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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502019

RESUMO

The lungs play a very important role in the human respiratory system. However, many factors can destroy the structure of the lung, causing several lung diseases and, often, serious damage to people's health. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide which is widely expressed in lung tissues. Under different microenvironments, NGF participates in the occurrence and development of lung diseases by changing protein expression levels and mediating cell function. In this review, we summarize the functions of NGF as well as some potential underlying mechanisms in pulmonary fibrosis (PF), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), pulmonary hypertension (PH), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Furthermore, we highlight that anti-NGF may be used in future therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502134

RESUMO

The current spreading coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and pathogenic. In this study, we screened the gene expression of three host receptors (ACE2, DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) of SARS coronaviruses and dendritic cells (DCs) status in bulk and single cell transcriptomic datasets of upper airway, lung or blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In COVID-19 patients, DC-SIGN gene expression was interestingly decreased in lung DCs but increased in blood DCs. Within DCs, conventional DCs (cDCs) were depleted while plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were augmented in the lungs of mild COVID-19. In severe cases, we identified augmented types of immature DCs (CD22+ or ANXA1+ DCs) with MHCII downregulation. In this study, our observation indicates that DCs in severe cases stimulate innate immune responses but fail to specifically present SARS-CoV-2. It provides insights into the profound modulation of DC function in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/patologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27162, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477172

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been attracting attention in recent years, but their nature has not been fully elucidated. Although CAFs have been recognized as an important therapeutic target, therapeutic agents have not been developed to date. CAFs are characterized by their high migration rate and involvement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition with some displaying a dendritic morphology that is reminiscent of fascin expression.The present study was designed to immunohistochemically investigate fascin expression in lung adenocarcinoma including CAFs and compare the results with existing CAF markers.We immunohistochemically investigated fascin expression in not only cancer tissue but also CAFs from 26 autopsy cases of lung adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry of α-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast activation protein was also performed.Fascin-positive staining in CAFs was observed in all cases, with a strong correlation observed with existing CAF markers α-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast activation protein (P < .001). In addition, the proportion of tumor cells showing fascin-positive staining was found to correlate with its expression in CAFs (P < .05).We propose that CAFs express fascin, and that fascin may mediate crosstalk between cancer tissue and CAFs. Fascin might be a novel therapeutic target for treatments that target the cancer stroma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5232, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475402

RESUMO

Disseminated tumor cells often fall into a long term of dormant stage, characterized by decreased proliferation but sustained survival, in distant organs before awakening for metastatic growth. However, the regulatory mechanism of metastatic dormancy and awakening is largely unknown. Here, we show that the epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like subpopulations of breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs) demonstrate different levels of dormancy and tumorigenicity in lungs. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NR2F1-AS1 (NAS1) is up-regulated in the dormant mesenchymal-like BCSCs, and functionally promotes tumor dissemination but reduces proliferation in lungs. Mechanistically, NAS1 binds to NR2F1 mRNA and recruits the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 to promote internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated NR2F1 translation, thus leading to suppression of ΔNp63 transcription by NR2F1. Furthermore, ΔNp63 downregulation results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, reduced tumorigenicity and enhanced dormancy of cancer cells in lungs. Overall, the study links BCSC plasticity with metastatic dormancy, and reveals the lncRNA as an important regulator of both processes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fator I de Transcrição COUP/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fator I de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27040, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477134

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics in patients with pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors (PIP).This retrospective study included 31 patients with PIP from 2001 to 2019. Preoperative computed tomography scan was performed in all patients. Clinical and pathological characteristics were collected and analyzed.Thirty-one patients (16 female and 15 male) were recruited, with a median age of 57 years (range, 11-72 years). Eight (25.8%) patients were asymptomatic, and the others had symptoms characterized by cough with sputum, chest and back pain, dry cough, fever and blood in sputum, or hemoptysis. All cases were single lesions, including 23 cases in the right lung, and 8 cases in the left lung. Computed tomography scan demonstrated irregular lobulated nodules or masses in 14 patients, and regular round or oval nodules or masses in 11 cases. The blurred edge of tumors and spiculation was found in 12 cases. Microscopic results were characterized by the collection of inflammatory mesenchymal cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive. Complete tumor resection was obtained in all cases. No recurrence or metastasis was observed during the follow-up period.PIP has a variety of manifestations. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach. The final diagnosis still depends on the pathological and immunohistochemical examination. Complete surgical resection is the main treatment at present, and the overall prognosis is good.


Assuntos
Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/epidemiologia , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
6.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500777

RESUMO

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Biocatálise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato/imunologia
7.
mBio ; 12(4): e0097021, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340553

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), initiates host cell entry when its spike protein (S) binds to its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In airway epithelia, the spike protein is cleaved by the cell surface protease TMPRSS2, facilitating membrane fusion and entry at the cell surface. This dependence on TMPRSS2 and related proteases suggests that protease inhibitors might limit SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract. Here, we tested two serine protease inhibitors, camostat mesylate and nafamostat mesylate, for their ability to inhibit entry of SARS-CoV-2 and that of a second pathogenic coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Both camostat and nafamostat reduced infection in primary human airway epithelia and in the Calu-3 2B4 cell line, with nafamostat exhibiting greater potency. We then assessed whether nafamostat was protective against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo using two mouse models. In mice sensitized to SARS-CoV-2 infection by transduction with human ACE2, intranasal nafamostat treatment prior to or shortly after SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly reduced weight loss and lung tissue titers. Similarly, prophylactic intranasal treatment with nafamostat reduced weight loss, viral burden, and mortality in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. These findings establish nafamostat as a candidate for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The causative agent of COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), requires host cell surface proteases for membrane fusion and entry into airway epithelia. We tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of these proteases, the serine protease inhibitors camostat and nafamostat, block infection by SARS-CoV-2. We found that both camostat and nafamostat reduce infection in human airway epithelia, with nafamostat showing greater potency. We then asked whether nafamostat protects mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent COVID-19 lung disease. We performed infections in mice made susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection by introducing the human version of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, into their airway epithelia. We observed that pretreating these mice with nafamostat prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in better outcomes, in the form of less virus-induced weight loss, viral replication, and mortality than that observed in the untreated control mice. These results provide preclinical evidence for the efficacy of nafamostat in treating and/or preventing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Benzamidinas/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16039, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362979

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces lung injury of varying severity, potentially causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary injury patterns in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients with other causes of ARDS. We aimed to explore the frequency and pathogenesis of cavitary lung lesions in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Retrospective study in 39 critically ill adult patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 including lung injury of varying severity in a tertiary care referral center during March and May 2020, Berlin/Germany. We observed lung cavitations in an unusually large proportion of 22/39 (56%) COVID-19 patients treated on intensive care units (ICU), including 3/5 patients without mechanical ventilation. Median interquartile range (IQR) time between onset of symptoms and ICU admission was 11.5 (6.25-17.75) days. In 15 patients, lung cavitations were already present on the first CT scan, performed after ICU admission; in seven patients they developed during a subsequent median (IQR) observation period of 48 (35-58) days. In seven patients we found at least one cavitation with a diameter > 2 cm (maximum 10 cm). Patients who developed cavitations were older and had a higher body mass index. Autopsy findings in three patients revealed that the cavitations reflected lung infarcts undergoing liquefaction, secondary to thrombotic pulmonary artery branch occlusions. Lung cavitations appear to be a frequent complication of severely ill COVID-19 patients, probably related to the prothrombotic state associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372615

RESUMO

Lymphopenia is a frequent hematological manifestation, associated with a severe course of COVID-19, with an insufficiently understood pathogenesis. We present molecular genetic immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic data on SARS-CoV-2 dissemination and viral load (VL) in lungs, mediastinum lymph nodes, and the spleen of 36 patients who died from COVID-19. Lymphopenia <1 × 109/L was observed in 23 of 36 (63.8%) patients. In 12 of 36 cases (33%) SARS-CoV-2 was found in lung tissues only with a median VL of 239 copies (range 18-1952) SARS-CoV-2 cDNA per 100 copies of ABL1. Histomorphological changes corresponding to bronchopneumonia and the proliferative phase of DAD were observed in these cases. SARS-CoV-2 dissemination into the lungs, lymph nodes, and spleen was detected in 23 of 36 patients (58.4%) and was associated with the exudative phase of DAD in most of these cases. The median VL in the lungs was 12,116 copies (range 810-250281), lymph nodes-832 copies (range 96-11586), and spleen-71.5 copies (range 0-2899). SARS-CoV-2 in all cases belonged to the 19A strain. A immunohistochemical study revealed SARS-CoV-2 proteins in pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and bronchiolar epithelial cells in lung tissue, sinus histiocytes of lymph nodes, as well as cells of the Billroth pulp cords and spleen capsule. SARS-CoV-2 particles were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of the endothelial cell, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The infection of lymphocytes with SARS-CoV-2 that we discovered for the first time may indicate a possible link between lymphopenia and SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytotoxic effect.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Mediastino/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Baço/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/patologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Carga Viral
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104919, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning leads to lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. The effect of paraquat encapsulation by previously described Pectin/Chitosan/Tripolyphosphate nanoparticles on its pulmonary toxicity was investigated in present study in a rat model of poison inhalation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The rats inhaled nebulized different formulation of paraquat (n = 5) for 30 min in various experimental groups. Lung injury and fibrosis scores, Lung tissue enzymatic activities, apoptosis markers were determined compared among groups. RESULTS: Encapsulation of paraquat significantly rescued both lung injury and fibrosis scores. Lung MDA level was reduced by encapsulation. Paraquat poisoning led to lung tissue apoptosis as was evidenced by higher Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 expressions in rats subjected to paraquat inhalation instead of normal saline or free nanoparticles. Again, nanoencapsulation reduced these apoptosis markers significantly. Alpha-SMA expression was also reduced by encapsulation. Nanoparticles per se have no or little toxicity as was evidenced by inflammatory and apoptotic markers and histological scores. CONCLUSION: In a rat model of inhalation toxicity of paraquat, loading of this herbicide on PEC/CS/TPP nanoparticles reduced acute lung injury and fibrosis. The encapsulation also led to lower apoptosis, oxidative stress and alpha-SMA expression in the lung tissue.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Paraquat , Animais , Apoptose , Fibrose , Pulmão/patologia , Paraquat/toxicidade , Pectinas , Polifosfatos , Ratos
11.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 239-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390628

RESUMO

Breathing less than 50 kPa of oxygen over time can lead to pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Vital capacity (VC) as the sole parameter for POT has its limitations. In this study we try to find out the changes of acid-base status in a POT rat model. Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, exposed to 230 kPa oxygen for three, six, nine and 12 hours, respectively. Rats exposed to air were used as controls. After exposure the mortality and behavior of rats were observed. Arterial blood samples were collected for acid-base status detection and wet-dry (W/D) ratios of lung tissues were tested. Results showed that the acid-base status in rats exposed to 230 kPa oxygen presented a dynamic change. The primary status was in the compensatory period when primary respiratory acidosis was mixed with compensated metabolic alkalosis. Then the status changed to decompensated alkalosis and developed to decompensated acidosis in the end. pH, PCO2, HCO3-, TCO2, and BE values had two phases: an increase and a later decrease with increasing oxygen exposure time, while PaO2 and lung W/D ratio showed continuously increasing trends with the extension of oxygen exposure time. Lung W/D ratio was significantly associated with PaO2 (r = 0.6385, p = 0.002), while other parameters did not show a significant correlation. It is concluded that acid-base status in POT rats presents a dynamic change: in the compensatory period first, then turns to decompensated alkalosis and ends up with decompensated acidosis status. Blood gas analysis is a useful method to monitor the development of POT.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/sangue , Acidose Respiratória/metabolismo , Alcalose Respiratória/metabolismo , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio/toxicidade , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/etiologia , Animais , Pressão Atmosférica , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue , Gasometria , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Tamanho do Órgão , Pressão Parcial , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital
12.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108813, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333094

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the pathogenesis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as RA-associated lung disease. Fibrotic interstitial lung disease as well as emphysema occur in RA and cause substantial morbidity. We used arthritis-susceptible HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice to generate RA-associated lung disease. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) prior to induction of arthritis, and subsequently injected with a low dose of bleomycin intra-tracheally to induce lung injury. Exposure of arthritic mice to both CS and bleomycin led to a significant reduction in lung compliance consistent with development of diffuse lung disease. Morphologic evaluation of the lung demonstrated areas of emphysematous change and co-existent fibrosis, consistent with a combined pattern of fibrosis and emphysema. These changes were accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration and upregulation of fibrosis-associated genes. This humanized mouse model can serve as a valuable research tool to understand the pathogenesis of RA associated lung disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Complacência Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia
13.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108827, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428741

RESUMO

BAL cellularity and lymphocyte immunophenotyping offer insights into lung inflammatory status. Natural killer (NK) cells are efficient effector cells, producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. A better understanding of the biology of NK cells in BAL in the lungs is necessary to improve the pathogenesis of fibrotic ILD and develop prospective targeted treatments. Our aim was to analyse NK and NKT-like cell percentages in BAL from 159 patients with different ILD: f-HP, f-NSIP, IPF and CTD-ILD, to evaluate their potential diagnostic/prognostic role. BAL NK cell percentages showed significantly higher values in IPF than in f-HP and f-NSIP, while BAL NKT-like cells showed significantly lower values in the f-NSIP than the f-HP and IPF. A cut-off of 4%NK cells in BAL of IPF showed a significant difference in survival rate. It suggests a possible new marker of survival and raises the possibility of new targeted approach in treatment and management of IPF.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/imunologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/patologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/fisiopatologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Imunofenotipagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Células Matadoras Naturais/classificação , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células T Matadoras Naturais/classificação , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Prognóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5063-5069, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new syndrome occurring primarily in healthy young adults, with a female predominance, after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We describe VITT syndrome characterized by severe thrombosis and thrombocytopenia found in our patient, with fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man, after 13 days from the first administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca), presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomitus. Laboratory tests revealed a severe thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen serum levels and marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The patient quickly developed a multiple organ failure, till death, three days after the hospital admission. RESULTS: At histology, in the lungs, interalveolar septa appeared thickened with microthrombi in the capillaries and veins. Interalveolar septa appeared thickened and showed vascular proliferation. Thrombi were detected in the capillaries of glomerular tufts. In the hearth, thrombi were observed in veins and capillaries. In the liver, voluminous fibrin thrombi were diffusely observed in the branches of the portal vein. Microthrombi were also found in the vasa vasorum of the wall of abdominal aorta. In the brain, microthrombi were observed in the capillaries of the choroid plexuses. Diffuse hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in the intestinal wall with marked congestion of the venous vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, the majority of data necessary for a VITT final diagnosis were present: thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in pulmonary, portal, hepatic, renal and mesenteric veins, associated with a marked increase of D-dimer serum levels. The finding of cerebral thrombosis in choroid plexuses, is a new finding in VITT. These features are suggestive for a very aggressive form of VITT.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/etiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Aorta/patologia , COVID-19/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Trombose/sangue
15.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21798, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339064

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic threatens human species with mortality rate of roughly 2%. We can hardly predict the time of herd immunity against and end of COVID-19 with or without success of vaccine. One way to overcome the situation is to define what delineates disease severity and serves as a molecular target. The most successful analogy is found in BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia, which is the golden biomarker, and simultaneously, the most effective molecular target. We hypothesize that S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) is one such molecule. The underlying evidence includes accumulating clinical information that S100A8 is upregulated in severe forms of COVID-19, pathological similarities of the affected lungs between COVID-19 and S100A8-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model, homeostatic inflammation theory in which S100A8 is an endogenous ligand for endotoxin sensor Toll-like receptor 4/Myeloid differentiation protein-2 (TLR4/MD-2) and mediates hyper-inflammation even after elimination of endotoxin-producing extrinsic pathogens, analogous findings between COVID-19-associated ARDS and pre-metastatic lungs such as S100A8 upregulation, pulmonary recruitment of myeloid cells, increased vascular permeability, and activation coagulation cascade. A successful treatment in an animal COVID-19 model is given with a reagent capable of abrogating interaction between S100A8/S100A9 and TLR4. In this paper, we try to verify our hypothesis that S100A8 governs COVID-19-associated ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Calgranulina A/fisiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Calgranulina A/sangue , Calgranulina A/genética , Quimiocina CXCL11/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Dissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Fosfatos Açúcares/farmacologia , Fosfatos Açúcares/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima , Internalização do Vírus
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26801, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397833

RESUMO

RATIONALE: At present, the prognosis of patients with giant lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is poor, and there is no safe and effective treatment for elderly patients with large LSCC. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we reported a 77-year-old man admitted to the hospital with cough for 3 months and significant chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed a large mass in the left lung with pleural effusion. DIAGNOSES: Chest CT scan revealed a 12.5 cm × 7.3 cm mass in the left upper lobe adjacent to the pulmonary vein, with left pleural effusion. Pulmonary tumor markers were significantly elevated, and CT-guided percutaneous lung mass biopsy specimens showed LSCC. INTERVENTIONS: After diagnosis, the patient was treated with sintilimab combined with endostar and nab-paclitaxel. After 2 cycles of treatment, the lung mass in the patient shrank rapidly and the clinical symptoms were relieved. OUTCOMES: The patient's tumor dramatically shrank, and the pleural effusion was decreased after 4 cycles of treatment without any adverse effects. Meanwhile, the high-level tumor marker resumed normal. LESSONS: Sintilimab combined with endostar and nab-paclitaxel may be a good treatment option for lung squamous cell cancer, especially for that in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Endostatinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Derrame Pleural , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biópsia/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
17.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452415

RESUMO

The emergence and ensuing dominance of COVID-19 on the world stage has emphasized the urgency of efficient animal models for the development of therapeutics for and assessment of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Shortcomings of current animal models for SARS-CoV-2 include limited lower respiratory disease, divergence from clinical COVID-19 disease, and requirements for host genetic modifications to permit infection. In this study, n = 12 specific-pathogen-free domestic cats were infected intratracheally with SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate clinical disease, histopathologic lesions, and viral infection kinetics at 4 and 8 days post-inoculation; n = 6 sham-inoculated cats served as controls. Intratracheal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 produced a significant degree of clinical disease (lethargy, fever, dyspnea, and dry cough) consistent with that observed in the early exudative phase of COVID-19. Pulmonary lesions such as diffuse alveolar damage, hyaline membrane formation, fibrin deposition, and proteinaceous exudates were also observed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, replicating lesions identified in people hospitalized with ARDS from COVID-19. A significant correlation was observed between the degree of clinical disease identified in infected cats and pulmonary lesions. Viral loads and ACE2 expression were also quantified in nasal turbinates, distal trachea, lungs, and other organs. Results of this study validate a feline model for SARS-CoV-2 infection that results in clinical disease and histopathologic lesions consistent with acute COVID-19 in humans, thus encouraging its use for future translational studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gatos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Masculino , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Traqueia/enzimologia , Traqueia/virologia , Conchas Nasais/enzimologia , Conchas Nasais/virologia
18.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452537

RESUMO

The post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). During the acute phase of infection, SARS-CoV-2 was shed via the nose and throat, and viral RNA was occasionally detected in feces. This phase coincided with a transient change in systemic immune activation. Even after the alleged resolution of the infection, computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed pulmonary lesions and activated tracheobronchial lymph nodes in all animals. Post-mortem histological examination of the lung tissue revealed mostly marginal or resolving minimal lesions that were indicative of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evidence for SARS-CoV-2-induced histopathology was also found in extrapulmonary tissue samples, such as conjunctiva, cervical, and mesenteric lymph nodes. However, 5-6 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, upon necropsy, viral RNA was still detectable in a wide range of tissue samples in 50% of the macaques and included amongst others the heart, the respiratory tract and surrounding lymph nodes, salivary gland, and conjunctiva. Subgenomic messenger RNA was detected in the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, indicative of ongoing virus replication during the post-acute phase. These results could be relevant for understanding the long-term consequences of COVID-19 in humans.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/fisiopatologia , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Viral/análise , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Replicação Viral
19.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403519

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis-infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short-chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss-treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the "gut-lung" axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Kumis/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
20.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21853, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416038

RESUMO

We highlight the ability of the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), to induce key characteristics that are associated with established IARC classified Group 1 and Group 2A carcinogenic agents. There is sufficient evidence from epidemiological case-control, cohort and meta-analysis studies of increased lung cancer (LC) risk in pre-existing/active/old TB cases. Similar to carcinogens and other pathogenic infectious agents, exposure to aerosol-containing Mtb sprays in mice produce malignant transformation of cells that result in squamous cell carcinoma. Convincing, mechanistic data show several characteristics shared between TB and LC which include chronic inflammation, genomic instability and replicative immortality, just to name a few cancer hallmarks. These hallmarks of cancer may serve as precursors to malignant transformation. Together, these findings form the basis of our postulate that Mtb is a complete human pulmonary carcinogen. We also discuss how Mtb may act as both an initiating agent and promoter of tumor growth. Forthcoming experimental studies will not only serve as proof-of-concept but will also pivot our understanding of how to manage/treat TB cases as well as offer solutions to clinical conundrums of TB lesions masquerading as tumors. Clinical validation of our concept may also help pave the way for next generation personalized medicine for the management of pulmonary TB/cancer particularly for cases that are not responding well to conventional chemotherapy or TB drugs.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Carcinógenos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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