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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249008, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355893

RESUMO

Abstract Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described based on morphological, molecular and ecological data; this new species of chalcid wasp acts as hyperparasitoid of Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in its parasitoid Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Diagnoses with morphological and molecular characters and illustrations are provided.


Resumo Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) é descrita com base em dados morfológicos, moleculares e ecológicos; esta nova espécie Chalcididae atua como hiperparasitoide de Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) em pupas de seu parasitoide Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Caracteres diagnósticos morfológicos e moleculares e ilustrações de H. camobiensis são fornecidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vespas , Borboletas , Himenópteros , Pupa
2.
J Med Entomol ; 60(1): 131-147, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633608

RESUMO

The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae), and the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) are of public health concern due to their ability to transmit disease-causing parasites and pathogens. Current mosquito control strategies to prevent vector-borne diseases rely mainly on the use of chemicals. However, insecticide resistance in mosquito populations necessitates alternative control measures, including biologicals such as entomopathogenic fungi. Here we report the impact of a new Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hyprocreales: Cordycipitaeceae) isolate, isolated from field-collected Ae. albopictus larvae on mosquito survival and development. Larval infection bioassays using three B. bassiana conidial concentrations were performed on the second and third larval instars of An. gambiae and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Larvae were monitored daily for survival and development to pupae and adults. Our results show that B. bassiana MHK was more effective in killing An. gambiae than Ae. albopictus larvae. We further observed delays in development to pupae and adults in both mosquito species exposed the varying concentrations of B. bassiana as compared to the water control. In addition, larval exposure to B. bassiana reduced adult male and female survival in both mosquito species, further contributing to mosquito population control. Thus, this study identifies a new B. bassiana isolate as a possible biological control agent of two mosquito species of public health concern, increasing the arsenal for integrated mosquito control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Beauveria , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Resistência a Inseticidas , Aedes/microbiologia , Pupa
3.
J Cell Biol ; 222(3)2023 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648440

RESUMO

Mechanical forces actively shape cells during development, but little is known about their roles during neuronal morphogenesis. Developmental neurite pruning, a critical circuit specification mechanism, often involves neurite abscission at predetermined sites by unknown mechanisms. Pruning of Drosophila sensory neuron dendrites during metamorphosis is triggered by the hormone ecdysone, which induces local disassembly of the dendritic cytoskeleton. Subsequently, dendrites are severed at positions close to the soma by an unknown mechanism. We found that ecdysone signaling causes the dendrites to become mechanically fragile. Severing occurs during periods of increased pupal morphogenetic tissue movements, which exert mechanical forces on the destabilized dendrites. Tissue movements and dendrite severing peak during pupal ecdysis, a period of strong abdominal contractions, and abolishing ecdysis causes non-cell autonomous dendrite pruning defects. Thus, our data establish mechanical tearing as a novel mechanism during neurite pruning.


Assuntos
Dendritos , Drosophila , Neuritos , Animais , Dendritos/fisiologia , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecdisona/fisiologia , Neuritos/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Food Sci ; 88(1): 341-355, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524688

RESUMO

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae are recognized as novel nutritionally valuable food. Their use in pasta-making was considered with the intention of repositioning spaghetti shaped pasta supplemented with silkworm derivatives (10%db ) as a valuable product in sustainable diets besides upcycling a side stream from the silk industry. The principal objective of this study was to assess the cooking quality (i.e., imbibition kinetics, cooking loss) and texture of pasta supplemented with defatted silkworm powder or with its aqueous protein extract, which enabled to reduce the content of indigestible components supplying a similar protein intake. Pasta was produced on lab-scale, dried, and tested for chemical composition, mechanical properties before and during cooking, cooking behavior in terms of hydration kinetics, starch gelatinization, and cooking quality indexes. The structural roles on pasta protein network played by silkworm powder and proteins extract were investigated. The former behaves as a structural thickener while the second provides a steric hindrance effect with consequent different cooking performances. With regards to the fortified pasta perceived quality, a high level in total color difference (ΔE) was measured (ΔE > 6). However, after fortification agents' addition, pasta color became closer to that of the whole wheat pasta already known by consumers. Structure fragility increased. The energy at break of the "extract pasta" was about one-third of the control (0.849 N*mm). Silkworm powder addition led to the highest pasta optimal cooking time (376 s) and the slowest imbibition rate (0.0001 s-1 ). After fortification, pasta had an almost doubled cooking loss than control pasta (2.97 ± 0.18 g/100gdb ). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Silkworm pupae flour can be easily applied for pasta fortification in order to increase the protein daily intake of people in an easy and practical way.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Humanos , Animais , Pupa , Triticum/química , Pós , Culinária , Farinha/análise
5.
Fly (Austin) ; 17(1): 2157161, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576164

RESUMO

Within the factors affecting insect tolerance to extreme environmental conditions, insect nutrition, particularly of immature stages, has received insufficient attention. In the present study, we address this gap by investigating the effects of larval nutrition on heat and cold tolerance of adult Bactrocera zonata - an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly pest. We manipulated the nutritional content in the larval diet by varying the amount of added yeast (2-10% by weight), while maintaining a constant sucrose content. Adults derived from the different larval diets were tested for their tolerance to extreme heat and cold stress. Restricting the amount of yeast reduced the efficacy of the larval diet (i.e. number of pupae produced per g of diet) as well as pupal and adult fresh weight, both being significantly lower for yeast-poor diets. Additionally, yeast restriction during the larval stage (2% yeast diet) significantly reduced the amount of protein but not lipid reserves of newly emerged males and females. Adults maintained after emergence on granulated sugar and water for 10 days were significantly more tolerant to extreme heat (i.e. knock-down time at 42 oC) when reared as larvae on yeast-rich diets (8% and 10% yeast) compared to counterparts developing on a diet containing 2% yeast. Nevertheless, the composition of the larval diet did not significantly affect adult survival following acute cold stress (exposure to -3°C for 2 hrs.). These results are corroborated by previous findings on Drosophilid flies. Possible mechanisms leading to nutrition-based heat-tolerance in flies are discussed.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Larva , Temperatura , Temperatura Alta , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Drosophila , Pupa
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2215214120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574695

RESUMO

In Lepidoptera and Diptera, the fat body dissociates into single cells in nondiapause pupae, but it does not dissociate in diapause pupae until diapause termination. Using the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, as a model of pupal diapause insects, we illustrated the catalytic mechanism and physiological importance of fat body cell dissociation in regulating pupal development and diapause. In nondiapause pupae, cathepsin L (CatL) activates matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins and cause fat body cell dissociation. Mmp-induced fat body cell dissociation activates lipid metabolism through transcriptional regulation, and the resulting energetic supplies increase brain metabolic activity (i.e., mitochondria respiration and insulin signaling) and thus promote pupal development. In diapause pupae, low activities of CatL and Mmps prevent fat body cell dissociation and lipid metabolism from occurring, maintaining pupal diapause. Importantly, as demonstrated by chemical inhibitor treatments and CRISPR-mediated gene knockouts, Mmp inhibition delayed pupal development and moderately increased the incidence of pupal diapause, while Mmp stimulation promoted pupal development and moderately averted pupal diapause. This study advances our recent understanding of fat body biology and insect diapause regulation.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Mariposas , Animais , Pupa/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mariposas/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo
7.
Vaccine ; 41(3): 766-777, 2023 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528444

RESUMO

Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the major causes of acute viral gastroenteritis in humans. Virus-like particles (VLPs) without genomes that mimic the capsid structure of viruses are promising vaccine candidates for the prevention of NoVs infection. To produce large amounts of recombinant protein, including VLPs, the silkworm-expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) is an efficient and powerful tool. In this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus that expresses VP1 protein, the major structural protein of NoV GII.4. Expression analysis showed that the baculovirus-infected silkworm pupae expressed NoV VP1 protein more efficiently than silkworm larval fat bodies. We obtained about 4.9 mg of purified NoV VP1 protein from only five silkworm pupae. The purified VP1 protein was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy to form VLPs of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Antisera from mice immunized with the antigen blocked NoV VLPs binding to histo-blood group antigens of pig gastric mucin and also blocked NoV infection in intestinal epithelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Our findings demonstrated that NoV VLP eliciting protective antibodies could be obtained in milligram quantities from a few silkworm pupae using the silkworm-BEVS.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Suínos , Pupa , Norovirus/genética , Anticorpos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105283, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464338

RESUMO

Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is an economically important pest, which is difficult to manage due to its biological and ecological traits, and resistance to most insecticides. Alternative compounds for the sustainable management of H. armigera are needed. As a fungal metabolite, Cyclosporin A (CsA) has not been applied in agriculture pests. Here, CsA was evaluated as a propective insecticide for H. armigera. The results showed that CsA displayed high insecticidal activity against both Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant populations of H. armigera. Moreover, lower concentrations of CsA had clear effects, including significantly reduced pupal weight, pupation rate, emergence rate, ovary size, female fecundity and egg hatchability. Further study confirmed that CsA suppressed calcineurin activity and the subsequent expression of endogenous antimicrobial peptide genes (APMs), leading to impaired immunity, ultimately resulting in delayed development and increased mortality. Thus, CsA treatment could control the cotton bollworm population and even showed efficacy against those with Bt resistance. In addition, the morphological changes observed in insects fed CsA with lower concentrations provide insight into insect immunity, regulation of growth and development, regulation of body color, ovary development and sexual selection under external pressure. Overall, our study provides information on biological control potential of Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant populations of H. armigera to develop novel bioinsecticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Feminino , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Pupa , Gossypium
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105289, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464342

RESUMO

Flumethrin is a highly effective acaricide, but its lipophilic characteristic has some negative effects, such as accumulation in bee hives and bee products. However, studies on the survival stress of honey bees subsequent to chronic flumethrin exposure are limited. To answer this question, a study was carried out on the stress to honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers from larvae to adults by chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of flumethrin. Three flumethrin treatment groups (1, 0.1, 0.01 mg/L) and one control group (with no added flumethrin) were established and divided the worker larvae into four groups. Then, starting with 2-day-old larvae, larvae and subsequent emerged worker bees of the four groups were orally fed with the corresponding concentrations of flumethrin until all the adult worker bees died, respectively. When the concentration was at 0.01 mg/L of flumethrin, the lifespan of adult worker bees decreased, and a down-regulation of detoxification-related genes (CYP450,GSTS) was induced in 1-day-old pupae. When it is at 0.1 mg/L flumethrin, the lifespan of adult worker bees was again shortened, and down-regulation of memory-related genes (GluRA1, Nmdar1, Tyr1) in 1-day-old pupae and gene Tyr1 in 1-day-old worker bees, detoxification-related genes (CYP450,GSTS) in 1-day-old pupae, and immunity genes (Defensin1, Hymenoptaecin) in 7-day-old worker bees were observed. When the concentration is at 1 mg/L flumethrin, lighter birth weight of newly emerged honeybee was found and deficiencies in olfactory learning and memory were observed in 7-day-old worker bees. Memory-related genes (GluRA1, Nmdar1, Tyr1) were down-regulated in 1-day-old pupae and genes (Nmdar1,Tyr1)in 1-day-old worker bees, as were detoxification-related genes (CYP450,GSTS) in 1-day-old pupae and gene CPY450 in 7-day-old worker bees, and immune genes (Defensin1, Hymenoptaecin) in 7-day-old worker bees. There was no significant difference in pupal weight, capping rate, emergence rate, expression of immune-related genes of 1-day-old pupae, expression of immune-related genes and detoxification-related genes of 1-day-old worker bees, expression of memory-related genes and detoxification-related gene GSTS of 7-day-old worker bees. These data provide an ominous warning about the unintended consequences on apiaries, and underscore the need for careful control of flumethrin residues in bee hives.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Urticária , Abelhas , Animais , Larva , Pupa
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105245, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464356

RESUMO

Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GFAT) has been reported to regulate the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as the first rate-limiting enzyme. As a key enzyme that catalyzes the substrate of glycosylation modification, which has a wide-ranging effect on cellular functions. However, there are few studies on the relationship between GFAT and chitin metabolism in insects. In the present study, the GFAT gene from Hyphantria cunea was identified based on transcriptome and bioinformatic analysis. The role of HcGFAT in regulating development and chitin synthesis was analyzed by RNA interference (RNAi) in H. cunea larvae. The full-length HcGFAT gene (2028 bp) encodes a 676 amino acid (aa) polypeptide had typical structural features of the SIS and Gn_AT_II superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses showed that GFAT of H. cunea shares the highest homology and identity with GFAT of Ostrinia furnacalis. Expression profiles indicated that HcGFAT was expressed throughout larval, pupal and three tissues (midgut, fat body, epidermis), and highly expressed in the last instar of larvae and strongly expressed in epidermis among three tissues. Bioassay results showed that knockdown of HcGFAT repressed larval growth and development, resulting in a significant loss of larval body weight. Meanwhile, HcGFAT knockdown also significantly caused larval developmental deformity. Knockdown of HcGFAT regulated the expression of four other critical genes in the chitin synthesis pathway (HcGNA, HcPAGM, HcUAP, HcCHSA), and ultimately resulted in decreased chitin content in the epidermis. In summary, these findings indicated that GFAT plays a critical role in larval growth and development, as well as chitin synthesis in H. cunea.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Quitina , Animais , Larva/genética , Filogenia , Pupa
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105270, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464375

RESUMO

Bark beetles rely on detoxifying enzymes to resist the defensive oleoresin terpenes of the host tree. Insect cytochrome P450 (CYPs) plays a key role in the detoxification of plant allelochemicals and pesticides. CYP6 family is unique to Insecta, and its biochemical function is basically related to catabolize heterologous substances. In this study, two Dendroctonus armandi CYP6 genes, CYP6DF1 and CYP6DJ2, were characterized. Spatiotemporal expression profiling revealed that CYP6DF1 and CYP6DJ2 expressions were higher in larvae and adult stages of D. armandi than in egg and pupae stages, and that two genes predominantly expressed in brain, midgut, fat body, or Malpighian tubules. Moreover, CYP6DF1 and CYP6DJ2 expressions were significantly induced after exposure to (+)-α-pinene. Importantly, silencing CYP6DF1 and CYP6DJ2 significantly inhibited the CYP activity and increased the mortality in the adults fumigated with (+)-α-pinene. Additionally, piperonyl butoxide exposure to adults also increase the sensitivity after treatment with (+)-α-pinene, which led to a significant reduction of the CYP activity, resulting a significant increase in adult mortality. These results suggest that the CYP6 family plays a key role in determining the susceptibility of D. armandi to (+)-α-pinene, which may have implications for the development of novel therapeutics to control this important pest.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Família 6 do Citocromo P450 , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Pupa
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 474, 2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Documentation on water mites in Spain is scarce, as is information on the parasite-host relationship between certain water mite species and representatives of the dipteran family Simuliidae. The discomfort caused to humans and animals by black flies seems to be increasing in recent years. In this context, an investigation of parasitic water mites is of great importance, not only from the point of view of biodiversity, but also in terms of their potential to control black fly populations. METHODS: Rivers across a wide region of eastern Spain were sampled to determine the specific richness of simuliid dipterans and to investigate their possible parasites, such as water mites, mermithid nematodes and microsporidia (fungal microbes). Data on environmental variables, abundance, prevalence and intensity of parasitism on the collected specimens were analyzed. RESULTS: In 10 streams, 15,396 simuliid pupae were collected and checked for the presence of water mite larvae; 426 pupae in seven streams were found to be associated with water mite larvae. Of the 21 simuliid species identified based on morphological characters, eight were found to be associated with water mite larvae. Water mite infection was not equally distributed among black fly species. Also, the prevalence of parasitism was low and differed among simuliid species, ranging from one to 13 water mites per black fly pupa. Variation at the intra- and interspecific levels was detected in terms of the number of water mites inside the black fly cocoons. Free-living deutonymphal and adult water mites representing 15 different species of six genera and five families were morphologically identified. The taxonomic identity of the parasitic mite larvae is unclear at present. Morphologically, they fit descriptions of larval Sperchon (Hispidosperchon) algeriensis Lundblad, 1942, but the possibility cannot be excluded that they represent Sperchon algeriensis, the most abundant species at the adult stage in this study and unknown at the larval stage, or even another species of the genus. A molecular analysis produced for the first time cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences for S. algeriensis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to current knowledge on Spanish Hydrachnidia and their relationships with simuliids as hosts. However, further research is needed to evaluate the diversity, distribution, bioecology and prevalence of this parasitism.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Parasitos , Simuliidae , Humanos , Animais , Água , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pupa , Larva
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279254, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520873

RESUMO

The ability of insets to react efficiently to fluctuation in temperature is crucial for them to survive in variable surroundings. Rapid cold hardening (RCH) is a process that increase cold tolerance in most insect species. The molecular mechanisms of RCH remain largely unknown, and whether it is associated with transcriptional changes is unclear. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of Liriomyza trifolii and L. sativae exposed to RCH to investigate the transcript abundance due to RCH in both species. RNA-seq revealed 93,166 assembled unigenes, and 34,303 of these were annotated in the L. trifolii and L. sativae transcriptome libraries. After a 4-h treatment at 1°C (RCH) compared with control, 268 and 606 unigenes were differentially expressed in L. trifolii and L. sativae, respectively. When comparing pupae exposed to 2h cold shock directly with pupae went through 4h acclimation prior to 2h cold shock, 60 and 399 unigenes were differentially expressed in L trifolii and L sativae, respectively. Genes that were commonly expressed in both L. trifolii and L. sativae, included cytochrome P450, cuticular protein, glucose dehydrogenase, solute carrier family 22 and cationic amino acid transporter. Additionally, several pathways including galactose metabolism and peroxisome were significantly enriched during RCH. Our results show that the transcriptional response is correlated with RCH in the pupal stage of the two Liriomyza species, but more transcriptional changes were identified in L sativae than in L. trifolii.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Dípteros/genética , Transcriptoma , Pupa/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Temperatura Baixa
14.
J Insect Sci ; 22(6)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575953

RESUMO

The study of inheritance of quantitative traits of high plasticity in insects has been limited. The heritability of larval development time and body weight in Tenebrio molitor L. was determined using the method of parent-offspring regression. The parental group of adults obtained from a cohort from one day of oviposition from a stock colony was divided into 28 class groups according to their larval development time and pupal weight. The progeny resulting from these parental classes was grouped in experimental units and allowed to develop to the pupal stage. Means of larval development time and pupal weight of the progeny were compared with their parental class levels using linear regression. The selection of larval development time and pupal weight in the parental classes had a significant impact on the means of larval development time and pupal weight of the progeny. The regression coefficients for larval development time and pupal weight were 0.626 ±â€…0.02 and 0.408 ±â€…0.02, respectively. These values represent the proportion of genetic determination of these two traits based on the principles of the method of parent-offspring regression. The apparent independence of larval development time and pupal weight based on their poor linear correlation is discussed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Tenebrio , Feminino , Animais , Tenebrio/genética , Larva/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Pupa/genética
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 478, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of dengue fever caused by viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are repeated occurrences in West Africa. In recent years, Burkina Faso has experienced major dengue outbreaks, most notably in 2016 and 2017 when 80% of cases were recorded in Ouagadougou City (Central Health Region). In order to better understand the ecology of this vector and to provide information for use in developing control measures, a study on the characteristics of Aedes container breeding sites and the productivity of such sites, as measured by the abundance of immature stages and resultant adult body size, was undertaken in three health districts (Baskuy, Bogodogo and Nongremassom) of Ouagadougou. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors in 643 households during the rainy season from August to October 2018. The presence of water containers was systematically recorded and the containers examined for the presence or absence of larvae. Characteristics of the container breeding sites, including size of the container and temperature, pH and conductivity of the water contained within, were recorded as well as the volume of water. Traditional Stegomyia indices were calculated as quantitative indicators of the risk of dengue outbreaks; generalised mixed models were fitted to larval and pupal densities, and the contribution of each covariate to the model was evaluated by the Z-value and associated P-value. RESULTS: A total of 1061 container breeding sites were inspected, of which 760 contained immature stages of Ae. aegypti ('positive' containers). The most frequent container breeding sites found in each health district were tyres and both medium (buckets/cans/pots) and large (bins/barrels/drums) containers; these containers were also the most productive larval habitats and the types that most frequently tested positive. Of the Stegomyia indices, the Breteau, House and Container indices exceeded WHO dengue risk thresholds. Generalised linear mixed models showed that larval and pupal abundances were associated with container type, physicochemical characteristics of the water and collection month, but there were significant differences among container types and among health districts. Aedes aegypti body size was positively associated with type and diameter of the container, as well as with electrical conductivity of the water, and negatively associated with pH and temperature of the water and with the level of exposure of the container to sunlight. CONCLUSION: This study provides data on putative determinants of the productivity of habitats regarding Ae. aegypti immature stages. These data are useful to better understand Ae. aegypti proliferation. The results suggest that identifying and targeting the most productive container breeding sites could contribute to dengue vector control strategies in Burkina Faso.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Adulto , Humanos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Ecossistema , Pupa , Cruzamento , Larva , Água
17.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1252, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380075

RESUMO

The disproportionate growth of insect appendages such as facultative growth of wings and exaggeration of beetle horns are examples of phenotypic plasticity. Insect metamorphosis is the critical stage for development of pupal and adult structures and degeneration of the larval cells. How the disproportionate growth of external appendages is regulated during tissue remodeling remains unanswered. Tribolium castaneum is used as a model to study the function of mitochondria in metamorphosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is achieved by the knockdown of key mitochondrial regulators. Here we show that mitochondrial function is not required for metamorphosis except that severe mitochondrial dysfunction blocks ecdysis. Surprisingly, various abnormal wing growth, including short and wingless phenotypes, are induced after knocking down mitochondrial regulators. Mitochondrial activity is regulated by IIS (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling)/FOXO (forkhead box, sub-group O) pathway through TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). RNA sequencing and differential gene expression analysis show that wing-patterning and insect hormone response genes are downregulated, while programmed cell death and immune response genes are upregulated in insect wing discs with mitochondrial dysfunction. These studies reveal that mitochondria play critical roles in regulating insect wing growth by targeting wing development during metamorphosis, thus showing a novel molecular mechanism underlying developmental plasticity.


Assuntos
Tribolium , Animais , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Pupa/genética , Asas de Animais , Mitocôndrias/genética
18.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1281, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418465

RESUMO

Many lepidopteran species produce silk, cocoons, feeding tubes, or nests for protection from predators and parasites for caterpillars and pupae. Yet, the number of lepidopteran species whose silk composition has been studied in detail is very small, because the genes encoding the major structural silk proteins tend to be large and repetitive, making their assembly and sequence analysis difficult. Here we have analyzed the silk of Yponomeuta cagnagella, which represents one of the early diverging lineages of the ditrysian Lepidoptera thus improving the coverage of the order. To obtain a comprehensive list of the Y. cagnagella silk genes, we sequenced and assembled a draft genome using Oxford Nanopore and Illumina technologies. We used a silk-gland transcriptome and a silk proteome to identify major silk components and verified the tissue specificity of expression of individual genes. A detailed annotation of the major genes and their putative products, including their complete sequences and exon-intron structures is provided. The morphology of silk glands and fibers are also shown. This study fills an important gap in our growing understanding of the structure, evolution, and function of silk genes and provides genomic resources for future studies of the chemical ecology of Yponomeuta species.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Mariposas/genética , Seda/genética , Pupa , Genômica , Proteoma
19.
Malar J ; 21(1): 328, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, several new housing districts were constructed on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. This case study assessed the impact construction projects had on mosquito larval habitats and the effectiveness of larval source management in reducing malaria vector density within the surrounding area. METHODS: Anopheline larval presence was assessed at 11 new construction sites by the proportion of larval habitats containing Anopheline pupae and late instar larval stages. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) larvicide was applied weekly to nine locations for 30 weeks, while two locations received no larvicide and acted as controls. Adult mosquito density was monitored via human landing collections in adjacent communities of six construction sites, including the two control sites. RESULTS: The sites that received Bti had significantly lower observation rates of both pupae (3.2% vs. 18.0%; p < 0.001) and late instar Anopheles spp. mosquitoes (14.1 vs. 43.6%; p < 0.001) compared to the two untreated sites. Anopheles spp. accounted for 67% of mosquitoes collected with human landing collections and were captured at significantly lower levels in communities adjacent to treated construction sites compared to untreated sites (p < 0.001), with an estimated 38% reduction in human biting rate (IRR: 0.62, 95% CI IRR: 0.55, 0.69). Seven months after the start of the study, untreated sites were treated due to ethical concerns given results from treatment sties, necessitating immediate Bti application. The following week, the number of habitats, the proportion of larval sites with Anopheles spp. pupae, late instars, and adult biting rates in adjacent communities to these sites all decreased to comparable levels across all sites. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest larval source management represents an effective intervention to suppress mosquito populations during infrastructure development. Incorporating larval source management into ongoing and planned construction initiatives represents an opportunity to fine tune vector control in response to anthropogenetic changes. Ideally, this should become standard practice in malaria-endemic regions in order to reduce viable mosquito habitats that are common by-products of construction.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Bacillus thuringiensis , Malária , Animais , Humanos , Anopheles/fisiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Larva , Reforma Urbana , Mosquitos Vetores , Pupa , Ecossistema
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(49): e2210404119, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442095

RESUMO

Diapause is a form of dormancy used widely by insects to survive adverse seasons. Previous studies have demonstrated that forkhead box O (FoxO) is activated during pupal diapause initiation in the moth Helicoverpa armigera. However, it is unclear how FoxO induces diapause. Here, we show that knockout of FoxO causes H. armigera diapause-destined pupae to channel into nondiapause, indicating that FoxO is a master regulator that induces insect diapause. FoxO activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) by promoting ubiquitin c (Ubc) expression via directly binding to the Ubc promoter. Activated UPS decreases transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) receptor signaling via ubiquitination to block developmental signaling to induce diapause. This study significantly advances the understanding of insect diapause by uncovering the detailed molecular mechanism of FoxO.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Diapausa , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Pupa , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta , Ubiquitina , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma
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