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1.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107486, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084414

RESUMO

Many governments are failing to systematically introduce evidence-based alcohol control policies, and debate continues around issues of market freedom and personal responsibility. The aim of this international study was to assess the extent to which the public considers a range of alcohol control policies to be the responsibility of three different categories of actors: government, the private sector, and individuals. Around 1000 respondents from seven countries (Australia, Canada, China, India, New Zealand, the UK, and the US; n = 7559) completed an online survey assessing demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption status, and perceived responsibility for four alcohol harm-reduction actions relating to alcohol availability, advertising, and public education campaigns. Across the total sample and all assessed actions, governments were selected as an appropriate actor in 66 % of instances, the private sector in 39 %, and individuals in 28 %. Respondents from New Zealand were most likely to consider the actions to be government responsibility and respondents from the US the least. In relatively few instances (8 %), respondents considered the actions unworthy of attention by any actor. Across all seven countries, governments were considered to be the most appropriate actors to undertake actions relating to restricting alcohol availability, regulating alcohol advertising, and disseminating campaigns to educate the public about alcohol-related harm. The results indicate that the public may be receptive to greater intervention in these areas.


Assuntos
Etanol , Opinião Pública , Publicidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Política Pública
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277550, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most sex worker population studies measure population at discrete points in time and very few studies have been done in industrialized democracies. The purpose of this study is to consider how time affects the population dynamics of contact sex workers in Canada using publicly available internet advertising data collected over multiple years. METHODS: 3.6 million web pages were collected from advertising sites used by contact sex workers between November, 2014 and December, 2016 inclusive. Contacts were extracted from ads and used to identify advertisers. First names were used to estimate the number of workers represented by an advertiser. Counts of advertisers and names were adjusted for missing data and overcounting. Two approaches for correcting overcounts are compared. Population estimates were generated weekly, monthly and for the two year period. The length of time advertisers were active was also estimated. Estimates are also compared with related research. RESULTS: Canadian sex workers typically advertised individually or in small collectives (median name count 1, IQR 1-2, average 1.8, SD 4.4). Advertisers were active for a mean of 73.3 days (SD 151.8, median 14, IQR 1-58). Advertisers were at least 83.5% female. Respectively the scaled weekly, monthly, and biannual estimates for female sex workers represented 0.2%, 0.3% and 2% of the 2016 Canadian female 20-49 population. White advertisers were the most predominant ethnic group (53%). CONCLUSIONS: Sex work in Canada is a more pervasive phenomenon than indicated by spot estimates and the length of the data collection period is an important variable. Non-random samples used in qualitative research in Canada likely do not reflect the larger sex worker population represented in advertising. The overall brevity of advertising activity suggests that workers typically exercise agency, reflecting the findings of other Canadian research.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Canadá , Publicidade , Trabalho Sexual
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 905054, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408003

RESUMO

Objective: The rapid growth of the medical industry has resulted in a tremendous increase in medical record data, which can be utilized for hospital management, aiding in diagnosis and treatment, medical research, and other purposes. For data management and analysis, medical institutions require more qualified medical record information managers. In light of this, we conducted an analysis of the qualifications, abilities, and job emphasis of medical record information managers in order to propose training recommendations. Materials and methods: From online job posting sites, a sample of 241 job advertisements for medical record information management positions posted by Chinese healthcare institutions were collected. We conducted word frequency and keyword co-occurrence analysis to uncover overall demands at the macro level, and job analysis to investigate job-specific disparities at the micro level. Based on content analysis and job analysis, a competency framework was designed for medical record information managers. Results: The most frequent keywords were "code," "job experience," and "coding certification," according to the word frequency analysis. The competency framework for managers of medical record information is comprised of seven domains: essential knowledge, medical knowledge, computer expertise, problem-solving skills, leadership, innovation, and attitude and literacy. One of the fundamental skills required of medical record information managers is coordination and communication. Similarly, knowledge and skill requirements emphasize theoretical knowledge, managerial techniques, performance enhancement, and innovation development. Conclusion: According to organization type and job differences, the most crucial feature of the job duties of medical record information managers is cross-fertilization. The findings can be utilized by various healthcare organizations for strategic talent planning, by the field of education for medical record information managers for qualification and education emphasis adjustment, and by job seekers to enhance their grasp of the profession and self-evaluation.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Administração Hospitalar , Registros Médicos , Local de Trabalho , Liderança
4.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377702

RESUMO

Mass media campaigns can change attitudes and behaviours to improve population health. However, a key challenge is achieving share of voice in a complex and cluttered media environment. The aim of this study was to compare advertising expenditure on public health campaigns for obesity prevention (and related healthy eating and physical activity campaigns) with competing commercial categories of (a) sugary drinks, (b) artificially sweetened drinks and (c) diet/weight loss products and programmes. These commercial products may either undermine or dilute public health messages by directly contributing to poor health or confusing the public about the best ways to sustain a healthy lifestyle. Monthly estimates of advertising expenditure in Australian media (television, outdoor, cinema, radio, newspapers, magazines and digital) were obtained from Nielsen Media for 2016-18. Eligible public health advertising expenditure for the entire period (total AUD$27M) was vastly outweighed by the commercial categories of sugary drinks (AUD$129M) and diet/weight loss products and services (AUD$122M). Artificially sweetened drinks accounted for an additional AUD$23M of expenditure. These results highlight the need to rebalance the ratio of advertising to support public health in Australia through increased funding for obesity prevention and related campaigns, and critically, through government regulation to limit competing commercial advertising.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Obesidade , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Publicidade/economia , Austrália , Gastos em Saúde , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Televisão , Redução de Peso
5.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 28(6): 60, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417022

RESUMO

Recent developments in AI programming allow for new applications: individualized chatbots which mimic the speaking and writing behaviour of one specific living or dead person. 'Deathbots', chatbots of the dead, have already been implemented and are currently under development by the first start-up companies. Thus, it is an urgent issue to consider the ethical implications of deathbots. While previous ethical theories of deathbots have always been based on considerations of the dignity of the deceased, I propose to shift the focus on the dignity and autonomy of the bereaved users of deathbots. Drawing on theories of internet-scaffolded affectivity and on theories of grief, I argue that deathbots may have a negative impact on the grief process of bereaved users and therefore have the potential to limit the emotional and psychological wellbeing of their users. Deathbot users are likely to become dependent on their bots which may make them susceptible to surreptitious advertising by deathbot providing companies and may limit their autonomy. At the same time, deathbots may prove to be helpful for people who suffer from prolonged, severe grief processes. I caution against the unrestricted usage of deathbots and suggest that they should be classified as medical devices. This classification would not the least mean that their non-harm, as well as their helpfulness for people suffering from prolonged grief needs to be proven and that their potential for autonomy infringements is reduced.


Assuntos
Teoria Ética , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Emoções , Ansiedade , Publicidade
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e052636, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify advertising strategies used to market opioids to women and children. DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis of internal pharmaceutical industry documents released in litigation, dated between 1999 and 2017. SETTING: USA. PARTICIPANTS: Opioid manufacturers (Janssen, Ortho-McNeil, Purdue, Teva (Actavis), Janus, Cephalon); women; children. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Advertising campaigns, industry executive statements regarding marketing goals METHODS: We examined ((DATASET) link: https://www.industrydocuments.ucsf.edu/drug/) documents released in State of Oklahoma v. Johnson & Johnson (2019) to identify marketing strategies and campaigns developed by opioid manufacturers that focused on children and women, as well as public records, including websites developed by manufacturers and their allies, to confirm whether marketing campaigns proposed in internal industry documents were implemented. Documents identified as relevant were coded for themes based on expectations drawn from previous research on marketing using internal industry documents, which included making emotional appeals and understating the risks of addiction. RESULTS: We found that opioid manufacturers sought to recruit coaches and school nurses to encourage opioid use by children, developed unbranded initiatives suggesting adolescents ask providers for pain care medications, suggested that opioid use could reduce health risks associated with untreated pain among women and advocated to policy makers that women faced unmet needs for pain medication. CONCLUSIONS: The USA strictly regulates direct marketing of medications but does not place the same restrictions on indirect marketing and unbranded campaigns, which encourage people to seek treatment without indicating the names of specific products. Opioid manufacturers in the early 21st century appear to have relied largely on unbranded campaigns for marketing, which they described externally as public health promotion and internally as a way to increase sales of opioids. The rapid increase in opioid use concomitant with these campaigns suggests that additional scrutiny of this kind of marketing may be needed in order to protect vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Indústria do Tabaco , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Oklahoma , Marketing , Publicidade , Dor
7.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: this study analyzed medicine students' knowledge regarding medical advertising on social media. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional study carried out between January and May 2022 with 179 medical students from public and private institutions from Curitiba - PR, using a structured questionnaire with nine problem situations on medical advertising. It was established as "sufficient" knowledge ≥70% of the problem-situations based on current professional codes and resolutions. RESULTS: five questions had the highest percentage of correct answers resulting from the acquisition of knowledge from different sources. Most students did not learn about medical marketing in their undergraduate course (84.9%), having already shared patients' pictures on social media (89.9%), and fell the lack of discussions about medical advertising (96.6%). CONCLUSION: there is a need to direct undergraduate education towards the ethical use of advertising in order to better prepare them for professional practice.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Publicidade , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Rede Social , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos
8.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, oct. 2022. Special Issue Tobacco Control
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56460

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess progress in and barriers to implementing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) in Uruguay, which has a complete ban, and Argentina, with a partial ban. Methods. Legislation on TAPS bans in Uruguay and Argentina was reviewed and relevant published literature, news stories, civil society reports and tobacco industry reports retrieved to analyze progress in implementing TAPS bans. Results. In Uruguay, the complete TAPS ban, which includes standardized tobacco packaging, maintains high compliance and severely limits exposure of TAPS, despite a few problems with corporate social responsibility, social media, and transnational advertising. In Argentina, the partial TAPS ban has more problems with com- pliance and exposure to TAPS. The most important barriers to implementing TAPS bans in both countries are the tobacco companies. In Uruguay, tobacco companies do not comply in a few areas but the complete ban greatly minimizes this. In Argentina, however, tobacco companies can more easily exploit gaps in the partial TAPS ban, such as advertising at the points of sale, promoting contests, and using influencers on social media. Conclusions. The partial TAPS ban in Argentina illustrates the problems with enforcement and the tobacco industry’s ability to exploit loopholes and continue to market their products, especially to young people. A complete TAPS ban, including standardized tobacco packaging, as in Uruguay, is easier to implement and enforce and is effective in reducing exposure to tobacco advertising. Nevertheless, governments should prior- itize implementing TAPS bans on social media, which remains a difficult sphere to monitor and allows tobacco companies to continue recruiting and targeting young people.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar el progreso y los obstáculos en la aplicación de medidas para prohibir la publicidad, la pro- moción y el patrocinio de productos de tabaco en Uruguay (prohibición total) y Argentina (prohibición parcial). Métodos. Se revisó la legislación sobre la prohibición de la publicidad, la promoción y el patrocinio de pro- ductos de tabaco en Uruguay y Argentina y se reunió bibliografía, noticias, informes de la sociedad civil e informes de la industria tabacalera pertinentes que han sido publicados a fin de analizar los avances en la aplicación de estas medidas. Resultados. En Uruguay, se mantiene un alto grado de cumplimiento de la prohibición total de la publicidad, promoción y patrocinio de productos de tabaco, que incluye el empaquetado estandarizado del tabaco, lo que limita en gran medida la exposición de las personas a la publicidad, la promoción y el patrocinio del tabaco, a pesar de que la responsabilidad social corporativa, las redes sociales y la publicidad transnacional generan algunos problemas. En Argentina, las medidas de prohibición parcial tienen más problemas en cuanto al cumplimiento y la exposición. Los obstáculos más significativos para aplicar la prohibición en ambos países son las compañías tabacaleras: en Uruguay, estas compañías no cumplen con algunos aspectos de la reg- ulación, pero la prohibición total minimiza en gran medida esta situación, mientras que en Argentina pueden explotar con mayor facilidad los vacíos en la prohibición parcial, como la publicidad en los puntos de venta, la promoción de concursos y el empleo de personas influyentes en las redes sociales. Conclusiones. La prohibición parcial de la publicidad, promoción y patrocinio de los productos de tabaco en Argentina ilustra los problemas con su aplicación, así como la capacidad de la industria tabacalera de aprovechar los vacíos legales y continuar comercializando sus productos, especialmente entre los jóvenes. Una prohibición completa de la publicidad, la promoción y el patrocinio del tabaco, incluido el empaquetado estandarizado del tabaco, como en Uruguay, es más fácil de aplicar y hacer cumplir, y es efectiva para reducir la exposición a la publicidad del tabaco. Sin embargo, los gobiernos deben priorizar la aplicación de medidas para prohibir la publicidad, promoción y patrocinio de productos de tabaco en las redes sociales, que todavía son un entorno difícil de regular y fiscalizar que permite que las compañías tabacaleras sigan dirigiéndose a los jóvenes y captando su atención.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar o progresso e as barreiras na implementação de proibições de publicidade, promoção e patrocínio do tabaco (PPPT) no Uruguai, país em que há proibição total, e na Argentina, com proibição parcial. Métodos. Procedeu-se ao exame da legislação sobre proibições de PPPT no Uruguai e na Argentina e à recuperação da literatura publicada, notícias, relatórios da sociedade civil e relatórios da indústria do tabaco pertinentes para analisar o progresso na implementação das proibições de PPPT. Resultados. No Uruguai, a proibição completa de PPPT, que inclui embalagens de tabaco padronizadas, mantém alto nível de cumprimento e limita drasticamente a exposição à PPPT, a pesar de alguns problemas com a responsabilidade social das empresas, as mídias sociais e a publicidade transnacional. Na Argentina, a proibição parcial de PPPT tem mais problemas com relação ao cumprimento e a exposição à PPPT. As bar- reiras mais importantes para a implementação de proibições de PPPT nos dois países são as empresas de tabaco. No Uruguai, há descumprimento em algumas áreas por parte dessas empresas, mas a proibição total minimiza muito isso. Na Argentina, porém, as empresas de tabaco conseguem explorar com mais facilidade as brechas na proibição parcial de PPPT, por exemplo, com a publicidade nos pontos de venda, a promoção de concursos e o uso de influenciadores nas mídias sociais. Conclusões. A proibição parcial de PPPT na Argentina ilustra os problemas relativos ao cumprimento, bem como a capacidade da indústria do tabaco de explorar brechas e continuar a comercializar seus produtos, principalmente para os jovens. A proibição completa de PPPT, incluindo a padronização das embalagens de tabaco, como no Uruguai, é mais fácil de ser implementada e cumprida e é efetiva na redução da exposição à publicidade do tabaco. Entretanto, os governos devem priorizar a implementação de proibições de PPPT nas mídias sociais, que ainda são uma esfera de difícil monitoramento e permitem que as empresas de tabaco continuem a recrutar e visar os jovens.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Publicidade , Marketing , Uruguai , Argentina
9.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, oct. 2022. Special Issue Tobacco Control
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56451

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of exposure to Internet communications on and advertising of elec- tronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and their association with perceptions of the social acceptability of e-cigarettes in Mexico. Methods. Data were analyzed from eight surveys (2018–2021) of an online sample of Mexican adult (> 18 years) smokers and dual users (of combustible and electronic cigarettes). Self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising across various marketing channels was assessed, as well as visits to e-cigarette websites. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between perceptions of the social acceptability of e-cigarette use and level of advertising exposure and visits to e-cigarette websites. Results. The Internet and outside e-cigarette stores were where exposure to advertising most occurred, as reported by 47.4% and 46.8% of respondents, respectively. Respondents who noticed e-cigarette adver- tisements on the Internet (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.25, 1.63), outside e-cigarette stores (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.14, 1.50), and in temporary outlets (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01, 1.34), and those who visited e-cigarette websites (adjusted OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.25, 1.76) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as socially acceptable. Noticing advertisements across more channels was also associated with higher perceived social acceptability of e-cigarette use. Conclusions. Being exposed to e-cigarette marketing, either online or through traditional marketing channels, is associated with perceived social acceptability of e-cigarette use, as is contact with provaping sites. Regu- latory options to avoid the proliferation of promotional websites disguised as opinion or user sites need to be considered.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar la prevalencia de la exposición a las comunicaciones por Internet y la publicidad de los cigarros electrónicos (e-cigarettes), así como su asociación con las percepciones sobre la aceptabilidad social de los cigarrillos electrónicos en México. Métodos. Se analizaron los datos de ocho encuestas (2018-2021) de una muestra en línea de adultos mexicanos (mayores de 18 años) fumadores y consumidores dobles (cigarrillos combustibles y cigarrillos electrónicos). Se evaluaron la exposición —referida por los propios encuestados— a la publicidad de cigarri- llos electrónicos en varios canales de comercialización y las visitas a sitios web de cigarrillos electrónicos. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para evaluar la relación entre la percepción de aceptabilidad social del consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos, por una parte, y el nivel de exposición publicitaria y las visitas a sitios web de cigarrillos electrónicos, por la otra. Resultados. La mayor exposición a la publicidad se dio en las tiendas virtuales y físicas donde se ven- den cigarrillos electrónicos, según lo notificado por 47,4% y 46,8% de los encuestados, respectivamente. Los encuestados que observaron anuncios de cigarrillos electrónicos en Internet (razón de probabilidades ajustada [OR ajustada] 1,43; intervalos de confianza [IC] del 95 %: 1,25; 1,63), en tiendas físicas de cigarrillos electrónicos (OR ajustada 1,31; IC del 95 %: 1,14; 1,50) y en puntos de venta temporales (OR ajustada 1,16; IC del 95 %: 1,01; 1,34), y los que visitaron sitios web de cigarrillos electrónicos (OR ajustada 1,48; IC del 95 %: 1,25; 1,76) fueron más propensos a percibir los cigarrillos electrónicos como socialmente aceptables. Asimismo, se asoció el hecho de observar anuncios en más canales con la percepción de una mayor acept- abilidad social del consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos. Conclusiones. La exposición a la publicidad de los cigarrillos electrónicos, ya sea en línea o por los canales tradicionales, así como el contacto con sitios web que promueven el vapeo, se relaciona con la percepción acerca de la aceptabilidad social del consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos. Deberían considerarse alternativas regulatorias para evitar la proliferación de sitios web promocionales disfrazados de sitios de opinión o de usuarios.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar a prevalência da exposição a comunicações e propagandas sobre cigarros eletrônicos na internet e sua associação com percepções de aceitação social dos cigarros eletrônicos no México. Métodos. Foram analisados dados de oito pesquisas (2018 a 2021) de uma amostra on-line de adultos me- xicanos (maiores de 18 anos) fumantes e usuários duais (de cigarros combustíveis e eletrônicos). Avaliou-se a exposição autorrelatada à propaganda de cigarros eletrônicos em diversos canais de marketing, além de vis- itas a sites de cigarros eletrônicos. Foi utilizada uma análise de regressão logística para avaliar a associação entre percepções de aceitação social do uso de cigarros eletrônicos e o nível de exposição a propagandas e visitas a sites de cigarros eletrônicos. Resultados. A maior exposição a propaganda ocorreu na internet e no exterior de tabacarias que vendem cigarros eletrônicos, conforme relatado por 47,4% e 46,8% dos respondentes, respectivamente. Os respon- dentes que haviam notado propagandas de cigarros eletrônicos na internet (razão de chances [RC] ajustada: 1,43; intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%: 1,25-1,63), no exterior de tabacarias que vendem cigarros eletrôni- cos (RC ajustada: 1,31; IC de 95%: 1,14-1,50) e em pontos temporários de venda (RC ajustada: 1,16; IC de 95%: 1,01-1,34), e os respondentes que visitavam sites de cigarros eletrônicos (RC ajustada: 1,48; IC de 95%: 1,25-1,76) eram mais propensos a achar que os cigarros eletrônicos eram socialmente aceitáveis. A observação de propaganda em um maior número de canais também estava associada à percepção de maior aceitação social do uso de cigarros eletrônicos. Conclusões. A exposição ao marketing de cigarros eletrônicos, seja on-line ou por meio de canais tradicio- nais de marketing, está associada à percepção de aceitação social do uso de cigarros eletrônicos, assim como o contato com sites pró-vaping. Devem-se cogitar opções regulatórias para evitar a proliferação de sites promocionais disfarçados de sites de opinião ou de usuários.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Publicidade , Marketing , Vaping , México , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Publicidade , Marketing , Vaping , México , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Publicidade
10.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 07 28.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36300482

RESUMO

The number of new oncological treatments is increasing rapidly, even though many offer limited benefit to patients. In these cases, the scientific research leading to approvals is marred by shortcomings. Nonetheless, many drugs of limited value are approved by regulatory agencies. One of the factors contributing thereto is financial conflict of interest (FCI) with the pharmaceutical industry (Pharma). This occurs at different levels, including researchers, opinion leaders and editors of medical journals. FCI contributes to patient exposure to treatments that offer limited or no benefit and to unjust spending of valuable resources while providing large revenues for Pharma. The important step of the 'NederlandsTijdschriftvoorGeneeskunde' (NTVG) to omit all pharmaceutical advertisement as well as advertisement for pharmaceutical industry sponsored medical education sends an important signal and is a first step to revalue the important relationship with the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Conflito de Interesses , Humanos , Publicidade , Indústria Farmacêutica , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Preparações Farmacêuticas
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 999552, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311609

RESUMO

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption is associated with multiple adverse health effects and mortality, with the highest burden in India. The WHO FCTC has banned tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship via Article 13. Indian laws also prohibit any kind of direct or indirect advertisements in all forms of audio, visual, and print media; brand promotion; and sponsorship of tobacco products. However, the tobacco industry continues to find aggressive marketing ways to advertise their products. This study aims to assess the extent of surrogate advertisement of smokeless tobacco products through frequency modulation (FM) radio stations in the city of Delhi (National Capital Territory of India). In this study, the advertisements broadcasted over FM radio across different channels (private and government owned) in total 162 h were analyzed. The time duration was spread evenly over morning peak hours, off hours, and evening peak hours. It was found that multiple brands including Vimal, Kamla Pasand, and Rajshree have used surrogate advertising to market their brands that are commonly associated with smokeless tobacco products. However, no such advertisement was found to be aired on government-owned FM channels. The total surrogate advertisements broadcasted were over 286 times, where no significant difference was found in distribution among peak and non-peak hours. The study indicated that the tobacco industry is making its way to sell the products through indirect advertisements. The need of the hour is to not only enforce tobacco advertising ban laws in all forms of advertising media but also to strictly regulate smokeless tobacco products.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Uso de Tabaco , Publicidade , Tabaco
12.
Trials ; 23(1): 905, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participant recruitment into clinical trials remains challenging. The global increase in the number of social media users has accelerated the use of social media as a modality of recruitment, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic when traditional recruitment methods were reduced. However, there is limited evidence on the performance of social media recruitment strategies into eczema clinical trials. METHODS: From September 2021 to January 2022, we recruited participants with eczema into an online randomised controlled trial using free advertising on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and Reddit (unpaid methods), followed by paid Facebook advertisements (paid method). Unpaid methods were used periodically for 63 days, whilst the paid method for 16 days. Interested individuals who clicked on the advertisement link were directed to the study website, where they could sign up to participate. Consenting, randomisation and data collection occurred exclusively online, using a database management web platform. Evaluation of the social media recruitment methods was performed, including the number of expression of interests, enrolment yield, cost, baseline characteristics and retention. RESULTS: Our multi-platform based social media recruitment strategy resulted in 400 expressions of interests, leading to 296 participants. Unpaid methods accounted for 136 (45.9%) of participants, incurring no financial cost. Paid Facebook adverts reached 154,370 individuals, resulting in 123 (41.6%) trial participants for a total cost of £259.93 (£2.11 per participant) and other recruitment methods resulted in 37 (12.5%) enrolments. Paid advertisements predominantly attracted younger participants below the age of 20, whereas unpaid methods mainly drew in participants between 20-29 years of age. The social media platforms recruited an ethnically diverse participant population. Completion rate of follow-up was slightly higher for the paid method (n = 103, 83.7%) compared with the unpaid methods (n = 111, 81.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Unpaid social media posts recruited the most participants; however, it was time consuming for the researcher. Paid Facebook adverts rapidly recruited a large number of participants for a low cost and provided flexibility to target specific audiences. Our findings indicate that social media is an efficient tool that can potentially support recruitment to clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN45167024. Registered on 29 June 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Eczema , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Publicidade/métodos , Pandemias
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1944275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254203

RESUMO

With the emergence and development of artificial intelligence, design is no longer a process that can be completed only by creativity and knowledge. This article introduces research based on voice data mining and further discusses the optimization and application of rhetorical methods for e-commerce advertising. This article is working from two main aspects: one is to use association rule models in speech data mining to obtain useful rule relationships between Chinese prosody parameters, and the other is to use neural networks and data items in speech data mining. Using computer technology can make online advertisements interact with users. In addition to clicking on advertisements to jump to product pages, online advertisements also have multichannel sensory feelings, which can provide rich information and stimulate interest through interaction with users. We need to optimize the rhetoric of the advertisement and pay attention to the combination of the beauty of speech and the content of the advertisement when designing the advertisement. At the same time, we must also pay attention to the accuracy and elegance of the advertising language and wording.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Idioma , Publicidade/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Comércio , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231514

RESUMO

In this article, we describe the approaches taken to recruit adult migrants living in Australia for a sexual health and blood-borne virus survey (paper and online) and present data detailing the outcomes of these approaches. The purpose was to offer guidance to redress the under-representation of migrants in public health research. Methods of recruitment included directly contacting people in individual/organizational networks, social media posts/advertising, promotion on websites, and face-to-face recruitment at public events/venues. Search query strings were used to provide information about an online referral source, and project officers kept records of activities and outcomes. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine respondent demographic characteristics, proportions recruited to complete the paper and online surveys, and sources of referral. Logistic regression analyses were run to predict online participation according to demographic characteristics. The total sample comprised 1454 African and Asian migrants, with 59% identifying as female. Most respondents (72%) were recruited to complete the paper version of the survey. Face-to-face invitations resulted in the highest number of completions. Facebook advertising did not recruit large numbers of respondents. Same-sex attraction and age (40-49 years) were statistically significant predictors of online completion. We encourage more researchers to build the evidence base on ways to produce research that reflects the needs and perspectives of minority populations who often bear the greatest burden of disease.


Assuntos
Saúde Sexual , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Publicidade/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(8): e222570, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200632

RESUMO

Importance: Consumers in the US are exposed to unprecedented high levels of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs, yet there is limited evidence regarding their effect on health-related intentions and beliefs. Objective: To provide evidence on the association of DTCA for prescription drugs with consumer health-related intentions and beliefs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study recruited participants from a nationally representative sample of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 study arms: (1) exposure to DTCA for heart disease medications (treatment 1 [n = 926]), (2) exposure to DTCA for heart disease medications with price disclosure (treatment 2 [n = 921]), (3) and exposure to nonpharmaceutical advertising (control group [n = 902]). Each study arm viewed five 1-minute video advertisements, totaling 5 minutes of advertising exposure. The 2 treatment arms viewed pharmaceutical advertising videos for 4 heart disease medications, and the control arm viewed nonpharmaceutical advertising videos. Participants then completed a survey questionnaire to measure medication- and lifestyle-related intentions and health-related beliefs and perceptions. Exposures: Direct-to-consumer advertising for heart disease medications (treatment 1), DTCA for heart disease medications with price disclosure (treatment 2), and nonpharmaceutical advertising (control group). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes included ordinal measures of medication- and lifestyle-related intentions, health-related beliefs, and brand perceptions. Results: Among the 2874 included participants (mean [SD] age, 53.8 [7.1] years; 1549 [54%] male) χ2 tests confirmed that there were no statistically significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics across study arms. There was a positive association between DTCA and medication-related behavioral intentions, including intention to switch medication (marginal effect [ME] = 0.004; P = .002) and engage in information-seeking behaviors (ME = 0.02; P = .01). There was no evidence that pharmaceutical DTCA discouraged use of nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions that can help manage heart disease (eg, diet and exercise), and DTCA exposure also had a positive association with consumers' favorable perceptions of pharmaceutical manufacturers (competence: ME = 0.03; P = .01; innovative: ME = 0.03; P = .008). There was no evidence for differential associations of price disclosures in DTCA. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, results showed that brief exposure to pharmaceutical DTCA had a large and positive association with medication-related demand intentions with no offsetting negative spillovers on lifestyle-related intentions. Lack of associations with price disclosure in DTCA suggests that policy makers should consider alternative strategies to promote value-based decision-making for prescription drugs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Cardiopatias , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Publicidade/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prescrições
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1864, 2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a serious public health challenge worldwide. Japan has no government regulations or legal penalties against advertising alcoholic beverages on television (TV). Instead, advertisements depend on the Japanese alcohol industry's self-regulation on airtime (no advertisements from 5 am to 6 pm) and the content of alcoholic beverages, which must not tempt minors. However, many adolescents (10 to 19 years old) watch TV from 6 pm to 11 pm. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern in the advertising of alcoholic beverages and alcohol-flavoured non-alcoholic beverages (AFNAB) in Japan during the popular TV viewing time for adolescents. METHODS: A secondary analysis of advertising airtime data from five free-to-air Japanese TV networks in the Greater Tokyo area that aired between 12 August and 3 November 2019, was performed. RESULTS: During the study period, 5215 advertisements for alcoholic beverages and AFNABs aired (1451.75 min). In total, 2303 advertisements (44.2%) were beer, low-malt beer, or beer-taste beverages, 277 (5.3%) were whisky, 2334 (44.8%) were local alcoholic beverages (shochu and seishu), and 301 (5.8%) were AFNAB. On average, more advertisements aired on weekends (67.6 advertisements) than on weekdays (59.3 advertisements) per day. Approximately 30% of advertisements for AFNABs were aired during the time restricted for alcohol advertising, although AFNABs are considered alcohol according to industry guidelines. During the popular television viewing time for young adolescents, about two to three times more advertisements were aired per hour than during the rest of the day, on both weekdays and weekends (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The number of alcohol advertisements aired at times when adolescents often watch TV is 2 to 3.2 times higher than that at other times of the day. Furthermore, despite the industry's self-imposed regulations, some alcoholic beverages are still advertised. Therefore, other methods to protect children and adolescents from exposure to advertisements for alcoholic beverages should be investigated and implemented.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade/métodos , Bebidas , Criança , Aromatizantes , Alimentos , Humanos , Televisão , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 917456, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211683

RESUMO

Introduction: The advertising of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages is a common feature in obesogenic food environments. Such advertising, within and around settings where children live, learn, and play, negatively affects their food acquisition and consumption. We examined the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising around primary and junior high schools in Ghana's most populous and urbanized region, Greater Accra. Materials and methods: Outdoor advertisements for foods and beverages within a 250 m road network distance of 200 randomly sampled schools were geocoded. For each food and beverage advertisement, information was collected on the setting, type, size, and number of product types featured in the advertisement. Promotional techniques (promotional characters and premium offers) used in advertisements were documented. Advertised foods and beverages were classified using the INFORMAS and NOVA food classification systems. Results: A total of 5,887 advertisements were identified around the schools surveyed, 42% of which were for foods and beverages. Advertisements were most prevalent at food outlets (78% of all food advertisements), but also along roads and on non-food structures. Overall, 70% of food advertisements featured non-core/unhealthy products, while 12 and 14% had core/healthy and miscellaneous (including soup cubes, seasonings, and tea) products. About 4% of food advertisements had only a product/brand name or logo displayed. One out of two of the foods and beverages advertised were ultra-processed foods, 30% processed, 3% processed culinary ingredients, and 17% unprocessed or minimally processed foods. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most advertised food product type (32%). Promotional characters were found on 14% of all food advertisements (most-69% were cartoons or manufacturer's characters), while 8% of all food advertisements had premium offers (including price discounts and gift/collectables). Conclusions: There is an abundance of unhealthy food advertisements around primary and junior high schools in the Greater Accra Region. Policy actions such as restricting the promotion of unhealthy foods in children's settings are needed to protect pupils from such advertising practices.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Bebidas , Publicidade/métodos , Criança , Gana , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Chá
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294164

RESUMO

Increased use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and improper disposal after use pose a public health and an environmental justice (EJ) concern if use prevalence is disproportionately high among minorities and people of low socioeconomic status (SES) (broadly termed "EJ populations" for the purposes of this review). This review synthesizes literature on demographic patterns of use prevalence, susceptibility, advertisement exposure, and access to ENDS, and extrapolates environmental tobacco exposure (ETE) from ENDS among EJ populations. Seven electronic databases were searched using ENDS-related terms. We included studies published between 2017 and May 2020 that described ENDS use prevalence, susceptibility to ENDS use, advertisement exposure, and access to ENDS by race, ethnicity, or SES. Data synthesis was based on the assumptions that ETE increases with high use prevalence, susceptibility may influence future use, and advertisement exposure and access may impact demographic differences in use. We identified 32 studies describing use prevalence, susceptibility, advertisement exposure, or access to vape shops and other tobacco retail outlets by race/ethnicity or SES. We found higher prevalence of ENDS use among non-Hispanic Whites and inconclusive use patterns by SES. Patterns of susceptibility to use, advertisement exposure, and access were also mixed, with slightly higher outcomes observed among low SES youth. However, the evidence base on advertisement exposure was limited, with limited generalizability. Our findings indicate low prevalence of ENDS use among EJ populations. While this suggests low potential ETE among these groups, mixed outcomes on susceptibility, advertisement exposure, and access to ENDS among low SES groups may affect future ENDS use and ETE. Educational campaigns that discourage ENDS uptake should target EJ youth. Initiatives aimed at managing vape shop presence in EJ communities and monitoring targeted advertisement are also needed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Publicidade , Vaping/epidemiologia , Pobreza
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236370, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227597

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding whether prevention advertisements reduce susceptibility to vaping is important owing to concerning levels of adolescent vaping. Objective: To examine whether vaping prevention advertisements from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) national Real Cost campaign lead to lower susceptibility to vaping among adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this 3-group randomized clinical trial with parallel assignment, participants were US adolescents aged 13 to 17 years who were susceptible to vaping or current e-cigarette users, recruited from online panels. Adolescents were randomized to 1 of 2 Real Cost vaping prevention trial groups (health harms- or addiction-themed advertisements) or to a control group (investigator-created neutral videos about vaping). Adolescents completed 4 weekly online surveys at visits 1 to 4 over a 3-week period. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2021, to August 25, 2022. Interventions: Adolescents saw 3 randomly ordered 30-second video advertisements online at each of 3 weekly study visits (visits 1, 2, and 3). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary trial outcome was susceptibility to vaping. Surveys also assessed susceptibility to smoking cigarettes to examine any spillover effects of vaping prevention advertisements on smoking outcomes. Both susceptibility measures had 3 items and ranged from 1 (indicating not susceptible) to 4 (indicating highly susceptible). The primary analyses compared Real Cost groups (combined) with the control group, while exploratory analyses compared the Real Cost groups with each other. Results: Participants were 1514 adolescents (1140 [75.3%] boys; mean [SD] age, 15.22 [1.18] years), including 504 randomized to the Real Cost health harms group, 506 randomized to the Real Cost addiction group, and 504 randomized to the control group. Adolescents in the Real Cost groups (combined) had lower susceptibility to vaping at visit 4 than those in the control group (b = -0.21; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.10). The Real Cost groups did not differ from one another on susceptibility to vaping (visit 4: b = -0.05; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.07). Adolescents in the Real Cost groups (combined) also had lower susceptibility to smoking cigarettes than those in the control group (b = -0.21; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.10). For both vaping and smoking, Real Cost groups had less positive attitudes (vaping: b = -0.27; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.14; smoking: b = -0.23; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.08) compared with the control group. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that vaping prevention advertisements from the FDA Real Cost campaign led to lower adolescent susceptibility to vaping and had beneficial spillover effects on cigarette smoking outcomes. Tobacco prevention campaigns can help reduce youth tobacco use. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04836455.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Publicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de Tabaco , Vaping/prevenção & controle
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2239670, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315149

RESUMO

This survey study assesses levels of problem-gambling risk across 4 categories of sports-related wagering among US adults.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Esportes , Adulto , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Publicidade
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