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1.
Public Health ; 190: 168-172, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on the legal framework regulating the advertisement of food supplements in the EU, the aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between the presence of endorsers, the different types of health-related claims (H-RCs) and product content information. STUDY DESIGN: We applied a quantitative approach based on the content analysis of all radio spots broadcast throughout 2017 on full-service radio stations in Spain. METHODS: A corpus of 10,556 radio spots was obtained of the three radio stations with the highest audience levels (165 without repetitions). We incorporated data on the accumulated broadcast frequencies to supplement the content analysis specific to each radio spot with its weight in relation to the overall advertising discourse. We developed a coding scheme to assess the type of endorser, the types of H-RCs, and the product content information. RESULTS: Results show that European directives are breached in different ways. Healthcare experts prevail in disease claims, although they are prohibited. Celebrities are the most widely used endorsers (25%) in the function and reduction of disease risk claims. In addition, although these types of claims require substantiation by authorised ingredient, 73% of H-RCs lack this information. CONCLUSIONS: The high presence of illicit H-RCs and endorsers, such as physicians, and the omission of compulsory product information suggest that public administrations must apply stricter monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms to dissuade advertisers from further breaches of the law and to protect consumers. Implications for public health policy are made.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicidade/métodos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Espanha
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(11): 4237-4248, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175033

RESUMO

Sex workers become increasingly economically vulnerable due to the restrictive measures implemented to combat the coronavirus pandemic. In this respect, the scope of this study is to analyze the content of prostitution websites and advertisements regarding measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It involved a description of the visits and analysis of content of communications on websites that advertise commercial sex transactions. The percentage change in the number of visits for three periods from 02/2019 to 04/2020 was calculated. Subsequently, ads with the terms "corona," "pandemic" and "quarantine" on websites that offer search engines were extracted. The Bardin method was then used for content analysis. There was an increase in the number of visits to prostitution websites between 2019 and 2020, followed by a decrease with the advent of the coronavirus pandemic crisis. With regard to the protection measures during the pandemic, health recommendations and the incentive to engage in virtual sex are highlighted. Of the 1,991,014 advertisements, 0.51% mention the COVID-19 crisis regarding noncompliance with social distancing, protection measures and the offer of online sex.


Assuntos
Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicidade/métodos , Publicidade/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , França , Humanos , Itália , América Latina , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Portugal , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502154

RESUMO

In the field of advertising technology, it is a key task to forecast posterior click distribution since 66% of advertising transactions depend on cost per click model. However, due to the General Data Protection Regulation, machine learning techniques to forecast posterior click distribution based on the sequences of an identified user's actions are restricted in European countries. To overcome this barrier, we introduce a contextual behavior concept for the advertising network environment and propose a new hybrid model, which we call the Long Short Term Memory-Hawkes model by combining a stochastic-based generative model and a machine learning-based predictive model. Also, to meet the computational efficiency for the heavy demand in mobile advertisement market, we define gradient exponential kernel with just three hyper parameters to minimize residuals. We have carefully tested our proposed model with production data and found that the LSTM-Hawkes model reduces the Mean Squared Error by at least 27.1% and up to 83.8% on average in comparison to the existing Hawkes Process based algorithm, Hawkes Intensity Process, as well as 39.77% on average in comparison to Multivariate Linear Regression. We have also found that our proposed model improves the forecast accuracy by about 21.2% on average.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Algoritmos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Processos Estocásticos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497044

RESUMO

Discrimination in the workplace is illegal, yet discriminatory practices remain a persistent global problem. To identify discriminatory practices in the workplace, job advertisement analysis was used by previous studies. However, most of those studies adopted content analysis by manually coding the text from a limited number of samples since working with a large scale of job advertisements consisting of unstructured text data is very challenging. Encountering those limitations, the present study involves text mining techniques to identify multiple types of direct discrimination on a large scale of online job advertisements by designing a method called Direct Discrimination Detection (DDD). The DDD is constructed using a combination of N-grams and regular expressions (regex) with the exact match principle of a Boolean retrieval model. A total of 8,969 online job advertisements in English and Bahasa Indonesia, published from May 2005 to December 2017 were collected from bursakerja-jateng.com as the data. The results reveal that the practices of direct discrimination still exist during the job-hunting process including gender, marital status, physical appearances, and religion. The most recurrent type of discrimination which occurs in job advertisements is based on age (66.27%), followed by gender (38.76%), and physical appearances (18.42%). Additionally, female job seekers are found as the most vulnerable party to experience direct discrimination during recruitment. The results exhibit female job seekers face complex jeopardy in particular job positions comparing to their male counterparts. Not only excluded because of their gender, but female job seekers also had to fulfil more requirements for getting an opportunity to apply for the jobs such as being single, still at a young age, complying specific physical appearances and particular religious preferences. This study illustrates the power and potential of optimizing computational methods on a large scale of unstructured text data to analyze phenomena in the social field.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Candidatura a Emprego , Preconceito , Discriminação Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Estado Civil , Aparência Física , Religião , Fatores Sexuais
5.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(3): 311-319, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efforts to develop and implement effective advertising regulations require a comprehensive understanding of alcohol promotion techniques used across a rapidly growing range of media platforms. The aim of this study was to analyze themes commonly used in alcohol ads in order to identify commonalities and differences by media type and the implications for existing regulatory frameworks. METHOD: In total, 628 Australian alcohol advertisements were coded according to media used for dissemination and themes known to be attractive to children and young people or problematic in other ways (humor, sport, mateship/friendship, manliness, value for money, buying in bulk, partying, sexual attraction, and adrenaline activities). RESULTS: The largest proportion of analyzed ads belonged to the out-of-home category (41%), followed by the online category (27%), indicating the importance of ensuring that these media are appropriately covered by regulations. Overall, humor was the most common theme (present in 18% of ads), followed by value for money (14%), sports (14%), and bulk purchases (10%). Humor often co-occurred with other themes: 59% of ads with a sexual attraction theme, 40% of ads depicting mateship/friendship, 31% of ads depicting manliness, and 27% of ads with a partying theme also featured humor. Trends were evident in the types of themes most commonly used in ads disseminated via specific media, indicating that alcohol marketers are strategically selecting media platforms for particular themes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that alcohol advertising controls need to cover all media, be clear in delineating inappropriate themes, and be adequately authorized to ensure compliance.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413058

RESUMO

Social campaigns are persuasive messages that attempt to communicate positive ideas and practices. One of the main challenges in designing effective social campaigns is the need to compete with other advertisements for viewers' attention. One of the most widely used methods of drawing attention to social advertising is the use of negative emotions. However, the effectiveness of negative emotional appeals in social campaigns is still a topic of debates. The aim of the study was to use both declarative and neural (EEG) measures to examine whether increasing the intensity of negative emotions in a social campaign enhances its effectiveness linearly or only to a certain level (curvilinear relation). The experimental study was conducted (N = 62) with road safety campaign, using three different levels of negative emotional intensity. The results showed that even though advertising with the strongest negative stimuli evoked the strongest negative emotions, it had no significantly stronger influence on behavioral intention (driving less risky) than moderately negative stimuli. Moreover, neural reaction to the negative stimuli in advertising depended on driving style-people with risky driving style payed less attention to more threatening message (higher beta oscillations).


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Emoções , Comunicação Persuasiva , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adulto , Ritmo alfa , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Psicofisiologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Segurança , Mídias Sociais
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365128

RESUMO

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) sets a standard by which sustainable fisheries can be assessed and eco-certified. It is one of the oldest and most well-known fisheries certifications, and an estimated 15% of global fish catch is MSC-certified. While the MSC is increasingly recognized by decision-makers as an indicator for fishery success, it is also criticized for weak standards and overly-lenient third-party certifiers. This gap between the standard's reputation and its actual implementation could be a result of how the MSC markets and promotes its brand. Here we classify MSC-certified fisheries by gear type (i.e. active vs. passive) as well as by length of the vessels involved (i.e. large scale vs. small scale; with the division between the two occurring at 12 m in overall length). We compared the MSC-certified fisheries (until 31 December 2017) to 399 photographs the MSC used in promotional materials since 2009. Results show that fisheries involving small-scale vessels and passive gears were disproportionately represented in promotional materials: 64% of promotional photographs were of passive gears, although only 40% of MSC-certified fisheries and 17% of the overall catch were caught by passive gears from 2009-2017. Similarly, 49% of the photographs featured small-scale vessels, although just 20% of MSC-certified fisheries and 7% of the overall MSC-certified catch used small-scale vessels from 2009 to 2017. The MSC disproportionately features photographs of small-scale fisheries although the catch it certifies is overwhelmingly from industrial fisheries.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Certificação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Pesqueiros , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimentos Marinhos/provisão & distribução , Publicidade/classificação , Publicidade/métodos , Publicidade/normas , Animais , Certificação/organização & administração , Certificação/normas , Eficiência Organizacional , Pesqueiros/classificação , Pesqueiros/organização & administração , Pesqueiros/normas , Peixes/fisiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/classificação , Indústria Alimentícia/instrumentação , Indústria Alimentícia/organização & administração , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Afiliação Institucional/organização & administração , Afiliação Institucional/normas , Alimentos Marinhos/classificação , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/organização & administração , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas
8.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 426-432, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320269

RESUMO

Preschool children are generally assumed to lack the skills to critically respond to advertising despite being exposed to a high number of advertising messages while watching videos on YouTube. However, research on how preschool children process YouTube advertising is scarce. This study conducts an experiment to examine how preschool children's (4-5 years old, N = 62) responses to video advertising (20-second toy commercial) vary between YouTube and television viewing. The results suggest that almost half of the children were able to distinguish advertising from regular media content, and almost 70% of the children could correctly identify that the video was advertising. No differences were found between the two media. Children were not skeptical toward the video advertisement. With regard to ad effects, the results show low brand and product recall, whereas aided recall was higher (around 40% of the children could correctly recognize the product and brand shown in the advertisement). These findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children already have a proper understanding of advertising, but lack a critical attitude. Furthermore, children's advertising literacy does not vary between YouTube and television advertising.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Mídias Sociais , Televisão , Pensamento , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 138: 105479, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178794

RESUMO

Research on the effect of advertising billboards on road safety has accumulated over the past seven decades, but has led to inconclusive data, which prevent clear-cut conclusions. To enhance road safety, it was suggested that researchers should shift their efforts to exploring which billboard characteristics are distracting by nature. This line of research may promote the establishment of concrete guidelines for the least distracting permissible billboards. A previous study classified billboards into three clusters: 1. Loaded (colorful billboards with small quantities of graphic elements and large quantities of text); 2. Graphical (colorful billboards with large quantities of graphic elements and small quantities of text); and 3. Minimal (billboards with few or no graphic elements, few colors, and a small amount of text). The current study systematically explores the effect of these three clusters on drivers' performance in a driving simulator. Eighteen participants drove in scenarios which systematically manipulated the following variables: the perceptual load on the road, the perceptual load on the sides of the road, location of preplanned critical events, and the presence of billboards from each one of the three previously identified clusters. The findings show that the presence of billboards from the Loaded and Minimal clusters significantly compromised road safety in various experimental conditions. However, the presence of billboards from the Graphical cluster significantly affected drivers' performance only in one experimental condition. The conclusion, for the time being, is that Graphical billboards, which include a large quantity of graphic elements with few or no textual elements, are the least harmful while driving.


Assuntos
Direção Distraída/psicologia , Diretórios de Sinalização e Localização/classificação , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Publicidade/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(3): e15736, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gun violence has been identified as a major public health concern, the scope and significance of internet gun advertising is not known. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the characteristics of gun advertising on social media and to compare the reach of posts by manufacturers with those of influencers. METHODS: Using a systematic search, we created a database of recent and popular Twitter and YouTube posts made public by major firearm manufacturers and influencers. From our sample of social media posts, we reviewed the content of the posts on the basis of 19 different characteristics, such as type of gun, presence of women, and military or police references. Our content analysis summarized statistical differences in the information conveyed in posts to compare advertising approaches across social media platforms. RESULTS: Sample posts revealed that firearm manufacturers use social media to attract audiences to websites that sell firearms: 14.1% (131/928; ±2.9) of Twitter posts, 53.6% (228/425; ±6.2) of YouTube videos, and 89.5% (214/239; ±5.1) of YouTube influencer videos link to websites that facilitate sales. Advertisements included women in efforts to market handguns and pistols for the purpose of protection: videos with women included protection themes 2.5 times more often than videos without women. Top manufacturers of domestic firearms received 98 million channel views, compared with 6.1 billion channel views received by the top 12 YouTube influencers. CONCLUSIONS: Firearm companies use social media as an advertising platform to connect viewers to websites that sell guns. Gun manufacturers appropriate YouTube servers, video streaming services, and the work of YouTube influencers to reach large audiences to promote the widespread sale of consumer firearms. YouTube and Twitter subsidize gun advertising by offering server and streaming services at no cost to gun manufacturers, to the commercial benefit of Google and Twitter's corporate ownership.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Armas de Fogo/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Humanos
11.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(3): 404-413, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are inhabitants of a media-rich environment rife in extensive, sophisticated, and persistent techniques that are used to market unhealthy food. Exposure is known to influence children's attitudes, choices, and consumption, yet further research is required to explore the influence of contemporary techniques within online games. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of modern advertising on children's attitudes, choices, and consumption, techniques (ie, banner advertising, advergame, and rewarded video advertising) were used to promote an unfamiliar confectionery brand within an online game. DESIGN: A between-subjects randomized experimental study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Children (aged 7 to 12 years [n=156]) were recruited in New South Wales, Australia, between September and November 2017. INTERVENTION: Children were required to play a 4-minute online game, complete some questionnaires, and choose one snack to consume afterward. Children were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: a control group with no advertising, and three experimental conditions that promoted an unfamiliar confectionery brand via a banner advertisement, advergame, or rewarded video advertisement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Questionnaires included the assessment of attitudes to the test brand before and after the game, enjoyment of the game, and children's awareness of advertising. Food choice was recorded and food consumption was measured by weighing the snack in grams, which was translated into kilocalories. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Statistical tests included analyses of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and χ2 test. RESULTS: Attitudes toward the perception of fun (P=0.06) and taste (P=0.21) of the test brand were not influenced by condition. Children who were exposed to the rewarded video advertising chose the test brand significantly more than children in the other three conditions (P<0.002). Condition did not influence overall energy intake measured in grams (P=0.78) or kilocalories (P=0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Children's choice of the test brand was significantly influenced by the rewarded video advertising condition (compared with control, banner advertising, and advergame conditions). This technique is prevalent across online and application games that children play yet the effects of using rewarded video advertising to promote food brands have not been explored from a public health perspective. This study contributes to the understanding of modern strategies used to market unhealthy foods to children.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Lanches/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(1): 319-341, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377917

RESUMO

The use of social media is now an established strategy to engage and maintain customer loyalty. The purpose of the present study was to examine the Twitter accounts of ten of the largest online sports betting operators in the UK to determine what marketing strategies were employed. More specifically, this study analyzed 3375 tweets posted by the operators during the opening weekend of the 2018-2019 English Premier League football season using a content analysis methodology. The results demonstrated that multiple strategies, including hashtags, were used to link gambling operator tweets with major sporting events, and the use of numerous promotional campaigns. Notably, over 90% of the tweets contained no responsible gambling information. The quantity and content of social media posts underline the need for a review of the current advertising regulations in the UK. Further research should examine how exposure to sports betting social media marketing influences gambling behavior.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Estações do Ano , Meio Social , Esportes/psicologia , Reino Unido
13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(4): 580-582, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social media platforms such as YouTube provide largely unregulated opportunities for covert tobacco product placement that immerse viewers in evolving narratives and surrounding fan-created material. A Winfield Blues product placement appeared in series 3 of The Big Lez Show, a "crude comedy," DIY animation web series that has garnered more than 70 million views. METHODS: We used a netnographic approach that adapts the traditional, in-person participant observation techniques of ethnography to investigate this online fan and associated paratexts, and conducted a frame-by-frame analysis of the most pertinent 12 minutes and 5 seconds of animation, and 250 pages of paratexts. RESULTS: The Big Lez show links "Winnie Blues" to seemingly authentic virtual content, including memes, merchandise, discussion groups, and even smartphone apps. These para, or secondary texts, surround the original content, provide opportunities for brand co-creation in online fan forums, and integrate tobacco brands in everyday life. CONCLUSIONS: The Big Lez Show integrates Winnie Blues with popular culture and raises important questions about how social media facilitates tobacco product placement. Policy responses include encouraging social media platforms to include tobacco within webmaster guidelines and requiring site owners to demonstrate their content reaches only those legally able to purchase tobacco. IMPLICATIONS: Contemporary entertainment using social media platforms can create immersive contexts that present an elusive and ongoing challenge to tobacco control policies. The Big Lez Show's use of the Winnie Blues brand imagery spawned memes, merchandise, and smartphone apps that amplified the brand's reach and connection with young people. Policy responses include stronger requirements that webmasters include tobacco product placement within their guidelines or requirements that site owners featuring tobacco imagery demonstrate their sites do not reach those aged below the age at which tobacco may be legally purchased.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/métodos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos
14.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(1): 120-129, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limitations in current Australian regulatory provisions may be identified by demonstrating the effect of different marketing methods on children's recognition and attitudes toward unhealthy food brands. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how exposure to different marketing techniques from television (TV) and online food advertising affects children's brand recall, recognition, and attitudinal responses toward brands and brand consumers and children's desire to eat the advertised products. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a crossover experimental-control study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: In all, 154 children (7 to 12 years) completed the study, conducted at four 6-day holiday camps from April 2016 to January 2017 in New South Wales, Australia. Children were assigned to a single-media (n=76) or multiple-media (n=78) condition. INTERVENTION: All children viewed 10 TV food advertisements in a cartoon on three occasions. For one of the brands, one set of children additionally played online "advergames" featuring the brand. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Children's recognition and attitudes toward brands and brand consumers and children's desire to eat the product were reported via a brand recognition and attitude survey pre- and postintervention. Marketing techniques were categorized. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Pre- and postintervention brand recognition and relationships between brand recognition and attitudes by media condition and desire to eat the product were examined using generalized linear mixed models and linear mixed models. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the number of brands recognized postexposure by children in both media groups (mean difference=3.8, P<0.0001). The majority of brands appealed to children. Children who reported wanting to eat the advertised products rated brands more positively than children who did not express a desire to eat the products. A larger proportion of children who played the advergames (36%) rated brand consumers as "cool" than children who viewed the TV advertisements only (19%) (P<0.001). Anti-adult themes, fun and humor, and parent pleasing were techniques unique to some of the most recognized and favored advertisements. CONCLUSIONS: The marketing communications increased children's brand recognition and elicited positive attitudinal responses. These findings indicate a need for policy makers to consider additional regulations to protect children from the persuasive influence of unhealthy food advertising.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Atitude , Fissura , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Televisão , Jogos de Vídeo
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(6): 1030-1035, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure and receptivity to cigarette advertising are well-established predictors of cigarette use overall. However, less is known about whether exposure and receptivity to advertising for specific brands of cigarettes (ie, Marlboro, Camel, and Newport) are longitudinally associated with any subsequent cigarette use and subsequent use of those specific brands. METHODS: We analyzed data from a US sample of 7325 young adults aged 18-24 years who completed both Wave 1 and Wave 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study. Weighted logistic regression models were used to examine (1) among Wave 1 never-smokers, associations between Wave 1 exposure and receptivity to advertising for Marlboro, Camel, and Newport and subsequent overall and brand-specific smoking initiation at Wave 2, and (2) among Wave 1 ever-smokers, associations between Wave 1 exposure and receptivity to advertising for Marlboro, Camel, and Newport and subsequent preference of those brands at Wave 2. RESULTS: Among Wave 1 young-adult never-smokers, exposure to Camel advertising, but not Marlboro or Newport, was associated with smoking initiation with any brand of cigarettes at Wave 2. Among Wave 1 young-adult ever-smokers, receptivity to Marlboro, Camel, and Newport advertising was associated with subsequent preference for each brand, respectively, at Wave 2. CONCLUSIONS: This study found evidence for the association between receptivity to branded cigarette marketing and subsequent use of that brand. These findings provide evidence regarding the pathways through which cigarette marketing attracts young adults to use cigarettes and can inform tobacco prevention and counter-marketing efforts. IMPLICATIONS: This study extends prior work on the effects of cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity by illustrating the brand specificity of this advertising. These findings provide evidence that receptivity to branded cigarette advertising is longitudinally associated with preference for those specific cigarette brands.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4727-4738, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055734

RESUMO

Abstract Several anti-smoking campaigns have been used for decades to reduce smoking consumption. However, so far, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of inducing distinct emotions in reducing smoke consumption. This study tested the effects of two types of anti-smoking ads, inducing fear or humor, on emotions, perceived effectiveness, support for tobacco control policies, urges to smoke, and susceptibility to smoke. Participants (N = 108; 54 smokers) of both genders were randomly assigned to one of the two following emotion ads condition: fear (N = 52) or humor (N = 56). During exposure, the continuous flow of their emotions by self-report and physiologically was collected. Measures of ads impact on emotions, perceived effectiveness, urges and susceptibility to smoking, and support for tobacco policies were applied after exposure. The results have shown that fear ads were perceived as more effective and reduced the urges to smoke in smokers. Non-smokers were more supportive of tobacco control policies. In conclusion, this study showed that fear campaigns can reduce the urge to smoke among smokers and are perceived to be more effective. This perceived effectiveness can be partially explained by feelings of fear, regardless the other emotions it also triggers, and of the smoking status.


Resumo Várias campanhas antitabágicas são usadas para reduzir o consumo de tabaco. No entanto, até ao momento não existe um consenso sobre a eficácia da indução de emoções específicas nestas campanhas. Este estudo testou os efeitos de dois tipos de campanhas antitabágicas, induzindo Medo ou Humor, nas emoções, na perceção de eficácia das campanhas, no apoio a políticas antitabágicas, no desejo de fumar, e na suscetibilidade para fumar. Os participantes (N = 108; 54 fumadores), de ambos os sexos, foram aleatoriamente distribuídos para uma das seguintes campanhas indutoras de emoções: medo (N = 52) ou humor (N = 56). Durante a exposição, registou-se o fluxo contínuo das emoções autorreportadas e as respostas fisiológicas. Após a exposição avaliou-se o impacto das campanhas nas emoções, na perceção de eficácia, nas políticas antitabágicas, no desejo e na suscetibilidade para fumar. Os resultados evidenciaram que as campanhas indutoras de medo foram percecionadas como mais eficazes e reduziram o desejo de fumar em fumadores. Políticas antitabágicas foram mais apoiadas por não fumadores. Futuramente deverá considerar-se que induzir diferentes emoções em campanhas antitabágicas pode ter efeitos distintos a nível afetivo e cognitivo, com possível relevância para a mudança comportamental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Publicidade/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Política Pública , Emoções , não Fumantes/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(3): 297-305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687635

RESUMO

Introduction: It is acknowledged that leading pharmaceutical companies lately spend more on marketing than they are investing in research and technology development. Romania registers one of the largest market growths in the pharmaceutical industry from Central and Eastern Europe, and it is one of the main investors on the advertising market. The rapid changes in the pharmaceutical landscape have demanded for organizations to re-evaluate their infrastructure and the information delivery methods, as well as cut through the clutter and build competitive advantages by using effective advertising. The dry eye is a commonly disease encountered worldwide, which is treated with the help of over-the-counter (OTC) artificial tear drops. Aim: The aim of this study was twofold: to determine the profile of the Romanian consumer who uses artificial tear drops and to assess the components of experiential marketing used in a TV advertisement, which have the highest influence on the consumer's perception of effective advertising. Material and method: We selected a TV advertisement that used the magical concept of the artificial tear drops in the shape of water in a desert area, suggesting an eye irritation. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire based on the watched advertising spot about the OTC artificial tear drops. The sample was made up of 384 participants and the sampling method was the snowball technique. Moreover, a model using Structural Equation was validated in order to assess the established relationships between the experiential marketing components and the effectiveness of the OTC artificial tear drops advertising. Findings: The findings showed that the demographic profile of the OTC artificial tear drops consumer is a female, with the mean age of 39 years, who graduated from university, with an average income of 2500 RON (Romanian currency), single, and with an office job. The mean number of hours spent in front of a computer per day was 10. The structural equation model revealed that the component think experience has the highest direct influence on the consumer's perception of an advertisement about OTC artificial tear drops as being effective. Discussion: The pharmaceutical market is different from other markets in that the decision maker is not the purchaser except for the OTC drugs that do not require a receipt from a physician. Think experience focuses on rational decision-making and problem solving but in a creative way.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/farmacologia , Marketing/métodos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Romênia
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(11): e14421, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With growing numbers of adults turning to the internet to get answers for health-related questions, online communities provide platforms with participatory networks to deliver health information and social support. However, to optimize the benefits of these online communities, these platforms must market effectively to attract new members and promote community growth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the engagement results of Facebook advertisements designed to increase membership in the LungCancer.net online community. METHODS: In the fall of 2017, a series of 5 weeklong Facebook advertisement campaigns were launched targeting adults over the age of 18 years with an interest in lung cancer to increase opt ins to the LungCancer.net community (ie, the number of people who provided their email to join the site). RESULTS: The advertisements released during this campaign had a sum reach of 91,835 people, and 863 new members opted into the LungCancer.net community by providing their email address. Females aged 55 to 64 years were the largest population reached by the campaign (31,401/91,835; 34.29%), whereas females aged 65 and older were the largest population who opted into the LungCancer.net community (307/863; 35.57%). A total of US $1742 was invested in the Facebook campaigns, and 863 people opted into LungCancer.net, resulting in a cost of US $2.02 per new member. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrates the feasibility of using Facebook advertising to promote and grow online health communities. More research is needed to compare the effectiveness of various advertising approaches. Public health professionals should consider Facebook campaigns to effectively connect intended audiences to health information and support.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/educação , Mídias Sociais/normas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4727-4738, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778522

RESUMO

Several anti-smoking campaigns have been used for decades to reduce smoking consumption. However, so far, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of inducing distinct emotions in reducing smoke consumption. This study tested the effects of two types of anti-smoking ads, inducing fear or humor, on emotions, perceived effectiveness, support for tobacco control policies, urges to smoke, and susceptibility to smoke. Participants (N = 108; 54 smokers) of both genders were randomly assigned to one of the two following emotion ads condition: fear (N = 52) or humor (N = 56). During exposure, the continuous flow of their emotions by self-report and physiologically was collected. Measures of ads impact on emotions, perceived effectiveness, urges and susceptibility to smoking, and support for tobacco policies were applied after exposure. The results have shown that fear ads were perceived as more effective and reduced the urges to smoke in smokers. Non-smokers were more supportive of tobacco control policies. In conclusion, this study showed that fear campaigns can reduce the urge to smoke among smokers and are perceived to be more effective. This perceived effectiveness can be partially explained by feelings of fear, regardless the other emotions it also triggers, and of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/psicologia , Política Pública , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(11): e15869, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media is a popular and convenient method for communicating on the Web. The most commonly used social networking website, Facebook, is increasingly being used as a tool for recruiting research participants because of its large user base and its ability to target advertisements on the basis of Facebook users' information. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the cost and effectiveness of using Facebook to recruit young women into a Web-based intervention study (PREFER). The PREFER study aimed to determine whether an educational video could increase preference for and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). METHODS: We placed an advertisement on Facebook over a 19-day period from December 2017 to January 2018, inviting 16- to 25-year-old women from Australia to participate in a Web-based study about contraception. Those who clicked on the advertisement were directed to project information, and their eligibility was determined by using a screening survey. RESULTS: Our Facebook advertisement delivered 130,129 impressions, resulting in over 2000 clicks at an overall cost of Aus $918 (Aus $0.44 per click). Web-based project information was accessed by 493 women. Of these, 462 women completed the screening survey, and 437 (437/463, 95%) women were eligible. A total of 322 young women participated in Surveys 1 and 2 (74% response rate), and 284 women participated in Survey 3 (88% retention rate), with an advertising cost of Aus $2.85 per consenting participant. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook proved to be a quick, effective, and cost-efficient tool for recruiting young Australian women into a study that was investigating contraceptive preferences. However, Web-based recruitment may result in sociodemographic biases. Further research is required to evaluate whether Facebook is suitable for recruiting older study populations.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Mídias Sociais/economia , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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