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1.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 128(6): 302-306, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096928

RESUMO

By means of newspaper advertisements, we can paint a picture of tooth mastership in the 17th,18th, and 19th century The first known advertisement about dentistry, written by Dorothea Bokstal, appeared in 1691 in two Dutch newspapers (in Haarlem and Amsterdam). She claimed to have an understanding of the Science of Teeth. The first tooth-master advertised himself in 1724, but the many advertisements by Lehman Joseph and his descendants in the 18th century were the ones that gave us real insight into the way that tooth masters worked, the problems they faced and when they were allowed to practice somewhere. After 1813 (the French period) a tooth master needed to prove his/her skills. And the invention of new materials and instruments made more treatments possible. The introduction of the medical laws by Thorbecke caused a setback, but the introduction of the State Exam in 1876 brought the tooth masters further knowledge in their field.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 668642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055727

RESUMO

Introduction: Objectives of this study were to determine retail and neighborhood characteristics associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) product promotion, price promotion, and storefront advertising among retailers in Oklahoma. Methods: In this statewide point-of-sale study, we collected data from 1,354 ST retailers. Using store characteristics and census tract information, we estimated summary statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios during 2019-2020. Results: Of ST retailers audited, 11.0% demonstrated ST youth promotion, 43.0% ST price promotions, and 19.6% ST storefront advertising. The adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) for convenience stores was higher for all three ST strategies: youth promotion (aPR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), price promotion (aPR = 3.8, 95% CI 2.9, 5.0), and storefront advertising (aPR=16.4, 95% CI 6.7, 40.3) compared to other store types. Metropolitan tobacco retailers had higher aPRs for youth promotion (aPR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.12 2.6) and storefront advertising (aPR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2, 1.9). Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest there are currently ample opportunities for youth and adults at risk for tobacco initiation to be exposed to ST products in the retail environment. Convenience stores, more likely to be found and utilized in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas, are disproportionately more likely to engage in marketing strategies that could lure youth into trying smokeless tobacco.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade , Comércio , Humanos , Oklahoma
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057538

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption in Germany continues to be high relative to its European neighbors. A long-term reduction of alcohol consumption can result in a reduction of the morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol. For many years now, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) has directed its focus in the field of addiction prevention on alcohol prevention and implemented three national multilevel campaigns intended for this target group. "Null Alkohol - Voll Power" (No Alcohol - Full Power) addresses adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16 and the campaign "Alkohol? Kenn dein Limit." (Alcohol? Know Your Limit.) comprises two separate campaigns dedicated to adults and 16- to 20-year-olds, respectively. Further, the BZgA provides sports clubs with the opportunity to participate in a program entitled "Alkoholfrei Sport genießen" (Enjoying Sports Without Alcohol). In this contribution, these measures and their foundational concepts are presented.The campaigns are interconnected to form a prevention chain that serves to bundle the individual efforts. All are based on the principles of social marketing and are continually quality checked. At the center of these efforts lies internet communication, complemented by direct communication in the lives of the target groups as well as mass communication in the form of billboards, TV and radio spots, ads, and print media. The BZgA is able to implement these programs in schools, clubs, and at the municipal level because of the good cooperation and coordination it maintains with the individual federal states. For decades now, the BZgA has conducted monitoring in the form of regular representative surveys, among others, on the subject of alcohol consumption behavior among 12- to 25-year-olds in Germany. The results show that although overall alcohol consumption may be on the decline over the long term, it still remains high.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113898, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848716

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Prior research suggests the potential for political campaign advertisements to increase psychological distress among viewers. The current study tests relationships between estimated exposure to campaign advertising and the odds of respondents reporting that a doctor told them they have anxiety, depression, insomnia, or (as a negative control) cancer. METHODS: A secondary analysis of U.S. data on televised campaign ad airings from January 2015 to November 2016 (n = 4,659,038 airings) and five waves of a mail survey on television viewing patterns and self-reported medical conditions from November 2015 to March 2017 (n = 28,199 respondents from n = 16,204 unique households in the U.S.). FINDINGS: A 1 percent increase in the estimated volume of campaign advertising exposure was associated with a 0.06 [95% CI 0.03-0.09] percentage point increase in the odds of a respondent being told by a doctor that they have anxiety in the past 12 months. We observed this association regardless of the political party of the ad sponsor, the political party of the respondent, or their statistical interaction. We also observed this association for both Presidential campaign ads and non-Presidential (including local, state, and U.S. congressional election) campaign ads, providing evidence that these relationships were not driven by the unique divisiveness of the race between Donald Trump and Hilary Clinton. Some topic-specific models offered additional evidence of association between estimated volume of campaign advertising exposure and the odds of being told by a doctor that they have depression or insomnia, but these patterns were less consistent across models that utilized different categories of campaign exposure. Campaign ad exposure was not associated with cancer, which served as a negative control comparison. CONCLUSIONS: There was a consistent positive association between the volume of campaign advertising exposure and a reported diagnosis of anxiety among American adults.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Política , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916941

RESUMO

Television (TV) is a powerful medium for marketing food and beverages. Food and beverage marketers tend to use this medium to target children with the hope that children will in turn influence their families' food choices. No study has assessed the compliance of TV marketers with the South African Marketing to Children pledge since the enactment of the 2014 food advertising recommendations by the South African Department of Health and the Advertising Standards Authority. This study investigated the extent and nature of advertising of unhealthy versus healthy food and beverages to children in South African TV broadcasting channels. The date, time, type, frequency and target audience of food advertisements (ads) on four free-to-air South African TV channels were recorded and captured using a structured assessment guide. The presence of persuasive marketing techniques was also assessed. Unhealthy food and beverage advertising was recorded at a significantly higher rate compared with healthy food and beverages during the time frame when children were likely to be watching TV. Brand benefit claims, health claims and power strategies (e.g., advertising using cartoon characters and celebrated individuals) were used as persuasive strategies. These persuasive strategies were used more in unhealthy versus healthy food ads. The findings are in breach of the South African Marketing to Children pledge and suggest a failure of the industry self-regulation system. We recommend the introduction of monitored and enforced statutory regulations to ensure healthy TV food advertising space.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Alimentos , Bebidas , Criança , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , África do Sul , Televisão
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 718, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gambling advertising is well-funded and has become increasingly sophisticated in recent years. As the presence and pervasiveness of gambling advertising increases, there is a corresponding need for empirical understanding of the characteristics and trends associated with emergent gambling advertisements and marketing. However, there is limited data on this rapidly evolving phenomenon. METHODS: A rapid review was undertaken of the empirical research (2015-2020) that focused upon the content, delivery and structural features incorporated within emerging gambling advertising. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included in the review. The majority of these studies were conducted in either the UK or Australia; two jurisdictions that have unique and particularly liberal gambling environments. The literature suggests that emergent gambling advertising content is targeted, positively framed and in some instances, may overrepresent riskier bets. The sporting and social media spheres are densely populated with such advertisements that involve both direct and indirect marketing strategies. In relation to the online environment, there is evidence to suggest the emergence of more interactive advertisements that prompt user engagement. In addition, financial incentivisation has diversified and is often subject to strict and esoteric conditions. Despite these emergent trends, little provision is devoted to adequately displaying harm reductive or responsible gambling content within gambling advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there is a paucity of research and lack of methodological diversity concerning the characteristics of advertising within the literature. The barriers to investigating emerging gambling advertising are discussed alongside future research priorities. It is important for this research area to expand in order to appropriately inform ethical industry marketing and effective harm-reduction strategies. [Pre-registered online via Prospero: CRD42020184349].


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Marketing , Publicidade , Austrália , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Esportes
7.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1898130, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910480

RESUMO

Background: Towards the end of the 2017 school year, a prominent beverage company in South Africa pledged to remove their sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and advertisements from primary schools in order to contribute to the realization of a healthy school environment.Objectives: To assess the availability and advertising of the company's beverages in public primary schools in Gauteng province following their voluntary pledge to remove the products, and to explore perceptions of school staff regarding SSB availability in schools and processes related to the implementation of the pledge.Methods: In 2019, we conducted a representative survey of public sector primary (elementary) schools in Gauteng province, South Africa. A random sample of schools was drawn, with schools stratified by whether or not they charge fees. This was a proxy for the socioeconomic status of the locale and student body. At each school, the availability of beverages and presence of advertising or not was assessed by an observational audit tool and differences across fee status assessed by Pearson χ2 test. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of school officials. Data from the interviews were coded and thematic analysis conducted.Results: Two years following a voluntary pledge, the company's carbonated SSBs were available for sale in 54% (CI: 45-63%) of schools with tuck shops and advertised in 31% (CI: 25-39%). Qualitative interviews revealed a complex landscape of actors within schools, which, combined with indifference or resistance to the pledge, may have contributed to the continued availability of SSBs.Conclusions: Though we were unable to examine SSB availability before and after the pledge, our findings provide some preliminary evidence that voluntary pledges by commercial entities are not sufficient to remove SSBs and advertisements from schools. Mandatory regulations coupled with in-depth engagement with schools may be an avenue to pursue in the future.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Publicidade , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e048139, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore sociodemographic differences in exposure to advertising for foods and drinks high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) and whether exposure is associated with body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: UK. PARTICIPANTS: 1552 adults recruited to the Kantar Fast Moving Consumer Goods panel for London and the North of England. OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported advertising exposure stratified by product/service advertised (processed HFSS foods; sugary drinks; sugary cereals; sweet snacks; fast food or digital food delivery services) and advertising setting (traditional; digital; recreational; functional or transport); BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 84.7% of participants reported exposure to HFSS advertising in the past 7 days. Participants in the middle (vs high) socioeconomic group had higher odds of overall self-reported exposure (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). Participants in the low (vs high) socioeconomic group had higher odds of reporting exposure to advertising for three of five product categories (ORs ranging from 1.41 to 1.67), advertising for digital food delivery services (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.05), traditional advertising (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.08) and digital advertising (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.14). Younger adults (18-34 years vs ≥65 years) had higher odds of reporting exposure to advertising for digital food delivery services (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.20 to 3.59), digital advertising (OR 3.93; 95% CI 2.18 to 7.08) and advertising across transport networks (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.48). Exposure to advertising for digital food delivery services (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.88), digital advertising (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.44) and advertising in recreational environments (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.09) was associated with increased odds of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to less healthy product advertising was prevalent, with adults in lower socioeconomic groups and younger adults more likely to report exposure. Broader restrictions may be needed to reduce sociodemographic differences in exposure to less healthy product advertising.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Televisão , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Alimentos , Humanos , Londres , Autorrelato , Açúcares , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Addict Behav ; 119: 106916, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies revealed a link between social media use and e-cigarette use among U.S. youth, but less is known about the mechanisms through which they interconnect. This study examined how social media and e-cigarette use are connected through online advertisement exposure and risk perception of e-cigarettes among U.S. youth. METHODS: Youth aged 12-17 from the Public Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Waves 2-4 (2014-2018) were included (N = 6,208). This study integrated the incidental exposure framework and the risk perception framework to guide study conceptualization and variable selection. Generalized structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the sequential mediation relationship between social media and e-cigarette use through online e-cigarette advertisement exposure and risk perception of e-cigarette use. RESULTS: Youth respondents with more social media use were more likely to be exposed to e-cigarette advertisement at Wave 2 (OR = 1.13, p < 0.001), which led to lower e-cigarette risk perception at Wave 3 (ß = -0.07, p < 0.001). Higher e-cigarette risk perception at Wave 3 resulted in lower likelihood of e-cigarette use at Wave 4 (OR = 0.57, p < 0.001). High social media use at Wave 2 was directly associated with high likelihood of e-cigarette use at Wave 4 (OR = 1.11, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that social media use is associated with increased e-cigarette use through online e-cigarette advertisement exposure and subsequently decreased e-cigarette risk perception among U.S. youth. Our findings underscore the importance of regulating online e-cigarette advertisement, with the emphasis of avoiding information that could twist youth's risk perception of e-cigarettes, which may in turn curtail youth e-cigarette use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mídias Sociais , Vaping , Adolescente , Publicidade , Criança , Humanos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(2): 288-296, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health consequences of commercializing nonmedical cannabis remain unclear, but data suggest that youth may encounter unintended risks. This study examined whether cannabis marketing exposure and engagement are associated with problematic cannabis use among adolescents. METHOD: The analytic sample included 172 lifetime cannabis users (15-19 years old) who lived in one of six states with legalized nonmedical cannabis in 2018. Predictors included having exposure to or engagement with cannabis marketing on Facebook or Instagram, seeing cannabis billboards, owning/likely to own cannabis-branded merchandise, and reporting a favorite cannabis brand. Logistic regression assessed whether these predictors were associated with weekly cannabis use, high-intensity cannabis use, and cannabis use disorder (CUD). RESULTS: Adolescents who saw billboards rarely/sometimes had 5 times the odds of CUD, whereas youth who saw them most/all of the time had 7 times the odds of weekly use and 6 times the odds of CUD. Adolescents who owned/were likely to own branded merchandise had nearly 23 times the odds of weekly use, and those with a favorite brand had 3 times the odds of weekly use and CUD. Adolescents who reported seeing promotions on Instagram rarely/sometimes had 85% lower odds of weekly use, and those who saw them most/all of the time had 93% lower odds. CONCLUSIONS: The ways cannabis businesses market their products, especially branding, may affect patterns of underage cannabis use. Future research should test whether these associations persist in longitudinal designs. In the interim, states should consider an approach that offers youth additional means to protect them from cannabis marketing.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Marketing , Adolescente , Publicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 707, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages is recognized as a contributing factor to the global increase in overweight and obesity, particularly among children. Such marketing negatively affects children's dietary preferences, food choices, purchasing requests, and consumption patterns. Given that little is known about food marketing in Africa, including in Uganda, monitoring children's exposure to food marketing is essential to generate evidence on the problem and develop meaningful policy responses. The aim of this study was to describe the food and beverage marketing environment surrounding schools in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala city. METHODS: Outdoor advertising around 25 randomly sampled primary and secondary schools within a radius of 250 m of each school was mapped. Information on size, setting, type, and position of the advertisements and the healthiness of the foods and beverages promoted was collected using the INFORMAS Outdoor Advertising Protocol. The occurrence of advertising was described using frequencies, median, and density per 100m2. RESULTS: A total of 1034 branded advertisements were identified around the schools. Of these, 86% featured unhealthy products, 7% healthy products, and 7% miscellaneous products. The most advertised products were sugar-sweetened beverages and alcoholic beverages (51 and 23%, respectively). Schools in the urban area were surrounded by more unhealthy ads than those in the peri-urban areas (median of 45 vs 24 advertisements). CONCLUSION: The widespread extent of unhealthy food and beverage advertisements around primary and secondary schools highlights the need for food marketing regulation in Uganda, in line with the World Health Organization's recommendations, to ensure that young people are protected from unhealthy food marketing.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Alimentos , Adolescente , Bebidas , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Televisão , Uganda
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking was among the top contributors to deaths and disability as the prevalence among male adults remains high, and that among male youth increases in Indonesia. While local studies have shown high visibility of outdoor tobacco advertising around schools, the country still has no outdoor tobacco advertising ban. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between youth smoking behavior and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Indonesia. METHODS: We combined two primary data sources, including outdoor tobacco advertising and smoking behavior among male youth in Semarang city. We randomly selected and interviewed 400 male students at 20 high schools in the city. In addition, we interviewed 492 male adults who lived near the schools for comparison. RESULTS: We found significant associations between smoking use among youth (but not among adults) and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Semarang city. Youth at schools with medium and high density of outdoor tobacco advertising were up to 2.16 times more likely to smoke, compared to those with low density. Similarly, youth at senior high schools with proximity to outdoor tobacco advertising were 2.8 times more likely to smoke. Also, young people at poorer-neighborhood schools with a higher density of and proximity to outdoor tobacco advertising were up to 5.16 times more likely to smoke. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant associations between smoking use among male youth (but not among male adults) and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Indonesia. This highlights the need to introduce an outdoor tobacco advertising ban effectively, at least near schools.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Tabaco , Adolescente , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808388

RESUMO

The growing number of children who are obese or overweight in certain countries or geographical areas is a fact, as evidenced by the continuous studies and reports on the subject, endorsed or carried out by the World Health Organisation and independent research. In this context, food and beverage advertising can contribute to this. The main objective of this research is to evaluate compliance with the Food and Drink Advertising Code for Children (PAOS Code) in Spain and its relationship with nutritional habits on television, specifically on channels aimed at children. The methodology is therefore mixed: on the one hand, a qualitative technique based on discourse analysis and, on the other, a quantitative technique based on the content analysis of the advertising broadcast for seven consecutive days on three specialised channels and two generalist channels on Spanish television. The results reveal a systematic noncompliance with this code, which translates into inadequate eating habits among children. The immediate conclusion is that 9 out of 10 parts of food and drink advertising do not comply with any of the rules of the PAOS Code and that self-regulation by the advertising companies is negligible and insufficient.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Marketing Social , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Felicidade , Humanos , Marketing , Espanha , Televisão
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 274: 113747, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A major challenge to understanding barriers to abortion is that those individuals most affected may never reach an abortion provider, making the full impact of restrictive policies difficult to measure. The Google Ads Abortion Access Study used a novel method to recruit individuals much earlier in the abortion-seeking process. We aimed to understand how state-level abortion policies and Medicaid coverage of abortion influence individuals' ability to obtain wanted abortions. METHODS: We employed a stratified sampling design to recruit a national cohort from all 50 states searching Google for abortion care. Participants completed online baseline and 4-week follow-up surveys. The primary independent variables were: 1) state policy environment and 2) state coverage of abortion for people with Medicaid. We developed multivariable multinomial mixed effects models to estimate the associations between each state-level independent variable and pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Of the 874 participants with follow-up data, 48% had had an abortion, 32% were still seeking an abortion, and 20% were planning to continue their pregnancies at 4 weeks follow-up. Individuals in restricted access states had significantly higher odds of planning to continue the pregnancy at follow-up than participants in protected access states (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.70). Individuals in states that do not provide coverage of abortion for people with Medicaid had significantly higher odds of still seeking an abortion at follow-up (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.60). Individuals living in states without Medicaid coverage were significantly more likely to report that having to gather money to pay for travel expenses or for the abortion was a barrier to care. CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive state-level abortion policies are associated with not having an abortion at all and lack of coverage for abortion is associated with prolonged abortion seeking. Medicaid coverage of abortion appears critical to ensuring that all people who want abortions can obtain them.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Medicaid , Publicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Políticas , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estados Unidos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 621, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to unhealthy food and beverage content is a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic. Youth are susceptible to unhealthy digital food marketing including content shared by their peers, which can be as influential as commercial marketing. Current Canadian regulations do not consider the threat digital food marketing poses to health. No research to date has examined the prevalence of food related posts on social media surrounding family-friendly events. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of food related content (including food marketing) and the marketing techniques employed in social media posts related to a family-friendly event in Canada. METHODS: In this case study, a content analysis of social media posts related to a family-friendly event on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram was conducted between January to February 2019. Each post containing food related content was identified and categorized by source and food category using a coding manual. Marketing techniques found in each food related post were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 732 food and beverage related posts were assessed. These posts were most commonly promoted through Instagram (n = 561, 76.6%) with significantly more individual users (61.5%; p < 0.05) generating food and beverage related content (n = 198, 27%) than other post sources. The top most featured food category was fast food (n = 328, 44.8%) followed by dine-in restaurants (n = 126, 17.2%). The most frequently observed marketing techniques included predominantly featuring a child in the post (n = 124, 16.9%; p < 0.0001), followed by products intended for children (n = 118, 16.1%; p < 0.05), and the presence of family (n = 57, 7.8%; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the proliferation of unhealthy food and beverage content by individuals at a family-friendly event as well as the presence of food marketing. Due to the unfettered advertising found in digital spaces, and that they are largely unregulated, it is important for future policies looking to combat childhood obesity to consider incorporating social media into their regulations to safeguard family-friendly events. General awareness on the implications of peer to peer sharing of unhealthy food and beverage posts should also be considered.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Publicidade , Canadá , Criança , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Marketing
18.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 521-528, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646866

RESUMO

Insurers and policy makers have created health care price transparency websites to facilitate price shopping and reduce spending. However, price transparency tools to date have been plagued by low use. It is unclear whether this low use reflects a lack of interest or a lack of awareness. We launched a large online advertising campaign to increase consumers' awareness about insurer-specific negotiated price information available on New Hampshire's public price transparency website. Our campaign led to a more than 600 percent increase in visits to the website. However, in our analysis of health plan claims, this increased use of the website did not translate to increased use of lower-price providers. Our findings imply that the limited success to date of price transparency tools in reducing health care spending is driven by structural factors that limit consumers' ability to use health care price information as opposed to only a lack of awareness about price transparency tools.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , New Hampshire
19.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 33-54, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177093

RESUMO

Este artigo discute o resultado da análise de 10 aplicativos móveis de autocuidado psicológico utilizados no Brasil, que denominamos PsiApps. A análise se desdobra em duas camadas: uma 'visível', que envolve os discursos dos próprios aplicativos para descrever os problemas que visam solucionar, suas promessas e seus métodos; outra 'invisível', que inclui formas automatizadas de coleta e compartilhamento de dados dos usuários pelos aplicativos. Veremos como a ênfase na individualidade e na autonomia manifesta na primeira camada torna opaca uma série de mediadores presentes na segunda camada, em grande parte invisíveis para o usuário. O contraste entre a centralidade da agência individual promovida pelos discursos dos PsiApps e o caráter relacional da infraestrutura e do ecossistema de dados que os integram evidenciam as contradições da autonomia ofertada por esses aplicativos.


This article discusses the result of the analysis of 10 psychological self-care mobile applications used in Brazil, which we call PsiApps. The analysis unfolds in two layers: one, 'visible', involves the discourses employed by the applications themselves to describe the problems they seek to solve, their promises and methods; the other, 'invisible', includes automated ways of collecting and sharing user data by the applications. We will see how the emphasis on individuality and autonomy manifested in the first layer makes opaque a series of mediators largely invisible to the user present in the second layer. The contrast between the centrality of individual agency promoted by the discourses of the PsiApps and the relational character of the infrastructure and data ecosystem that they integrate highlight the contradictions in the notion of autonomy offered by these applications.


Este artículo discute el resultado del análisis de 10 aplicaciones móviles de autocuidado psicológico utilizadas en Brasil, que llamamos PsiApps. El análisis se desarrolla en dos dimensiones: una 'visible', que involucra los discursos de las propias aplicaciones para describir los problemas que buscan resolver, sus promesas y métodos; otra 'invisible', que incluye formas automatizadas de recopilar y compartir datos de usuario por las aplicaciones. Veremos cómo el énfasis en la individualidad y la autonomía manifestado en la primera dimensión vuelve opacos una serie de mediadores en gran parte invisibles para el usuario presentes en la segunda dimensión. El contraste entre la centralidad de la agencia individual promovida por los discursos de los PsiApps y el carácter relacional de la infraestructura y el ecosistema de datos que integran manifiestan las diversas contradicciones de la autonomía que estas aplicaciones ofrecen.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autocuidado , Saúde Mental , Autonomia Pessoal , Aplicativos Móveis , Ansiedade , Tecnologia , Publicidade , Acesso à Informação
20.
Prim Dent J ; 10(1): 13-19, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722130

RESUMO

Instagram, a photo and video social networking site, is gaining popularity in the dental world and it is easy to see why this is so. Instagram's potential to share information in an engaging way allows dental professionals to share clinical work and provides a unique way of learning.Advertising on Instagram has blossomed. Some of this is for self-promotional reasons, for practice building, or for marketing of new techniques and products by manufacturers. One ought to be cautious about the implications of some patients' quest for 'dental perfection'. That is especially the case when destructive dentistry is being undertaken by dentists trying to replicate what they have seen on Instagram in potentially much more challenging patients. Some of those demanding patients request very ambitious treatments with sometimes hugely unrealistic expectations. Arguably, Instagram could be the new major trend in dentistry.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Odontologia , Humanos
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