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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108080, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548219

RESUMO

Schistosome parasites are complex trematode blood flukes responsible for the disease schistosomiasis; a global health concern prevalent in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. While established transcriptomic databases are accessed ad hoc to facilitate studies characterising specific genes or gene families, a more comprehensive systematic updating of gene annotation and survey of the literature to aid in annotation and context is rarely addressed. We have reanalysed an online transcriptomic dataset originally published in 2009, where seven life cycle stages of Schistosoma japonicum were examined. Using the online pathway analysis tool Reactome, we have revisited key data from the original study. A key focus of this study was to improve the interpretation of the gene expression profile of the developmental lung-stage schistosomula, since it is one of the principle targets for worm elimination. Highly enriched transcripts, associated with lung schistosomula, were related to a number of important biological pathways including host immune evasion, energy metabolism and parasitic development. Revisiting large transcriptomic databases should be considered in the context of substantial new literature. This approach could aid in the improved understanding of the molecular basis of parasite biology. This may lead to the identification of new targets for diagnosis and therapies for schistosomes, and other helminths.


Assuntos
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Schistosoma japonicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Degranulação Celular/fisiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/fisiologia , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/imunologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 563-568, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462709

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis is a neglected, zoonotic disease in Turkey. The disease is commonly seen in rural areas where the local population is in close contact with livestock and dogs. This research aimed to molecularly identify of hydatid cysts in cattle and human isolates from Konya, Turkey. Following sample collection, direct microscopy was performed. After direct examination, total DNA was extracted, and positive PCR products of cox 1 mitochondrial gene (~ 875 bp) were sequenced. A total of 83 hydatid cysts (cattle n = 57 and human n = 26), 82 were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3 genotypes), and one human isolate was characterized as Echinococcus equinus (G4 genotype). Fertility rates of cysts belonging to cattle for liver and lung cysts were 93.3% and 80%, respectively. Out of 26 human originated isolates, 18 (69.2%) of cysts were found to be fertile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. equinus from human host in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus/fisiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Genótipo , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107946, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622941

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) during malaria infection and the effects of modulating RAGE on the inflammatory cytokines release and histopathological conditions of affected organs in malarial animal model. Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA-infected ICR mice were treated with mRAGE/pAb and rmRAGE/Fc Chimera drugs from day 1 to day 4 post infection. Survival and parasitaemia levels were monitored daily. On day 5 post infection, mice were sacrificed, blood were drawn for cytokines analysis and major organs including kidney, spleen, liver, brain and lungs were extracted for histopathological analysis. RAGE levels were increased systemically during malaria infection. Positive correlation between RAGE plasma concentration and parasitaemia development was observed. Treatment with RAGE related drugs did not improve survival of malaria-infected mice. However, significant reduction on the parasitaemia levels were recorded. On the other hand, inhibition and neutralization of RAGE production during the infection significantly increased the plasma levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-17A, IL-10 and IL-2) and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion. Histopathological analysis revealed that all treated malarial mice showed a better outcome in histological assessment of affected organs (brain, liver, spleen, lungs and kidney). RAGE is involved in malaria pathogenesis and targeting RAGE could be beneficial in malaria infected host in which RAGE inhibition or neutralization increased the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFNγ) which may help alleviate tissue injury and improve histopathological conditions of affected organs during the infection.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Malária/imunologia , Malária/patologia , Plasmodium berghei/imunologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Rim/parasitologia , Rim/patologia , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Parasitemia/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/imunologia , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1129-1134, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588815

RESUMO

Gnathostomiasis is a helminthic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. The life cycle in humans starts with an enteric phase, with the worm perforating the gastric or intestinal mucosa to reach the peritoneal cavity and migrating through the human body. Subsequent penetration through the diaphragm may produce pleuropulmonary symptoms. We herein present a previously healthy 56-year-old Thai man from Southern Thailand who was an ex-smoker presented with chronic dry cough progressing to hemoptysis after consuming grilled swamp eels and freshwater fish. Chest computed tomography showed consolidation at the lingular segment, and the differential diagnosis was primary lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. The lung tissue biopsied during bronchoscopy displayed segments of organisms with the phenotypic characteristics of Gnathostoma spp., and abundant eosinophils were seen in the alveolar tissue. Gnathostoma spinigerum infection was confirmed by a Western blot assay for G. spinigerum-specific 24-kDa reactive band. The patient received albendazole, and a follow-up chest radiograph revealed improvement in the consolidation in the lung and reduction in hemoptysis. We report the first direct evidence including pathology and immunohistochemistry of Gnathostoma invasion via the human lung, with clinical and radiographic presentations mimicking either malignancy or chronic infection.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Animais , Peixes , Água Doce , Gnathostoma , Gnatostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Gnatostomíase/patologia , Humanos , Larva , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
5.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(4): 369-378, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562125

RESUMO

Rhabdias delangei n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the lungs of the clicking stream frog Strongylopus grayii (Smith) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The new species is characterised by the nerve-ring being located just posterior to the mid-length of the oesophagus, a pre-equatorial vulva, as well as a thin-walled and apparently underdeveloped rectum. Pairwise analyses based on ITS-28S and partial cox1 gene fragments showed significant differences between R. delangei n. sp. and its congeners from the Afrotropical Realm. Rhabdias delangei n. sp. is the 12th species of Rhabdias Stiles & Hassall, 1905 recorded in Afrotropical amphibians and the second species of the genus found in pyxicephalid hosts. Our phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS-28S region showed that the new species is closely related to the European species R. rubrovenosa (Schneider, 1866). Furthermore, both species are similar with respect to the underdeveloped rectum and pre-equatorial position of vulva.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Pulmão/parasitologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/genética , Filogenia , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1803-1817, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372130

RESUMO

Lungworms of the genera Parafilaroides and Otostrongylus are responsible for parasitic bronchopneumonia, the foremost disease of eastern Atlantic common seals (EACS, Phoca vitulina vitulina) in the Dutch North Sea. Recently, there have been increased reports of lungworm cases and observations of unusually long Parafilaroides sp. adults in this location. The initial aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the Parafilaroides species infecting this population. Parafilaroides are usually small and delicate, making them difficult to extract from host tissue, and there is often difficulty accessing fresh specimens for morphological study. The large size of the Dutch worms and the accessibility of specimens from numerous animals enabled the description and measurement of many intact specimens (N = 64) from multiple host animals (N = 20). Species identity was confirmed by targeted sequencing of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA amplicons from a subset of worms. Worm morphology was consistent with descriptions for P. gymnurus, but the mature females were 1.9-fold and 3.4-fold longer than those recovered from French EACS (P ≤ 0.001) and Canadian western Atlantic common seals (Phoca vitulina concolor; P ≤ 0.0001). They were also significantly longer than mature female P. gymnurus described from other seal species, with the exception of those from harp seals of Les Escoumins, Quebec. We suggest that intraspecific genetic differences in P. gymnurus and the environment within the host could contribute to the variation reported here. This study is the first to describe P. gymnurus using morphological and molecular methods and should serve as a reference for identification of the species.


Assuntos
Pulmão/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Phoca/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Países Baixos , Mar do Norte , Focas Verdadeiras/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428179

RESUMO

Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. is described from the blood of the Egyptian saw-scaled viper, Echis pyramidum, captured from Saudi Arabia. Five out of ten viper specimens examined (50%) were found infected with Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. with parasitaemia level ranged from 20-30%. The infection was restricted only to the erythrocytes. Two morphologically different forms of intraerythrocytic stages were observed; small and mature gamonts. The small ganomt with average size of 10.7 × 3.5 µm. Mature gamont was sausage-shaped with recurved poles measuring 16.3 × 4.2 µm in average size. Infected erythrocytes were hypertrophied; their nuclei were deformed and sometimes displaced from their central position in the normal uninfected cell. Merogonic stages were observed in the lung endothelial cell and the liver parenchyma cells. Mature meront was 17.8 × 13.6 µm and contained banana-shaped merozoites with average size of ~15 × 2 µm. Phylogenetic analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequence clustered Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n with previously sequenced Hepatozoon spp., most of them infected reptilian hosts without geographic consideration. The morphological and molecular comparison with closely related species proved the taxonomic uniqueness and novelty of the present form.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Viperidae/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viperidae/sangue
8.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 400-405, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294190

RESUMO

Fatal infection by Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci (Nematoda: Syngamidae), was identified in 2 of 52 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) collected on beaches in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and admitted to the veterinary clinic for rehabilitation. Both infected birds were in poor physical condition, with atrophied pectoral muscles, and died soon after starting treatment. The parasitological and pathological examination of the carcasses revealed the presence of C. (C.) phenisci in the trachea, resulting in tracheitis, as well as severe parasitic granulomatous bronchopneumonia caused by eggs deposited in the lungs. In our opinion, these serious pathological changes were the primary cause of chronic respiratory illness. This is the first description of fatal cyathostomiasis in a fish-eating avian host caused by infection by a member of the subgenus Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma). Therefore, it is reasonable to consider C. (C.) phenisci to be a real threat to a wide range of their definitive hosts, and cyathostomiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for fish-eating marine birds, even in cases without respiratory signs. This is also the first record of the genus Cyathostoma in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Strongyloidea/classificação , Animais , Atrofia , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/terapia , Aves , Brasil/epidemiologia , Broncopneumonia/parasitologia , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Feminino , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/patologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções por Strongylida/mortalidade , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/terapia , Strongyloidea/genética , Strongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/parasitologia , Traqueíte/parasitologia , Traqueíte/veterinária
9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(6): L1229-L1236, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320279

RESUMO

The abundance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in house dust mite (HDM) preparations is broad and mirrors the variability seen in the homes of people with asthma. LPS in commercially available stocks ranges from 31 to 5,2000 endotoxin units. The influence of vastly different LPS loads on the mechanisms that define the immune and inflammatory phenotype of HDM-challenged mice has not been defined. This aim of the study was to understand the lung phenotype of mice challenged with HDM extract containing high or low levels of LPS. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized for 2 wk with commercial HDM extract containing either high (36,000 endotoxin units; HHDM) or low (615 endotoxin units; LHDM) levels of LPS. Lung phenotype was characterized by measuring lung function, total and differential cell counts, cytokine abundance, and the lung transcriptome by RNA-sequencing. LPS levels in HDM stocks used for preclinical asthma research in mice remain poorly reported. In 2019, only 14% of papers specified LPS concentration in HDM lots. Specific differences existed in airway responsiveness between mice challenged with HHDM or LHDM. HHDM- and LHDM-induced cytokine profiles of bronchial lavage were significantly different and the lung transcriptome was differentially enriched for genes involved in DNA damage repair or cilium movement, following HHDM or LHDM challenge, respectively. The abundance of LPS in commercially available HDM influences the phenotype of allergic airways inflammation in mice. Failure to report the level of LPS in HDM extracts used in animal models of airway disease will lead to inconsistency in reproducibility and reliability of published data.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pyroglyphidae/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Asma/complicações , Asma/parasitologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia
10.
J Helminthol ; 94: e141, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238198

RESUMO

Larval stages of pentastomids were collected from different organs of small mammals from the Peruvian Amazon. These parasitized mammals included: a western Amazonian oryzomys (Hylaeamys perenensis), an elegant oryzomys (Euryoryzomys nitidus), a lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), two kinkajous (Potos flavus), two silvery woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) and a brown-mantled tamarin (Leontocebus fuscicollis). Pentastomids were found in the mesentery and parenchyma of the liver and lungs of these animals. All pentastomids were morphologically identified as nymphs of Porocephalus spp. Only the nymphs collected from select animals (the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin) were analysed molecularly. Molecular analysis was performed amplifying the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from select nymphs collected from the western Amazonian oryzomys, the elegant oryzomys and the brown-mantled tamarin. The nucleotide sequences exhibited 95.8-97.7% similarity between them. Also, these sequences showed an identity of 95.8-97.9% to Porocephalus crotali (GenBank accession numbers MG559647-MG559655). Molecular analysis indicated the presence of at least two Porocephalus species. These findings represent the first record of Porocephalus in these mammals, thus adding new intermediate hosts for this pentastomid genus. This work represents the first molecular data of Porocephalus in a Neotropical climate.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Pentastomídeos/anatomia & histologia , Vísceras/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Ninfa/genética , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Peru , Clima Tropical
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3932569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185202

RESUMO

Pulmonary edema (PE) is a major cause of pulmonary manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is usually associated with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK-1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-3 (S1PR-3) pathway has recently been reported to affect the pathogenesis of lung injury, but the expression of these proteins in the lungs of severe P. falciparum malaria patients has not been investigated. The cellular expression of SphK-1 and S1PR-3 in lung tissues from autopsied patients with P. falciparum malaria was investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Lung tissues from patients who died of severe P. falciparum malaria were classified into two groups based on histopathological findings: those with PE (18 patients) and those without PE (non-PE, 19 patients). Ten samples of normal lung tissues were used as the control group. The protein expression levels of SphK-1 and S1PR-3 were significantly upregulated in endothelial cells (ECs), alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the lungs of severe P. falciparum malaria patients with PE compared to those in the non-PE and control groups (all p < 0.001). In addition, the SphK-1 and S1PR-3 expression levels were significantly positively correlated in pulmonary ECs (r s = 0.922, p < 0.001), alveolar epithelial cells (r s = 0.995, p < 0.001), and AMs (r s = 0.969, p < 0.001). In conclusion, both the SphK-1 and S1PR-3 proteins were overexpressed in the lung tissues of severe P. falciparum malaria patients with PE, suggesting that SphK-1 and S1PR-3 mediate the pathogenesis of PE in severe malaria. Targeting the regulation of SphK-1 and/or S1PR-3 may be an approach to treat pulmonary complications in severe P. falciparum patients.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Edema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/parasitologia , Adulto , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/parasitologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , /parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 254-260, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206795

RESUMO

The Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is a small cetacean species found on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America from Honduras to Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The nematode Halocercus brasiliensis infects this cetacean, resulting in lung pathologies and death. The present study aimed to conduct a morphological and morphometric study of specimens of H. brasiliensis collected from S. guianensis from the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. For this study, 7 dolphins were collected and examined for the presence of lung parasites. Nematodes were collected and processed for light microscopy, and lung fragments were processed for histological analysis. The nematodes were identified as H. brasiliensis according to their morphology and morphometry. The histopathological analysis revealed mineralization of the bronchiolar cartilage and inflammatory process. The parasitic infections by H. brasiliensis in S. guianensis can contribute to the debilitating status of these cetaceans, resulting in their stranding and accidental capture in fishing nets.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Feminino , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/patogenicidade , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
13.
J Helminthol ; 94: e128, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100653

RESUMO

Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, affecting 800 million people worldwide. Studies focused on the early stage of parasite infection, occurring in the gut, liver and lungs, require the use of a mouse model. In these models, the porcine ascarid, Ascaris suum, is often used. The results obtained from these studies are then used to draw conclusions about A. lumbricoides infections in humans. In the present study, we sought to compare larval migration of A. suum and A. lumbricoides in mouse models. We used a previously developed mouse model of ascariasis, which consists of two mouse strains, where one mouse strain - C57BL/6J - is a model for relative susceptibility and the other - CBA/Ca - for relative resistance. Mice of both strains were infected with either A. suum or A. lumbricoides. The larval burden was assessed in two key organs, the liver and lungs, starting at 6 h post infection (p.i.) and ending on day 8 p.i. Additionally, we measured the larval size of each species (µm) at days 6, 7 and 8 p.i. in the lungs. We found that larval burden in the liver is significantly higher for A. lumbricoides than for A. suum. However, the inverse is true in the lungs. Additionally, our results showed a reduced larval size for A. lumbricoides compared to A. suum.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/fisiologia , Ascaris suum/fisiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Larva , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA
14.
Immunity ; 52(2): 241-255, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075727

RESUMO

Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Clinical features of asthma and its immunological and molecular etiology vary significantly among patients. An understanding of the complexities of asthma has evolved to the point where precision medicine approaches, including microbiome analysis, are being increasingly recognized as an important part of disease management. Lung and gut microbiota play several important roles in the development, regulation, and maintenance of healthy immune responses. Dysbiosis and subsequent dysregulation of microbiota-related immunological processes affect the onset of the disease, its clinical characteristics, and responses to treatment. Bacteria and viruses are the most extensively studied microorganisms relating to asthma pathogenesis, but other microbes, including fungi and even archaea, can potently influence airway inflammation. This review focuses on recently discovered connections between lung and gut microbiota, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea, and their influence on asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal , Pulmão , Microbiota/imunologia , Animais , Asma/patologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/parasitologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 86, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070412

RESUMO

An aberrant Ascaris suum infection in a domestic dog in China in 2019 is described for the first time. This pathogen is a common roundworm of pigs with few reported cases in domestic animals. Our findings suggest a wider infection range with a possible transmission of A. suum to domestic animals that interact with humans.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Ascaríase/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaris suum/genética , Ascaris suum/patogenicidade , China , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Fazendas , Feminino , Pulmão/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 65, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In three randomized, controlled laboratory efficacy studies, the efficacy in the prevention of patent infections of a topical combination of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 1% (Advocate® spot-on formulation for cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH) against larval stages and immature adults of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the treatment efficacy of a single or three monthly treatments against adult A. abstrusus, were evaluated. METHODS: Cats were experimentally inoculated with 300-800 third-stage larvae (L3). Each group comprised 8 animals and the treatment dose was 10 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) imidacloprid and 1 mg/kg bw moxidectin in each study. Prevention of the establishment of patent infections was evaluated by two treatments at a monthly interval at three different time points before and after challenge infection. Curative efficacy was tested by one or three treatments after the onset of patency. Worm counts at necropsy were used for efficacy calculations. RESULTS: In Study 1, the control group had a geometric mean (GM) of 28.8 adult nematodes and the single treatment group had a GM of 3.4 (efficacy 88.3%). In Study 2, the control group had a GM of 14.3, the prevention group had a GM of 0 (efficacy 100%), while the treatment group had a GM of 0.1 (efficacy 99.4%). In Study 3, the GM worm burden in the control group was 32.6 compared to 0 in all three prevention groups (efficacy 100% for all of those groups). CONCLUSIONS: The monthly administration of Advocate® reliably eliminated early larval stages and thereby prevented lung damage from and patent infections with A. abstrusus in cats. Regarding treatment, a single application of Advocate® reduced the worm burden, but it did not sufficiently clear the infection. In contrast, three monthly treatments were safe and highly efficacious against A. abstrusus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Metastrongyloidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008119, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107497

RESUMO

Neutrophils are essentially involved in protective immune responses against invading infective larvae of filarial nematodes. The present study investigated the impact of S100A8/S100A9 on protective immune responses against the rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis. S100A9 forms with S100A8 the heterodimer calprotectin, which is expressed by circulating neutrophils and monocytes and mitigates or amplifies tissue damage as well as inflammation depending on the immune environment. Mice deficient for S100A8/A9 had a significantly reduced worm burden in comparison to wildtype (WT) animals 12 days after infection (dpi) with infective L3 larvae, either by the vector or subcutaneous inoculation, the latter suggesting that circumventing natural immune responses within the epidermis and dermis do not alter the phenotype. Nevertheless, upon intradermal injection of L3 larvae, increased total numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages were observed within the skin of S100A8/A9-/- mice. Furthermore, upon infection the bronchoalveolar and thoracic cavity lavage of S100A8/A9-/- mice showed increased concentrations of CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CXCL-5, as well as elastase in comparison to the WT controls. Neutrophils from S100A8/A9-/- mice exhibited an increased in vitro activation and reduced L3 larval motility more effectively in vitro compared to WT neutrophils. The depletion of neutrophils from S100A8/A9-/- mice prior to L. sigmodontis infection until 5dpi abrogated the protective effect and led to an increased worm burden, indicating that neutrophils mediate enhanced protective immune responses against invading L3 larvae in S100A8/A9-/- mice. Interestingly, complete circumvention of protective immune responses in the skin and the lymphatics by intravenous injection of L3 larvae reversed the phenotype and resulted in an increased worm burden in S100A8/A9-/- mice. In summary, our results reveal that lack of S100A8/S100A9 triggers L3-induced inflammatory responses, increasing chemokine levels, granulocyte recruitment as well as neutrophil activation and therefore impairs larval migration and susceptibility for filarial infection.


Assuntos
Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Filariose/imunologia , Filarioidea/imunologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/imunologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/fisiologia
18.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 2, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924278

RESUMO

The avian respiratory tract is a common entry route for many pathogens and an important delivery route for vaccination in the poultry industry. Immune responses in the avian lung have mostly been studied in vivo due to the lack of robust, relevant in vitro and ex vivo models mimicking the microenvironment. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have the major advantages of maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture of the lung and includes heterogeneous cell populations. PCLS have been obtained from a number of mammalian species and from chicken embryos. However, as the embryonic lung is physiologically undifferentiated and immunologically immature, it is less suitable to examine complex host-pathogen interactions including antimicrobial responses. Here we prepared PCLS from immunologically mature chicken lungs, tested different culture conditions, and found that serum supplementation has a detrimental effect on the quality of PCLS. Viable cells in PCLS remained present for ≥ 40 days, as determined by viability assays and sustained motility of fluorescent mononuclear phagocytic cells. The PCLS were responsive to lipopolysaccharide stimulation, which induced the release of nitric oxide, IL-1ß, type I interferons and IL-10. Mononuclear phagocytes within the tissue maintained phagocytic activity, with live cell imaging capturing interactions with latex beads and an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Finally, the PCLS were also shown to be permissive to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Taken together, immunologically mature chicken PCLS provide a suitable model to simulate live organ responsiveness and cell dynamics, which can be readily exploited to examine host-pathogen interactions and inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 10, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing molecular evidence supports that bats and/or their ectoparasites may harbor vector-borne bacteria, such as bartonellae and borreliae. However, the simultaneous occurrence of rickettsiae in bats and bat ticks has been poorly studied. METHODS: In this study, 54 bat carcasses and their infesting soft ticks (n = 67) were collected in Shihezi City, northwestern China. The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine and large intestine of bats were dissected, followed by DNA extraction. Soft ticks were identified both morphologically and molecularly. All samples were examined for the presence of rickettsiae by amplifying four genetic markers (17-kDa, gltA, ompA and ompB). RESULTS: All bats were identified as Pipistrellus pipistrellus, and their ticks as Argas vespertilionis. Molecular analyses showed that DNA of Rickettsia parkeri, R. lusitaniae, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was present in bat organs/tissues. In addition, nine of the 67 bat soft ticks (13.43%) were positive for R. raoultii (n = 5) and R. rickettsii (n = 4). In the phylogenetic analysis, these bat-associated rickettsiae clustered together with conspecific sequences reported from other host and tick species, confirming the above results. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, DNA of R. parkeri, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was detected for the first time in bat organs/tissues. This is also the first molecular evidence for the presence of R. raoultii and R. rickettsii in bat ticks. To our knowledge, R. parkeri was not known to occur in Asia. Our results highlight the need to assess rickettsial agents in a broader range of bat species and associated tick species.


Assuntos
Argas/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Argas/classificação , Argas/fisiologia , China , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/parasitologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107800, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726054

RESUMO

The aims of this study were an establishment of the domestic rabbit as an intermediate host for cystic echinococcosis (CE) and to evaluate the potency of the crude germinal layer and the protoscoleces antigens to protect against the CE. Firstly; Two groups of white Newzeland rabbits were infected orally either by 5000 active oncospheres or viable protoscoleces separately. After 20 weeks, the slaughtered rabbits showed the presence of hydatid cysts at different internal organs. Molecular detection of the resulted cysts was conducted. Secondly; 27 rabbits were divided into nine groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were immunized with the crude germinal layer antigen while the groups 3 and 4 were immunized with the crude protoscoleces antigen. Groups 5 and 6 received the adjuvant mineral oil. Groups 7 and 8 were used as positive control. The last 9 group was kept as a negative control. The obtained results showed a significant high protection percentage of 83.4% and high antibody titer was recorded in groups that received the crude germinal layer antigen comparing with the groups that immunized with the crude protoscoleces antigen as their protection percentage was 66.7% with lower IgG response. In conclusion, the domestic rabbits could be used as a laboratory model for CE. Developing of the germinal layer antigen is more immunogenic than the protoscoleces one and could be used as a promising vaccine. Attention should be directed towards the existing rabbit in the environment adjacent to infected dogs as it could be a part of Echinococcus life cycle.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Echinococcus/imunologia , Coelhos , Vacinação , Vacinas , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Echinococcus/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Rim/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Masculino , Omento/parasitologia , Potência de Vacina
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