botânico da Amazônia' (BRAJBA), in the urban area of Belém, Brazil. The park was monthly surveyed in 2018 using CDC light traps placed in ground and canopy strata. Leishmania spp. isolated from dissected females were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Fluctuations in specimen capture were correlated with rainfall. Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho, 1939) was predominant for all surveyed ecotopes and capture methods in both areas. Females of Ny. antunesi resting on tree bases were observed attempting to bite researchers during early morning. One Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira, 1942) and one Trichophoromyia brachipyga (Mangabeira, 1942) were found naturally infected by flagellates. Only the strain from Th. brachipyga was isolated and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Silveira, Shaw, Braga and Ishikawa, 1987. Monthly fluctuations of the three most abundant species, Ny. antunesi, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira, 1942) and Th. brachypiga, had statistically significant negative correlations with rainfall. The present study provided further information to better understand ACL ecology in the Belém urban area, where the urban parks surveyed appeared to offer potential risk of contracting the disease, thus requiring environmental management. These observations highlighted the need for including Ny. antunesi, Bi. flaviscutellata, Th. ubiquitalis, and Th. brachypiga in the priority list for continuous entomological surveillance.


Assuntos
Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Parques Recreativos , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 259-265, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346619

RESUMO

The study aims to make an update on the distribution and ecology of sand flies in the Quang Ninh province, Northern Vietnam, where Leishmania cases were reported in 2001. Seventeen sites were chosen in three districts of the province: Ha Long, Cam Pha, and Hoanh Bo. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using 68 CDC light traps from May 30 to 3 June 2016. Captured specimens were transferred individually into Eppendorf tubes with 90% ethanol. The sand fly heads and genitalia were removed and were mounted in Euparal after successive different baths. Specimen identification was determined based on the morphology of the cibarium, pharynx, and/or male genitalia or female spermathecae. A total of 416 sand flies (125 females, 283 males) belonging to four genera were collected and 10 sand fly species were identified: Sergentomyia silvatica, Se. barraudi, Se. hivernus, Se. bailyi, Phlebotomus mascomai, Ph. stantoni, Ph. yunshengensis, Ph. betisi, Chinius junlianensis, Idiophlebotomus longiforceps. The Sergentomyia genus prevailed (79.7% of the collected sand flies), followed by the Phlebotomus genus (13.7%), the Chinius genus (6.1%), and the Idiophlebotomus genus (0.8%). Besides these well-defined taxa, five specimens, named sp1, showed unknown morphological characteristics, requiring further study. The majority of sand flies were collected in rock caves suggesting the cavernicolous character of the species in the Quang Ninh province. However, specimens were also collected in intra and peridomiciliary sites in which Ph. stantoni and Se. hivernus were found as the main species. It is worth noting that two Ph. stantoni were found in the house of a patient affected by Leishmania.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Masculino , Psychodidae/classificação , Vietnã
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 737-740, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834491

RESUMO

In the framework of a mosquito-monitoring program conducted from 2014 to 2018, non-culicid dipteran bycatch was identified to species-level with a focus on Diptera of medical and veterinary importance as part of a biodiversity initiative and barcoding project ("Austrian Barcode of Life"). Two species hitherto not known from Austria, the regularly sampled synanthropic moth fly Clogmia albipunctata (Psychodidae) and a single specimen of the louse fly Ornithoica turdi (Hippoboscidae), were collected in Vienna and Lower Austria. We confirmed identification results using a barcoding approach and provide the first reference sequence for O. turdi.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Áustria , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Dípteros/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Psychodidae/genética
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007669, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of blood sources of hematophagous arthropods is crucial for understanding the transmission cycles of vector-borne diseases. Many different approaches towards host determination were proposed, including precipitin test, ELISA, DNA- and mass spectrometry-based methods; yet all face certain complications and limitations, mostly related to blood degradation. This study presents a novel method for blood meal identification, peptide mass mapping (PMM) analysis of host-specific hemoglobin peptides using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify blood meal source, proteins from abdomens of engorged sand fly females were extracted, cleaved by trypsin and peptide fragments of host hemoglobin were sequenced using MALDI-TOF MS. The method provided correct host identification of 100% experimentally fed sand flies until 36h post blood meal (PBM) and for 80% samples even 48h PBM. In females fed on two hosts, both blood meal sources were correctly assigned for 60% of specimens until 36h PBM. In a validation study on field-collected females, the method yielded unambiguous host determination for 96% of specimens. The suitability of PMM-based MALDI-TOF MS was proven experimentally also on lab-reared Culex mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PMM-based MALDI-TOF MS analysis targeting host specific hemoglobin peptides represents a sensitive and cost-effective method with a fast and simple preparation protocol. As demonstrated here on phlebotomine sand flies and mosquitoes, it allows reliable and rapid blood source determination even 48h PBM with minimal material input and provides more robust and specific results than other currently used methods. This approach was also successfully tested on field-caught engorged females and proved to be a promising useful tool for large-scale screening of host preferences studies. Unlike other methods including MALDI-TOF protein profiling, it allows correct identification of mixed blood meals as was demonstrated on both experimentally fed and field-collected sand flies.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Hemoglobinas/química , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Psychodidae/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(157): 20190141, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455165

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by species of Phlebotominae sand flies. CL is responsible for more than 1000 reported cases per year in Ecuador. Vector collection studies in Ecuador suggest that there is a strong association between the ecological diversity of an ecosystem, the presence of potential alternative or reservoir hosts and the abundance of sand fly species. Data collected from a coastal community in Ecuador showed that Leishmania parasites may be circulating in diverse hosts, including mammalian and potentially avian species, and these hosts may serve as potential hosts for the parasite. There has been limited reporting of CL cases in Ecuador because the disease is non-fatal and its surveillance system is passive. Hence, the actual incidence of CL is unknown. In this study, an epidemic model was developed and analysed to understand the complexity of CL transmission dynamics with potential non-human hosts in the coastal ecosystem and to estimate critical epidemiological quantities for Ecuador. The model is fitted to the 2010 CL outbreak in the town of Valle Hermoso in the Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas province of Ecuador and parameters such as CL transmission rates in different types of hosts (primary and alternative), and levels of case reporting in the town are estimated. The results suggest that the current surveillance in this region fails to capture 38% (with 95% CI (29%, 47%)) of the actual number of cases under the assumption that alternative hosts are dead-end hosts and that the mean CL reproduction number in the town is 3.9. This means that on the average 3.9 new human CL cases were generated by a single infectious human in the town during the initial period of the 2010 outbreak. Moreover, major outbreaks of CL in Ecuador in coastal settings are unavoidable until reporting through the surveillance system is improved and alternative hosts are managed properly. The estimated infection transmission probabilities from alternative hosts to sand flies, and sand flies to alternative hosts are 27% and 32%, respectively. The analysis highlights that vector control and alternative host management are two effective programmes for Ecuador but need to be implemented concurrently to avoid future major outbreaks.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Zoonoses
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 331, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254126

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil. This disease is endemic in most of Bahia state, with increasing reports of cases in new areas. Ecological niche models (ENM) can be used as a tool for predicting potential distribution for disease, vectors, and to identify risk factors associated with their distribution. In this study, ecological niche models (ENMs) were developed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases and 12 sand fly species captured in Bahia state. Sand fly data was collected monthly by CDC light traps from July 2009 to December 2012. MODIS satellite imagery was used to calculate NDVI, NDMI, and NDWI vegetation indices, MODIS day and night land surface temperature (LST), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and 19 Bioclim variables were used to develop the ENM using the maximum entropy approach (Maxent). Mean diurnal range was the variable that most contributed to all the models for sand flies, followed by precipitation in wettest month. For Lutzomyia longipalpis (L. longipalpis), annual precipitation, precipitation in wettest quarter, precipitation in wettest month, and NDVI were the most contributing variables. For the VL model, the variables that contributed most were precipitation in wettest month, annual precipitation, LST day, and temperature seasonality. L. longipalpis was the species with the widest potential distribution in the state. The identification of risk areas and factors associated with this distribution is fundamental to prioritize resource allocation and to improve the efficacy of the state's program for surveillance and control of VL.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia Médica , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Psychodidae/classificação , Chuva , Temperatura
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180464, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nyssomyia intermedia is an important vector of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Sand flies were captured in a Shannon trap and after landing on human collectors and retrieved monthly. Nocturnal activity was estimated using a log-linear model. RESULTS: Peak sand fly collection in the Shannon trap occurred in summer and winter, and peak fly collection on humans occurred in spring and summer. CONCLUSIONS: Ny. intermedia was captured in both the hottest and coldest months, indicating its adaptability to different seasons and the possibility of disease transmission at any time of the year in Campus Fiocruz Mata Atlântica, Brazil.


Assuntos
Ciclos de Atividade/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Psychodidae/classificação , Estações do Ano
15.
J Med Entomol ; 56(5): 1441-1445, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121023

RESUMO

The synergistic effect of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and kairomones on the attraction of sand flies to light traps was evaluated. Octenol and lactic acid were used as chemical attractants. Green LEDs and the incandescent lamps were used as light attractants. Five CDC-type light traps with the respective combination of attractants (incandescent lamp, incandescent lamp + chemical attractant, green LED, green LED + chemical attractant, and chemical attractant alone [without light]) were set between 18:00 and 06:00 following a Latin square design. A total of 6,536 sand flies and 16 species were collected. The most frequent species collected was Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae) accounting for 43.21% of all individuals. Order of success (mean, SD) of lactic acid attractant fly capture was as follows: LED + lactic acid (36.83 ± 4.74), LED alone (34.87 ± 4.61), incandescent lamp + lactic acid (22.80 ± 3.19), incandescent lamp alone (12.67 ± 2.03), and lactic acid (0.46 ± 0.13). Order of success of octenol attractant fly capture was as follows: LED + octenol (37.23 ± 5.61), LED alone (35.77 ± 5.69), incandescent lamp + octenol (18.63 ± 3.28), incandescent lamp alone (14.67 ± 2.86), and octenol alone (1.80 ± 0.65). With exception of lactic acid + incandescent light, chemical synergists played no part in significantly increasing light trap capture of phlebotomine sand flies. However, the use of LEDs, with or without such attractants, provided significantly higher capture compared to the incandescent lamp with or without such chemicals, showing that LEDs are suitable and efficient light sources for surveillance and monitoring of phlebotomine sand flies in Brazil.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Luz , Odorantes/análise , Fototaxia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Entomologia/métodos , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/análise , Masculino , Octanóis/análise
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180482, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116242

RESUMO

The leishmaniases are caused by Leishmania parasites and transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During parasite development inside the vector's midgut, promastigotes move towards the stomodeal valve, a mechanism that is crucial for transmission. It has been reported that the sugar meal acquired by sand flies during feeding between bloodmeals is essential for the development and migration of parasites. We demonstrated that the distribution of Leishmania mexicana parasites was affected by the sugar meals obtained by the sand flies. Promastigote migration towards the cardia region seems to be only partially based on the stimuli provided by sugar molecules. In the absence of sugars, significant amounts of parasites developed in the hindgut. In addition, sugar meals were important for the survival of sand flies, especially during blood digestion, presumably supporting their energy requirements.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania mexicana/fisiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmania mexicana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade , Psychodidae/fisiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 251, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Latin America, Brazil harbors the most cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL). Since the early 1980s, the disease has spread to the urban centers of the north, and now the south and west of Brazil; it reached São Paulo state in the southeast in 1996, and Presidente Prudente in the western region in 2010. Our aim was to describe the spatiotemporal analysis and environmental risk factors associated with the dispersion of VL in Presidente Prudente, an urban setting with recent transmission. METHODS: An entomological survey was carried out from 2009 to 2015. A canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) serosurvey was performed from 2010 to 2015 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), a dual-path platform CVL rapid test, and indirect fluorescent antibodies (IFAT). Data from HVL cases were obtained from the Municipal Surveillance Epidemiology Center from 2013 to 2017. Data on water drainage and forest fragments were obtained from public platforms and irregular solid-waste deposits were determined by monthly inspections of the urban area. Kernel density maps of the distribution of CVL were constructed. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2015, Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were found in all seven areas of Presidente Prudente. From 2010 to 2015, 40,309 dogs were serologically screened and 638 showed positive results, i.e. a prevalence rate of 1.6%. From 2013 to 2017, six human cases were diagnosed with a mortality rate of 33.3%. In 2015, 56 points of irregular solid-waste deposits were identified, predominantly in the neighborhoods. Three different hotspots of CVL showed an increased distribution of vectors, seropositive dogs, irregular solid-waste deposits, forest fragments and water drainage. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tools that analyze the spatial distribution of vectors, canine and human VL as environmental risk factors were essential to identifying the areas most vulnerable to the spread or maintenance of VL. The results may help public health authorities in planning prevention and control measures to avoid expansion and future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Entomologia/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Masculino , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086366

RESUMO

Phlebotomines have been recorded from a wide variety of habitats, and some of these vector species have shown preference for human environments, with high levels of adaptation. This study evaluated the degree of preference of these vectors for urban, rural, and forested environments (synanthropic behavior), as well as the diversity of these species, in three areas (forested, rural, and urban, exhibiting different degrees of anthropogenic changes) in a region of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Corumbá county, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Using light traps, sand fly specimens were collected from the three environments simultaneously, from May 2015 to April 2017, totaling 7 213 sand flies of 14 species in eight genera. Nuorteva's synanthropy index was determined for the species Lutzomyia cruzi, Brumptomyia brumpti, Micropygomyia peresi, Lu. forattinii, Martinsmyia oliveirai and Evandromyia corumbaensis. Lutzomyia cruzi, the vector of Leishmania infantum in Corumbá, was the most abundant vector species, recorded from all three areas and sampling plots, on all 24 months investigated. This species exhibited the highest synanthropic index (+75.09), indicating a strong preference for urban environments. Brumptomyia brumpti, Micropygomyia peresi, Lu. forattinii, and Martinsmyia oliveirai showed preference, albeit not strong, for urban environments. Overall, males were more abundant than females (W = 490; p < 0.0001). High density, high synanthropic index, and sustained indoor presence were found for Mi. peresi in the rural area. Monitoring changes in the ecological behavior of sand flies is of vital importance, as these changes may indicate an increased likelihood of leishmaniasis emergence or reemergence.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Florestas , Chuva , População Rural , Temperatura
19.
Trop Med Int Health ; 24(7): 849-861, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore possible changes in the community attributes of haematophagous insects as a function of forest disturbance. We compare the patterns of diversity and abundance, plus the behavioural responses of three epidemiologically distinct vector assemblages across sites depicting various levels of forest cover. METHODS: Over a 3-year period, we sampled mosquitoes, sandflies and biting-midges in forested habitats of central Panama. We placed CDC light traps in the forest canopy and in the understorey to gather blood-seeking females. RESULTS: We collected 168 405 adult haematophagous dipterans in total, including 26 genera and 86 species. Pristine forest settings were always more taxonomically diverse than the disturbed forest sites, confirming that disturbance has a negative impact on species richness. Species of Phlebotominae and Culicoides were mainly classified as climax (i.e. forest specialist) or disturbance-generalist, which tend to decrease in abundance along with rising levels of disturbance. In contrast, a significant portion of mosquito species, including primary and secondary disease vectors, was classified as colonists (i.e. disturbed-areas specialists), which tend to increase in numbers towards more disturbed forest habitats. At pristine forest, the most prevalent species of Phlebotominae and Culicoides partitioned the vertical niche by being active at the forest canopy or in the understorey; yet this pattern was less clear in disturbed habitats. Most mosquito species were not vertically stratified in their habitat preference. CONCLUSION: We posit that entomological risk and related pathogen exposure to humans is higher in pristine forest scenarios for Culicoides and Phlebotominae transmitted diseases, whereas forest disturbance poses a higher entomological risk for mosquito-borne infections. This suggests that the Dilution Effect Hypothesis (DEH) does not apply in tropical rainforests where highly abundant, yet unrecognised insect vectors and neglected zoonotic diseases occur. Comprehensive, community level entomological surveillance is, therefore, the key for predicting potential disease spill over in scenarios of pristine forest intermixed with anthropogenic habitats. We suggest that changes in forest quality should also be considered when assessing arthropod-borne disease transmission risk.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Panamá , Densidade Demográfica
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007403, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059516

RESUMO

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analyses targeting multiple nuclear genes were established for the simple and practical identification of Leishmania species without using expensive equipment. This method was applied to 92 clinical samples collected at 33 sites in 14 provinces of Ecuador, which have been identified at the species level by the kinetoplast cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequence analysis, and the results obtained by the two analyses were compared. Although most results corresponded between the two analyses, PCR-RFLP analyses revealed distribution of hybrid strains between Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis and between L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) panamensis, of which the latter was firstly identified in Ecuador. Moreover, unexpected parasite strains having the kinetoplast cyt b gene of L. (V.) braziliensis and nuclear genes of L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, or a hybrid between L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) panamensis were identified. This is the first report of the distribution of a protozoan parasite having mismatches between kinetoplast and nuclear genes, known as mito-nuclear discordance. The result demonstrated that genetically complex Leishmania strains are present in Ecuador. Since genetic exchanges such as hybrid formation were suggested to cause higher pathogenicity in Leishmania and may be transmitted by more species of sand flies, further country-wide epidemiological studies on clinical symptoms, as well as transmissible vectors, will be necessary.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/parasitologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , DNA de Cinetoplasto , Equador , Humanos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia
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