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1.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 396-401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532145

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To study the protein expression of cluster of differentiation 63 (CD63) in lung tissues of guinea pigs that died of anaphylactic shock and discuss the diagnostic value of CD63 for death from anaphylactic shock. Methods Twenty guinea pigs were randomly divided into control group, anaphylactic shock immediate death group, cold storage group (4 ℃ for 48 h) and frozen group (-20 ℃ for 7 d). The animal model of guinea pigs that died of anaphylactic shock was established with human mixed serum injection. The expression changes of CD63 protein and CD63 mRNA in lung tissues were detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time RT-PCR. Results HE staining results showed congestion, and edema of lung tissues, and eosinophil infiltration in the anaphylactic shock groups. Western blotting analysis results showed that the expression of CD63 protein in the lung tissues of guinea pigs that died of anaphylactic shock was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Comparison between the anaphylactic shock groups was made, and the differences had no statistical significance. The results of immunohistochemical staining and real-time RT-PCR were consistent with that of Western blotting. ELISA results showed that CD63 protein expression in the immediate death group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of CD63 protein and CD63 mRNA in the lung tissues of guinea pigs that died of anaphylactic shock is significantly enhanced. Animal carcasses which were put in cold storage for 48 h and frozen for 7 d do not affect the examination of the above indicators. CD63 protein is expected to become an auxiliary diagnostic indicator of death from anaphylactic shock.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Tetraspanina 30/metabolismo , Anafilaxia/mortalidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cobaias , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Soro
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 49-59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520698

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have established the correlations between PM2.5 and a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. However, their underlying pathogeneses have not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype with enhanced proliferation and migration activity of human pulmonary epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was observed after exposure to low dose PM2.5 exposure (50 µg/ml) for 30 passages. Then, epithelial cells derived-exosomal micro-RNA (miRNA) and intracellular total RNA were extracted, and the differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs (DE-Exo-MiRs) as well as differentially expressed protein coding genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and transcriptome analysis. We found that chronic PM2.5 exposure stimulated the release of pulmonary epithelium derived exosomes. 45 DE-Exo-MiRs including 32 novelly predicted miRNAs and 843 DEGs between PM2.5 exposed group and the normal control were detected. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, focal adhesion and cancer related terms. Besides, the enrichment analyses on 7774 mRNA targets of 27 DE-Exo-MiRs predicted by MiRanda software also revealed the potential regulatory role of exosomal miRNAs in pathways in cancer, Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway, focal adhesion related genes and other multiple pathogenic pathways. Moreover, the interactive exosomal miRNA-mRNA pair networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Our results provided a novel basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms of chronic PM2.5 exposure induced pulmonary disorders including pulmonary fibrosis and cancer, in which exosomal miRNAs (Exo-MiRs) potentially functions by dynamically regulating gene expressions.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 147-153, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520700

RESUMO

Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease which severely reduces the quality of life in patients. Studies have demonstrated that both PM2.5 and cold stress contribute to the development of asthma. However, the combined effects of these two risking factors are unknown. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of PM2.5 exposure and cold stress (PMCS) on asthma, as well as the underlying mechanisms by using a murine model. After different exposures, the immune-pathological changes and redox states in groups were evaluated. Besides, the balance of TH1/TH2 cells and the acetylation levels of H3K9 and H3K14 in IL-4 gene promotor were detected. Our results showed that, compared with other exposures, PMCS led to an increased inflammation and redox levels in mice. It also significantly increased the percentage of TH2 T cells, which was correlated with hyperacetylation of H3K9 and H3K14 in IL-4 gene promoter in CD4+T cells. Furthermore, a significantly increased P300 and decreased HDAC1 were detected in CD4 + T cells in PMCS group. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that PMCS exacerbated asthma in mice by increasing H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation in IL-4 gene promoter in CD4 + T cells, and P300 and HDAC1 might contribute to their combined effects.


Assuntos
Asma/induzido quimicamente , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Histonas/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação , Animais , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Tamanho da Partícula , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
4.
Life Sci ; 234: 116780, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430453

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma and obesity are common health problems. Obesity is already responsible for 300,000 deaths per year. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess whether apocynin, alpha lipoic acid and probiotic administration in combination with low-fat diet supplementation influences the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. MAIN METHODS: The study was performed on male C57/BL6 mice divided into 10 groups: (I) control; (II) asthma; (III) obesity; (IV) asthma + obesity; (V) asthma + obesity + apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (VI) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks; (VII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with apocynin p.o. 15 mg/kg/day; (VIII) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet with probiotics for 12 weeks; (IX) asthma + obesity + low-fat diet for 12 weeks with lipoic acid p.o. 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks; (X) asthma + obesity + standard diet with probiotics for 12 weeks. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were examined. The administration of apocynin alone and apocynin in combination with a low-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in SOD values (respectively p < 0.001; p = 0.010). Application of probiotics resulted in a decrease in CAT activity (p = 0.037) and an increase in GPx activity (p < 0.001) compared to obese asthmatic mice. The administration of lipoic acid resulted in an increase in GR activity (p = 0.024 vs. control). KEY FINDINGS: Supplementation containing apocynin, lipoic acid and probiotics has a positive influence on the antioxidant capacity of the pulmonary tissues of obese asthmatic mice. SIGNIFICANCE: These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Asma/complicações , Asma/metabolismo , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5569-5579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413563

RESUMO

Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been considered as an ideal candidate in various biomedical applications due to their ease of tailoring into different size, shape, and decorations with different functionalities. The current study was conducted to investigate the epigenetic alteration in the lung in response to AuNPs administration regarding microRNA-155 (miR-155) gene which can be involved in AuNP-induced lung pathogenesis. Methods: Thirty-two Wister rats were divided into two equal groups, control group and AuNPs treated group which received a single intravenous (IV) injection of plain spherical AuNPs (0.015 mg/kg body wt) with an average diameter size of 25±3 nm. Lung samples were collected from both the control and injected groups at one day, one week, one month and two months post-injection. The alteration of relative expression of miR-155 gene and two of its putative target genes; tumor protein 53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) and protein S (PROS1) was investigated by real time PCR and protein S (PS) expression was analyzed by Western blotting technique. Results: The obtained results revealed that AuNPs administration significantly increases the expression level of miR-155 and reduce relative mRNA expression of TP53INP1 and PROS1 genes at one day post-injection. In contrast, a significant down-regulation of miR-155 level of expression concurrent with up-regulation of expression level of TP53INP1 and PROS1 genes were shown at one week, one month and two months post-injection. PS levels were mirrored to their PROS1 mRNA levels except for two month post-injection time point. Conclusions: These findings indicate epigenetic modulation in the lung in response to AuNPs administration regarding the miR-155 gene which can be involved in AuNP-induced lung pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteína S/genética , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Endocitose , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteína S/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9032-9038, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334646

RESUMO

It is estimated that approximately 200 million people are exposed to arsenic levels above the World Health Organization provisional guideline value, and various agencies have indicated the need to reduce this exposure. In view of the difficulty of removing arsenic from water and food, one alternative is to reduce its bioavailability (the amount that reaches the systemic circulation after ingestion). In this study, dietary components [glutathione, tannic acid, and Fe(III)] were used to achieve this goal. As(III) or As(V) (1 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily to BALB/c mice, along with the dietary components, for 15 days. The results confirm the efficacy of Fe(III) and glutathione as reducers of arsenic bioavailability and tissue accumulation. Also, these treatments did not result in reductions of Ca, K, P, and Fe contents in the liver. These data suggest that use of these two compounds could be part of valid strategies for reducing inorganic arsenic exposure in chronically exposed populations.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/química , Glutationa/química , Animais , Arsenicais/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2325-2333, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nodal positive lung adenocarcinoma includes wide range of survival. Several methods for the classification of nodal-positive lung cancer have been proposed. However, classification considering the impact of targetable genetic variants are lacking. The possibility of genetic variants for the better stratification of nodal positive lung adenocarcinoma was estimated. METHODS: Mutations of 36 genes between primary sites and metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) were compared using next-generation sequencing. Subsequently, mutations in EGFR and BRAF, rearrangements in ALK and ROS1 were evaluated in 69 resected pN1-2M0 adenocarcinoma cases. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), post-recurrence survival (PRS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with respect to targetable variants and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy after recurrence. RESULTS: About 90% of variants were shared and allele frequencies were similar between primary and metastatic sites. In 69 pN1-2M0 cases, EGFR/ALK were positive in primary sites of 39 cases and same EGFR/ALK variants were confirmed in metastatic LNs of 96.7% tissue-available cases. Multivariate analyses indicated positive EGFR/ALK status was associated with worse RFS (HR 2.366; 95% CI 1.244-4.500; P = 0.009), and PRS was prolonged in cases receiving TKI therapy (no post-recurrence TKI therapies, HR 3.740; 95% CI 1.449-9.650; P = 0.006). OS did not differ with respect to targetable variants or TKI therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Cases harbouring targetable genetic variants had a higher risk of recurrence, but PRS was prolonged by TKI therapy. Classification according to the targetable genetic status provides a basis for predicting recurrence and determining treatment strategies after recurrence.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão/metabolismo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Mutação , Transcriptoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 419-426, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II. METHODS: HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type I, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang II in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type I and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang II in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II. CONCLUSION: Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/sangue , Angiotensina I/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Silicose/prevenção & controle , Actinas/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/sangue , Angiotensina I/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Silicose/metabolismo , Silicose/patologia
9.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(4): 1023-1040, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309816

RESUMO

Viral dsRNA acts as the paramount pathogen-associated molecular pattern on infection and orchestrates inflammation or immune cascades of the host's tissues. The comparative effects or mechanisms of inflammation or immunity in different organs on viral infections are critical in immunology or virology. To outline the organ-based molecular mechanisms of inflammation or immunity on viral infection, we challenged mice with the viral mimic poly(I:C) and quantified inflammatory cytokines Il-1b and TNF-α in the brain and lung tissues. As cytokines showed differential expression, transcriptome screenings of mouse lung and brain tissues were analyzed. We identified 629 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in lung and 137 DEGs in brain tissues with a few overlapping genes. Most of those DEGs were interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that are involved in the anti-viral defense mechanisms. The expression patterns of viral dsRNA stimulated genes, and consequently, their association with different molecular mechanisms of inflammation and immunity were specific to the organs. The effects of viral mimic were higher in the lung than in the brain in terms of the number of DEGs and ISGs. Interestingly ribosomal protein L29 (Rpl29), a cell surface heparin-binding protein, was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the lung. The contrasting expression of Rpl29 gene might be responsible for tissue-specific inflammatory responses in lung and brain tissue on virus infection. In addition, the upregulation of Tlr13, a dsRNA and bacterial 23s rRNA receptor, in the poly(I:C)-stimulated mouse lungs suggests its important role in lung inflammatory responses. It is likely that the combined effects of these genes orchestrate the organ-specific inflammatory or immune responses. Our findings would be beneficial to explore new insights in inflammation and immunity against many critical viral diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 242, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264190

RESUMO

The utilization of ferrets as a non-clinical model for disease is rapidly increasing within drug development. Many of these models include respiratory diseases that involve targeted drug delivery via nose-only inhalation. While the deposition patterns within other non-clinical models (mice, rats, canines, and non-human primates) have been well studied, the local and regional deposition of aerosols in ferrets has not been well characterized. Therefore, inhalation aerosols were developed, radiolabeled and the radiolabeling methods validated to support SPECT-CT imaging and quantification of regional deposition within ferrets. The studies were conducted with one liquid formulation and one dry powder formulation (two concentrations of dry powder). Additionally, both aerosols were polydisperse and therefore reflect the majority of pharmaceutical aerosols. Overall, the studies showed lung deposition fractions between 5 and 10% with median aerodynamic particle sizes of 2.5 and 2.8 µm. The lung deposition fraction of the liquid aerosol was ~ 9%, nearly double observed in rats with a similarly sized aerosol. Analysis of respiratory tract (oropharynx, laryngopharynx, trachea, bifurcation area, and lung) deposition indicates increased deposition of the liquid aerosol compared to the dry powder aerosol, however, when this analysis was refined to the pulmonary region (trachea, bifurcation, and lung) the deposition was similar between formulations. These data provide the first description of the regional deposition of inhalation aerosols in ferrets with standard nose-only inhalation procedures. These data can be used for calculations of both total and regional doses within ferret inhalation drug delivery.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pós , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Furões , Humanos , Camundongos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos
11.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 95-99, jul. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015014

RESUMO

The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is complex and requires high clinical suspicion. The findings in the diagnostic images are nonspecific and can be seen in other conditions of the airway. In this review, we will describe the findings of PCD in chest radiography and computed tomography, with emphasis on some of the characteristics that differentiate it from cystic fibrosis and we will review the role of CT in the monitoring of changes of the PCD, since the CT findings correlate very well with the structural changes that occur in the course of PCD, especially bronchiectasis. However, using serial CTs should be decided on a case-by-case basis to avoid unnecessary radiation because they are pediatric patients.


El diagnóstico de la Discinesia ciliar primaria (DCP) es complejo y requiere alta sospecha clínica. Los hallazgos en la imágenes diagnósticas son inespecíficos y se pueden ver en otras afecciones de la vía aérea. En esta revisión describiremos los hallazgos de la DCP en Radiología simple y en Tomografía computada (TC), con énfasis en algunas de las características que permiten diferenciarla de la Fibrosis quística (FQ) y revisaremos el rol de la TC en la monitorización de la DCP ya que los hallazgos en la TC se correlacionan muy bien con los cambios estructurales que ocurren en el curso de la DCP, en especial las bronquiectasias. Sin embargo usar TC seriadas se debe decidir caso por caso para evitar la radiación innecesaria por ser pacientes pediátricos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Síndrome de Kartagener/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Síndrome de Kartagener/metabolismo , Síndrome de Kartagener/microbiologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia
12.
Cell Prolif ; 52(4): e12649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199047

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) leads to approximately 1.5 million human deaths every year. In pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), Mtb must drive host tissue destruction to cause pulmonary cavitation and dissemination in the tissues. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases capable of degrading all components of pulmonary extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that Mtb infection leads to upregulation of MMPs and also causes disturbance in the balance between MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), thus altering the extracellular matrix deposition. In TB, secretion of MMPs is mainly regulated by NF-κB, p38 and MAPK signalling pathways. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory roles of MMPs in Mtb pathogenesis. Researchers have proposed a new regimen of improved TB treatment by inhibition of MMP activity to hinder matrix destruction and to minimize the TB-associated morbidity and mortality. The proposed regimen involves adjunctive use of MMP inhibitors such as doxycycline, marimastat and other related drugs along with front-line anti-TB drugs to reduce granuloma formation and bacterial load. These findings implicate the possible addition of economical and well-tolerated MMP inhibitors to current multidrug regimens as an attractive mean to increase the drug potency. Here, we will summarize the recent advancements regarding expression of MMPs in TB, their immunomodulatory role, as well as their potential as therapeutic targets to control the deadly disease.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 313: 30-41, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181250

RESUMO

The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway plays an important role in lung development, but its significance in silicosis is unclear. We showed that in human coal pneumoconiosis autopsy specimens, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and the Glioma-associated oncogene homolog transcription factors family (GLI) 1 proteins were up-regulated, whereas Patch-1 (PTC) was down-regulated. The protein levels of SHH, smoothened (SMO), GLI1, GLI2, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen type Ⅰ (Col Ⅰ) were also elevated gradually in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of different stages of coal pneumoconiosis patients, dynamic silica-inhalation rat lung tissue and MRC-5 cells induced by Ang II at different time points, whereas the PTC and GLI3 levels were diminished gradually. Ac-SDKP, an active peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is an anti-fibrotic tetrapeptide. Targeting RAS axis also has anti-silicotic fibrosis effects. However, their roles on the HH pathway are still unknown. Here, we reported that Ac-SDKP + Captopril, Ac-SDKP, Captopril, or Ang (1-7) could alleviate silicotic fibrosis and collagen deposition, as well as improve the lung functions of silicotic rat. These treatments decreased the expression of SHH, SMO, GLI1, GLI2, α-SMA, and Col Ⅰ and increased the expression of PTC and GLI3 on both the silicotic rat lung tissue and MRC-5 cells induced by Ang II. We also reported that Ang II may promote myofibroblast differentiation via the GLI1 transcription factor and independently of the SMO receptor.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina I/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Captopril/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antracose/metabolismo , Antracose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicose/metabolismo , Silicose/patologia
14.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 101-106, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Yiqi Huayu Hutan decoction on pulmonary fibrosis of rats which induced by bleomycin. METHODS: The rat model of pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal injection of bleomycin hydrochloride (5 mg/kg). Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into the normal group (group N), the model group (group M), the positive control group (group Y), group of low concentration (group LC), group of medium concentration (group MC) and group of high concentration of Yiqi Huayu Hutan decoction (group HC). After 4 weeks, the experimental groups were treated with low concentration decoction, medium concentration decoction and high concentration decoction respectively, and the Y group was treated with hydrocortisone acetate, the Group N and group M were treated with saline by intragastric administration. Twelve weeks later, rats were killed and the pathomorphism of pulmonary tissues of each group was observed by HE staining and Masson staining. Further, the expressions of transforming growth factor-ß1(TGF-ß1), Snail1, E-cadherin and Fibronectin in pulmonary tissues of each group were detected by qTR-PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the model group, the collagen sediment in the interstitial was reduced in the experimental groups, especially in the group of medium concentration, which was observed by HE staining and Masson staining .Compared with the model group, the expressions of TGF-ß1, Snail1 and Fibronectin protein in pulmonary tissues of the treatment groups were decreased in the experimental group, especially in the group of medium concentration, which were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. CONCLUSION: Yiqi Huayu Hutan decoction can significantly improve the pulmonary fibrosis which is induced by bleomycin, and the mechanism is related to the inhibition of the expression of TGF-ß/Snail pathway of transcription TGF-ß1.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bleomicina , Caderinas/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 309: 108712, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201777

RESUMO

The recent intentional use of nerve agents and pesticides in Europe and Afghanistan highlights the need for an effective countermeasure against organophosphates (OP) toxins. The most developed pretreatment candidate to date is plasma (native) human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE), which is limited in availability and because of its 1:1 stoichiometry with OPs, a large dose will present challenges when delivered parenterally both in terms of pharmacokinetics and manageability in the field. A tetrameric recombinant (r) form of human BChE produced in CHO-K1 cells with similar structure, in vivo stability and antidotal efficacy as the native form, has been developed to deliver rHuBChE as an aerosol (aer) to form a pulmonary bioshield capable of neutralizing inhaled OPs in situ and prevent AChE inhibition in the blood and in the brain; the latter associated with the symptoms of OP toxicity. Previous proof-of-concept macaque studies demonstrated that delivery of 9 mg/kg using a microsprayer inserted down the trachea, resulted in protection against an inhaled dose of 15ug/kg of aer-paraoxon (aer-Px) given 72 h later. In the present studies, pulmonary delivery of rHuBChE in macaques was achieved using Aerogen vibrating mesh nebulizers, similar to that used for human self-administration. The promising findings indicate that despite the poor lung deposition observed in macaques using nebulizers (13-20%), protective levels of RBC-AChE were still present in the blood even when exposure aer-Px (55 µg/kg) was delayed for five days. This long term retention of 5 mg/kg rHuBChE deposited in the lung bodes well for the use of an aer-rHuBChE pretreatment in humans where a user-friendly customized nebulizer with increased lung deposition up to 50% will provide even longer protection at a lower dose.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Paraoxon/química , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/genética , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Macaca , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Paraoxon/toxicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/química
16.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160894

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary edema is one of the pathological characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is thought to be the rate-limiting factor for alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) during pulmonary edema. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone was shown to stimulate ENaC-mediated salt absorption in the kidney. However, its role in the lung remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the PPARγ agonist in the lung to find out whether it can regulate AFC during acute lung injury (ALI). We also attempted to elucidate the mechanism for this. Methods: Our ALI model was established through intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C57BL/6 J mice. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10. The control group underwent a sham operation and received an equal quantity of saline. The three experimental groups underwent intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg LPS, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone, 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone plus 1 mg/kg GW9662, or only equal quantity of saline. The histological morphology of the lung, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the level of AFC, and the expressions of αENaC and serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK1) were determined. Type 2 alveolar (AT II) cells were incubated with rosiglitazone (15 µM) with or without GW9662 (10 µM). The expressions of αENaC and SGK1 were determined 24 h later. Results: A mouse model of ALI was successfully established. Rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated the lung injury, decreasing the TNF-α and IL-1ß levels in the BALF, enhancing AFC, and promoting the expressions of αENaC and SGK1 in ALI mice, which were abolished by the specific PPARγ blocker GW9662. In vitro, rosiglitazone increased the expressions of αENaC and SGK1. This increase was prevented by GW9662. Conclusions: Rosiglitazone ameliorated the lung injury and promoted ENaC-mediated AFC via a PPARγ/SGK1-dependent signaling pathway, alleviating pulmonary edema in a mouse model of ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177708

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of silica dust on the expression of Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mRNA and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF6) mRNA of lung macrophages in rats. Methods: Selecting 40 SPF-class Wistar rats with average weight (200±20) g randomly divided into control group and 30 d, 60 d, 120 d experimental groups with 10 rats in each group according to body weight. The experimental groups rats were injected with 1 ml of SiO(2) (100 mg/ml) suspension through the trachea into lung only once, then they were respectively killed after 30, 60, 120 days. The control group rats were injected with 1 ml of saline into lung, and killed after 120 days. The lungs of the rats were taken for pathological observation. Lung macrophages were extracted and counted, and their activity was detected by MTT. RT-qPCR was used to assess the relative contents of MyD88 mRNA and TRAF6 mRNA. Results: Silica dust inhalation led to infiltration of lung tissue cells, thickening the alveolar wall and destruction of alveolar structure. The longer the exposure to dust, the more obvious the results were. The number of macrophages in all experimental groups and activity in the 30 d, 60 d groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) . Among them, 30 d group had the largest number and the highest activity. Compared with the control group, the expression of MyD88 mRNA and TRAF6 mRNA of lung macrophages in rats increased in the experimental groups (P<0.05) , especially in the 60 d group. Conclusion: Silica dust inhalation can increase the expression of MyD88 and TRAF6 in macrophages, suggesting that silica dust can induce silicosis fibrosis by activating TLR/NF-κB signal pathway.


Assuntos
Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Dióxido de Silício , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF , Animais , Poeira , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2725, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221963

RESUMO

Recent research has shown that many types of cancers take control of specific metabolic processes. We compiled metabolic networks corresponding to four healthy and cancer tissues, and analysed the healthy-cancer transition from the metabolic flux change perspective. We used a Probabilistic Minimum Dominating Set (PMDS) model, which identifies a minimum set of nodes that act as driver nodes and control the entire network. The combination of control theory with flux correlation analysis shows that flux correlations substantially increase in cancer states of breast, kidney and urothelial tissues, but not in lung. No change in the network topology between healthy and cancer networks was observed, but PMDS analysis shows that cancer states require fewer controllers than their corresponding healthy states. These results indicate that cancer metabolism is characterised by more streamlined flux distributions, which may be focused towards a reduced set of objectives and controlled by fewer regulatory elements.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Mama/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Análise do Fluxo Metabólico , Neoplasias/patologia , Urotélio/metabolismo
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 4980-4988, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059017

RESUMO

Deficiency of surfactant proteins (SPs) is the main cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and chronic lung diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that miR­431 was differentially expressed between infants with RDS and infants without RDS using microarray analysis. However, the potential role of miR­431 in the development of lung function is still unknown. In the present study, the morphological characteristics of lung tissues and the expression levels of miR­431 were examined at three time points of rat lung development [gestational days 19 and 21 (E19, and E21) and postnatal day (P3)]. The protein and mRNA levels of SMAD4 and SPs (SP­A, SP­B, SP­C and SP­D) were also validated by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression levels of miR­431 were gradually decreased over time periods of E19, E21 and P3, as determine using RT­qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Dual luciferase­reporter assays revealed that SMAD4 is a direct target of miR­431. The mRNA and protein expression levels of SMAD4 and SPs increased gradually in rat lung tissues from E19 to P3. The order of magnitude was as follows: E19, E21 and P3. The present study demonstrated that the expression level of miR­431 decreased in the order of E19, E21 and P3 during rat lung development. The target gene of miR­431, SMAD4, was negatively regulated by miR­431, and its expression levels in the rat lung tissue increased from E19 to the P3. Surfactant synthesis was further increased over the E19 to P3 time period. Further studies are required to determine how miR­431 regulates pulmonary surfactant synthesis by targeting SMAD4.


Assuntos
Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica , Gravidez , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteína Smad4/química , Proteína Smad4/genética , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2121357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080811

RESUMO

Background: cIAP2 is involved in necroptosis as a key upstream regulation factor. We aimed to investigate the role of cIAP2 in ARDS/ALI induced by H7N9 virus through regulating the RIPK1/3 necroptosis pathway. Methods: Lung tissues of 11 patients who died from ARDS-complicated H7N9 infection between 2013 and 2016 were obtained as the H7N9-ARDS group. Lung tissues near benign lung nodules were acquired as the control group. Histological changes were evaluated by H&E staining. Protein levels of cIAP2, RIPK1, RIPK3, p-RIPK3, MLKL, and p-MLKL in the lung tissues were detected by Western Blot. The mRNA levels of cIAP2, RIPK1, and RIPK3 were detected by real-time PCR. Results: H7N9 virus infection had a high mortality, with ARDS being the leading cause of death. The protein level of cIAP2 in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). However, the experimental group showed higher RIPK1, RIPK3, and p-RIPK3 protein levels than the control group (P<0.05), as well as the expression level of MLKL and p-MLKL protein, which is a key downstream protein in necroptosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: In tissues from patients with fatal H7N9, downregulation of cIAP2 and induction of necroptosis was observed. We could speculate that necroptosis of the pulmonary epithelium is associated with severe H7N9 infection leading to ARDS. Thus, necroptosis inhibition may be a novel therapy for H7N9 influenza virus.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/metabolismo , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/metabolismo , Necrose/virologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia
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