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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0225023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326450

RESUMO

Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more 'pessimistic' in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cães , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação em Vídeo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20474-20482, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778580

RESUMO

How likely is it that someone would approve of using a nuclear weapon to kill millions of enemy civilians in the hope of ending a ground war that threatens thousands of American troops? Ask them how they feel about prosecuting immigrants, banning abortion, supporting the death penalty, and protecting gun rights and you will know. This is the finding from two national surveys of Democrats and Republicans that measured support for punitive regulations and policies across these four seemingly unrelated issues, and a fifth, using nuclear weapons against enemy civilians (in survey 1) or approving of disproportionate killing with conventional weapons (in survey 2). Those who support these various policies that threaten harm to many people tend to believe that the victims are blameworthy and it is ethical to take actions or policies that might harm them. This lends support to the provocative notion of "virtuous violence" put forth by Fiske and Rai [A. P. Fiske, T. S. Rai, Virtuous Violence: Hurting and Killing to Create, Sustain, End, and Honor Social Relationships (2014)], who assert that people commit violence because they believe it is the morally right thing to do. The common thread of punitiveness underlying and connecting these issues needs to be recognized, understood, and confronted by any society that professes to value fundamental human rights and wishes to prevent important decisions from being affected by irrelevant and harmful sociocultural and political biases.


Assuntos
Guerra Nuclear/psicologia , Política , Punição/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pena de Morte , Desumanização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Armas Nucleares , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3432, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647165

RESUMO

Across societies, humans punish norm violations. To date, research on the antecedents and consequences of punishment has largely relied upon agent-based modeling and laboratory experiments. Here, we report a longitudinal study documenting punishment responses to norm violations in daily life (k = 1507; N = 257) and test pre-registered hypotheses about the antecedents of direct punishment (i.e., confrontation) and indirect punishment (i.e., gossip and social exclusion). We find that people use confrontation versus gossip in a context-sensitive manner. Confrontation is more likely when punishers have been personally victimized, have more power, and value offenders more. Gossip is more likely when norm violations are severe and when punishers have less power, value offenders less, and experience disgust. Findings reveal a complex punishment psychology that weighs the benefits of adjusting others' behavior against the risks of retaliation.


Assuntos
Punição/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 594-606, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602596

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, societies face the formidable challenge of developing sustainable forms of sociability-cumsocial-distancing - enduring social life while containing the virus and preventing new outbreaks. Accordant public policies often balance between retributive (punishment-based) and assistance (solidarity-based) measures to foster responsible behaviour. Yet, the uncontrolled spreading of the disease has divided public opinion about which measures are best suited, and it has made salient group disparities in behaviour, potentially straining intergroup relations, elevating heated emotions, and undercutting coordinated international responses. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, British citizens (N = 377) read about national in-group or outgroup members (categorical differentiation), who were either conforming to or deviating from the corona regulations (normative differentiation). Participants then reported moral emotions towards the target national group and indicated support for public policies. In general, support for assistance policies outweighed support for retributive measures. Second, however, norm deviation was associated with less positive and more negative moral emotions, the latter category further relating to more punitiveness and less assistance support. Finally, respondents who read about norm-violating outgroup members especially reported support for retributive measures, indicating that people might use norm deviation to justify outgroup derogation. We discuss implications for policymakers and formulate future research avenues.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Reino Unido
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603338

RESUMO

Killing people is universally considered reprehensible and evokes in observers a need to punish perpetrators. Here, we explored how observers' personality is associated with their cognitive, emotional, and punishing reactions towards perpetrators using data from 1,004 participants who responded to a set of fifteen third-party perspective moral dilemmas. Among those, four scenarios (architect, life boat, footbridge, smother for dollars) describing deliberate killings were compared to investigate the role of the content features "motive for killing" (selfish vs. utilitarian) and "evitability of victims' death". Participants' moral appropriateness ratings, emotions towards perpetrators, and assigned punishments revealed complex scenario-personality interactions. Trait psychopathy was associated with harsher punishments in all scenarios but also with less concern about killing in general, an increased moral appreciation of utilitarian motives for killing, and a reduced concern about the killing of avoidable victims. Need for cognition was associated with considering a utilitarian motive for killing as a mitigating factor, while intuitive/authority-obedient thinking was linked to a strong focus on avoidability of harm as an aggravating factor when assigning punishments. Other-oriented empathy, trait anxiety, and justice sensitivity did not account for differences in third-party punishments. Our explorative findings highlight the importance of inter-individual differences for moral decision making and sense of justice.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Julgamento , Adulto , Emoções , Empatia , Teoria Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Punição/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310957

RESUMO

Michael S. Moore is among the most prominent normative theorists to argue that retributive justice, understood as the deserved suffering of offenders, justifies punishment. Moore claims that the principle of retributive justice is pervasively supported by our judgments of justice and sufficient to ground punishment. We offer an experimental assessment of these two claims, (1) the pervasiveness claim, according to which people are widely prone to endorse retributive judgments, and (2) the sufficiency claim, according to which no non-retributive principle is necessary for justifying punishment. We test these two claims in a survey and a related survey experiment in which we present participants (N = ~900) with the stylized description of a criminal case. Our results seem to invalidate claim (1) and provide mixed results concerning claim (2). We conclude that retributive justice theories which advance either of these two claims need to reassess their evidential support.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Punição/psicologia , Justiça Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1925): 20192794, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315587

RESUMO

Human cooperation is probably supported by our tendency to punish selfishness in others. Social norms play an important role in motivating third-party punishment (TPP), and also in explaining societal differences in prosocial behaviour. However, there has been little work directly linking social norms to the development of TPP across societies. In this study, we explored the impact of normative information on the development of TPP in 603 children aged 4-14, across six diverse societies. Children began to perform TPP during middle childhood, and the developmental trajectories of this behaviour were similar across societies. We also found that social norms began to influence the likelihood of performing TPP during middle childhood in some of these societies. Norms specifying the punishment of selfishness were generally more influential than norms specifying the punishment of prosocial behaviour. These findings support the view that TPP of selfishness is important in all societies, and its development is shaped by a shared psychology for responding to normative information. Yet, the results also highlight the important role that children's prior knowledge of local norms may play in explaining societal variation in the development of both TPP and prosociality.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Altruísmo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Probabilidade , Punição/psicologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231879, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330154

RESUMO

We conduct laboratory experiments to study peer effects on compliance with extortive requests. To this aim, we use an "extortion game" with multiple victims. In agreement with our hypothesis, our results show that when the information on peers' behavior is available, compliance with appropriative requests is triggered by conformism among victims rather than by punishment. Moreover, we find that extorted sums are rather small, requests are proportional to the victim's earnings, similar across victims, and are significantly lower when the extorter self-selects into this role. Punishment is rare, but effective. Finally, our results indicate that fairness concerns matter even in a context of extra-legal taxation, shaping both extorters' requests and victims' compliance.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Análise de Regressão
9.
J Neurosci ; 40(18): 3604-3620, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234779

RESUMO

Reward has a remarkable ability to invigorate motor behavior, enabling individuals to select and execute actions with greater precision and speed. However, if reward is to be exploited in applied settings, such as rehabilitation, a thorough understanding of its underlying mechanisms is required. In a series of experiments, we first demonstrate that reward simultaneously improves the selection and execution components of a reaching movement. Specifically, reward promoted the selection of the correct action in the presence of distractors, while also improving execution through increased speed and maintenance of accuracy. These results led to a shift in the speed-accuracy functions for both selection and execution. In addition, punishment had a similar impact on action selection and execution, although it enhanced execution performance across all trials within a block, that is, its impact was noncontingent to trial value. Although the reward-driven enhancement of movement execution has been proposed to occur through enhanced feedback control, an untested possibility is that it is also driven by increased arm stiffness, an energy-consuming process that enhances limb stability. Computational analysis revealed that reward led to both an increase in feedback correction in the middle of the movement and a reduction in motor noise near the target. In line with our hypothesis, we provide novel evidence that this noise reduction is driven by a reward-dependent increase in arm stiffness. Therefore, reward drives multiple error-reduction mechanisms which enable individuals to invigorate motor performance without compromising accuracy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT While reward is well-known for enhancing motor performance, how the nervous system generates these improvements is unclear. Despite recent work indicating that reward leads to enhanced feedback control, an untested possibility is that it also increases arm stiffness. We demonstrate that reward simultaneously improves the selection and execution components of a reaching movement. Furthermore, we show that punishment has a similar positive impact on performance. Importantly, by combining computational and biomechanical approaches, we show that reward leads to both improved feedback correction and an increase in stiffness. Therefore, reward drives multiple error-reduction mechanisms which enable individuals to invigorate performance without compromising accuracy. This work suggests that stiffness control plays a vital, and underappreciated, role in the reward-based imporvemenets in motor control.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 205: 103055, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192954

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to investigate how intergroup relation moderates group bias in Third-Party Punishment (TPP) of selfishness. Participants competed or cooperated with the other group and then performed a TPP task in which they could reduce an allocator's benefits after paying a low cost (paying 1/3 unit deducts 1 unit of the allocator in Experiment 1, n = 76) or a high cost (paying 1 unit deducts 1 unit of the allocator in Experiment 2, n = 81). The results supported the "mere-preference hypothesis" of group bias, showing that people were more likely to tolerate their ingroups while punishing outgroups more harshly. Furthermore, when the cost was low, competition increased people's punishment toward outgroups' selfishness but not toward ingroup members, thus enlarging the group bias. When the cost was high, however, this effect disappeared, indicating that people consider a "cost-to-impact ratio" when selectively enforcing the fairness norm in intergroup conflicts. Our findings suggest how intergroup relation and cost-benefit analysis interact together to influence the group bias in TPP, providing insights into mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fairness norms and decision-making in a group context.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Punição/psicologia , Viés , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119702

RESUMO

Punishment aims to deter individuals' selfish behaviors, but it can occasionally backfire. Some scholars have proposed promoting prosocial behaviors using punishment that communicates positive social norms because it provides additional motivation. However, it is unclear which factors affect the norm expressive function of punishment. This study proposes that third-party punishment communicates more positive normative information, and thus, promotes more prosocial behavior in observers than does second-party punishment. Using dictator games, we investigated the effects of second-party punishment compared to third-party punishment of another's unfair sharing on observers' norm perceptions and subsequent sharing decision-making. Two experiments consistently found that third-party punishment was more effective than second-party punishment at inducing observers' beliefs that unfair distribution was unusual (descriptive norm) and unacceptable (injunctive norm). The altered descriptive but not injunctive norm perception further guided individuals' own sharing behaviors. Taken together, these results suggest that third-party punishment might be better than second-party punishment at decreasing selfish behaviors by shaping individuals' norm perceptions, especially descriptive norm perception, regarding the relevant behaviors.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Punição/psicologia , Altruísmo , China , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/ética , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126134

RESUMO

This study examined whether adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are more sensitive to punishment and less sensitive to reward than a non-eating disorder comparison group. Both self-report and performance measures were used to index reward and punishment sensitivity. Participants were adolescents with AN (n = 69) and an individually matched comparison group with healthy weight (n = 69). They completed the Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire to index self-reported reward and punishment sensitivity, and performed the Spatial Orientation Task to index attention to cues signaling reward and punishment. There was extremely strong evidence (BF10 > 100), that adolescents with AN reported higher sensitivity to punishment than adolescents without an eating disorder. However, adolescents with AN did not differ from the comparison group on self-reported reward sensitivity, and attention to cues signaling reward or punishment. Adolescents with AN clearly show heightened punishment sensitivity, yet this was not paralleled by a heightened proneness to detect signals of punishment. An important next step would be to examine whether punishment sensitivity is a reliable risk factor for the development or maintenance of AN.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Atenção , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(6): 1245-1259, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166652

RESUMO

Prior research has demonstrated the importance of low self-control and corporal punishment exposure as risk factors for the development of aggressive behaviors. However, much less is known about the interplay between these two factors, that is, the extent to which they each contribute uniquely to aggression and/or interact synergistically to create a profile of particularly severe risk. Similarly, high self-control may be a moderating protective factor that helps explain why only a subset of individuals exposed to corporal punishment develop high levels of aggression. Data from the longitudinal Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso) were used to address this question. Students completed self-report surveys at three time points; ages 11 (n = 1144; 51% males, 49% females), age 13 (n = 1366; 51% males, 49% females) and age 15 (n = 1447, 52% males and 48% females). An autoregressive cross-lagged panel model was used to examine self-control as a protective factor with both a direct effect and as a moderator of the links between corporal punishment and adolescent aggression across time. The results indicated that self-control was a protective factor against concurrent aggression. However, when considering the longitudinal effects, the protective capabilities of self-control differed depending on the stage of adolescence, gender and levels of exposure to risk. There was no consistent moderating effect of self-control. However, findings suggest that interventions that address low self-control are likely to be beneficial due to their direct effects on aggression, rather than by weakening the effects of exposure to harsh punishment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Punição/psicologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 205: 103060, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220766

RESUMO

Social norm violations provoke strong emotional reactions that often culminate in punishment of the wrongdoer. This is true not only when we are the victims of the norm violation (second-party), but also when witnessing a complete stranger being victimized (third-party). What remains unclear, however, is whether second- and third-party punishments are associated with different emotions. To address this question, here we examine how subjects respond affectively to both second- and third-party norm violations in an economic game. Our results indicate that while second- and third-parties respond to norm violations by punishing wrongdoers similarly, they report experiencing distinct emotional states as a result of the violation. Specifically, we observed a cross-over interaction between anger and moral outrage depending on the party's context: while anger was more frequently reported for second- than for third-party violations, moral outrage was more evoked by third-party than second-party violations. Disgust and sadness were the most prevalently reported emotions, but their prevalence were unaffected by party contexts. These results indicate that while responses to second- and third-party violations result in similar punishment, they are associated with the expression of distinct affective palettes. Further, our results provide additional evidence that moral outrage is a critical experience in the evaluation of third-party wrongdoings.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Punição/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(6): 1769-1782, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221695

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Excessive intake of rewards, such as food and drugs, often has explicit negative consequences, including the development of obesity and addiction, respectively. Thus, choosing not to pursue reward is the result of a cost/benefit decision, proper execution of which requires inhibition of behavior. An extensive body of preclinical and clinical evidence implicates dopamine in certain forms of inhibition of behavior, but it is not fully known how it contributes to behavioral inhibition under threat of explicit punishment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the involvement of midbrain dopamine neurons and their corticostriatal output regions, the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, in control over behavior under threat of explicit (foot shock) punishment in rats. METHODS: We used a recently developed behavioral inhibition task, which assesses the ability of rats to exert behavioral restraint at the mere sight of food reward, under threat of foot shock punishment. Using in vivo fiber photometry, chemogenetics, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and behavioral pharmacology, we investigated how dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, as well as its output areas, the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, contribute to behavior in this task. RESULTS: Using this multidisciplinary approach, we found little evidence for a direct involvement of ascending midbrain dopamine neurons in inhibitory control over behavior under threat of punishment. For example, photometry recordings suggested that VTA DA neurons do not directly govern control over behavior in the task, as no differences were observed in neuronal population activity during successful versus unsuccessful behavioral control. In addition, chemogenetic and pharmacological manipulations of the mesocorticolimbic DA system had little or no effect on the animals' ability to exert inhibitory control over behavior. Rather, the dopamine system appeared to have a role in the motivational components of reward pursuit. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our data provide insight into the mesocorticolimbic mechanisms behind motivated behaviors by showing a modulatory role of dopamine in the expression of cost/benefit decisions. In contrast to our expectations, dopamine did not appear to directly mediate the type of behavioral control that is tested in our task.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Motivação/fisiologia , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Animais , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotometria/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Estriado Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Estriado Ventral/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
16.
Fam Community Health ; 43(2): 170-181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079973

RESUMO

Previous studies have indicated that neighborhood disorganization affects child-rearing beliefs in the United States, but few studies have focused on such influences among Asian American parents. Largely due to Asian American parents' immigration experiences, neighborhood disorganization factors inevitably intersect with their traditional cultures, which may lead to different patterns in their parental beliefs. Using structural equation modeling, this study found that neighborhood disorganization factors directly influenced Asian American parents' beliefs toward physical punishment and parenting stress mediated this relationship. These findings suggest that the integration of family and neighborhood-level practices in social services may reduce the risk of physical abuse.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
17.
Aggress Behav ; 46(3): 210-219, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100886

RESUMO

A robust research literature links parental spanking with negative behavioral outcomes for children, however, it remains unclear whether conditions in the community may moderate the associations between spanking and behavior problems in early childhood. In the current study, we examined whether community violence exposure moderated the associations of maternal spanking with externalizing and internalizing behavior problems of young children. The sample used in this study was urban families and their children ages 3-5 (n = 2,472). We used fixed effects regression models, which yield stronger statistical control for baseline behavior problems, selection bias, and omitted variables bias. Mother's spanking was associated with elevated levels of both externalizing (ß = .037, p < .001) and internalizing (ß = .016, p < .001) behavior problems. Community violence exposure also predicted higher levels of externalizing (ß = .071, p < .01) and internalizing (ß = .043, p < .05) behavior problems. Community violence exposure did not moderate the associations between maternal spanking and behavior problems. Professionals working with families should promote the use of nonphysical disciplinary practices, regardless of the level of violence and crime in the community in which the family resides.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Exposição à Violência , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Punição/psicologia , Características de Residência , Violência
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(3): 639-654, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912190

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Control of reward-seeking behavior under conditions of punishment is an important function for survival. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We designed a task in which rats could choose to either press a lever and obtain a food pellet accompanied by a footshock or refrain from pressing the lever to avoid footshock, in response to tone presentation. In the task, footshock intensity steadily increased, and the task was terminated when the lever press probability reached < 25% (last intensity). Rats were trained until the last intensity was stable. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of the pharmacological inactivation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) on task performance. RESULTS: Bilateral inactivation of the vmPFC, lOFC, and BLA did not alter lever press responses at the early stage of the task. The number of lever presses increased following vmPFC and BLA inactivation but decreased following lOFC inactivation during the later stage of the task. The last intensity was elevated by vmPFC or BLA inactivation but lowered by lOFC inactivation. Disconnection of the vmPFC-BLA pathway induced behavioral alterations that were similar to vmPFC or BLA inactivation. Inactivation of any regions did not alter footshock sensitivity and anxiety levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a strong role of the vmPFC and BLA and their interactions in reward restraint to avoid punishment and a prominent role of the lOFC in reward-seeking under reward/punishment conflict situations.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Animais , Eletrochoque/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
19.
Biol Psychol ; 151: 107850, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981582

RESUMO

Sighs have important physiological and psychological regulatory functions. These rewarding effects of a sigh potentially reinforce sighing in situations that require physiological and/or psychological regulation. The present study aimed to investigate whether sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning. In two studies, we manipulated the effect of spontaneous sighs in response to dyspnea relief, by either punishing a sigh by the onset of dyspnea, or not punishing a sigh by continued dyspnea relief. Results show that sigh rates in response to cues predicting the punishment of sighs are 1.20-1.28 times lower than sigh rates in response to cues predicting no punishment of sighs. These findings suggest that sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning, contributing to both maladaptive sighing, potentially leading to respiratory dysregulation and respiratory complaints, and to adaptive sighing. Furthermore, these findings suggest new clinical practices to increase and decrease sigh rates during breathing training.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante , Dispneia/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Sons Respiratórios , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eat Behav ; 36: 101362, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926462

RESUMO

Punishment sensitivity can contribute to eating pathology, but the mechanisms of this relationship are understudied. In a longitudinal study of undergraduate females (N = 95), results supported an indirect association between sensitivity to punishment and eating pathology via shame. Findings suggest that sensitivity to punishment was associated with greater shame, which in turn predicted greater eating pathology over time. Further, there was an indirect effect of sensitivity to punishment on eating pathology via greater levels of behavioral shame. Future studies may wish to examine the potential role of behavioral shame in the development and exacerbation of eating problems, especially in the context of temperamental traits such as punishment sensitivity.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Vergonha , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto Jovem
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