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1.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822125

RESUMO

Since its invasion into China in 1979, the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, has spread from Dandong city (about 40°N) in Liaoning Province to Nanjing city (about 32°N) in Jiangsu Province, and to other areas. Owing to geographic and latitudinal gradients in temperature, H. cunea will encounter temperature changes during the spreading process. In this study, we verified the hypothesis that autumn warming accelerates the energy consumption of H. cunea diapause pupae. We found that, after autumn warming, the body size and mass of diapause pupae decreased significantly and raised constant temperature accelerated carbohydrate and protein consumption in female pupae, while fluctuating temperature changes had a more pronounced effect on carbohydrate and protein consumption in male pupae. Contrary to expectations, the lipid content of diapause pupae did not decrease after autumn warming, and even increased significantly. We conclude that warming in autumn accelerates energy consumption by diapause pupae, and the autumn energy consumption of diapause pupae is dominated by carbohydrates, supplemented by protein when carbohydrates are overconsumed, while lipid use is dominated by anabolic metabolism during autumn.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Aquecimento Global , Mariposas/metabolismo , Pupa/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , China , Mudança Climática , Diapausa de Inseto , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
2.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693805

RESUMO

In this study, peptides were prepared from defatted Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) pupa protein via hydrolysis with combined neutral proteases. Single-factor tests and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to determine the optimal hydrolysis condition suitable for industrial application. Optimal hydrolysis of the defatted pupa protein was found to occur at an enzyme concentration of 4.85 g/liter, a substrate concentration of 41 g/liter, a hydrolysis temperature of 55°C, and a hydrolysis time of 10 h and 40 min. Under these conditions, the predicted and actual rates of hydrolysis were 45.82% and 45.75%, respectively. Peptides with a molecular weight of less than 2,000 Da accounted for 90.5% of the total peptides generated. Some of the peptides were antioxidant peptides as revealed by sequencing and functional analysis. The antioxidant activity of the mixed peptides was subsequently confirmed by an antioxidant activity assay. The results showed that peptides with high antioxidant activity could be obtained from the hydrolysis of A. pernyi pupa protein.


Assuntos
Hidrólise , Mariposas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pupa/metabolismo
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21783, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719082

RESUMO

Vitamin C (VC) is an essential nutrient for many animals. However, whether insects, including Bombyx mori, can synthesize VC remains unclear. In this article, the optimized HPLC method was used to determine the content of l-ascorbic acid (AsA) in silkworm eggs, larvae and pupae, and the activity of l-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidase (GULO), a key enzyme in VC synthesis. The RNA interference method was used to determine the effect of the BmGulo-like gene on embryonic development and GULO activity in the pupal fat body. The AsA content increased significantly during E144 h-E168 h in the late embryonic stage and P48 h-P144 h in the middle-late pupal stage, in which exogenous VC was not ingested. Furthermore, the body AsA content in larvae fed VC-free feed also increased with larval stage. The GULO enzymatic activity was present in eggs and the fat bodies of larvae and pupae, even when the larvae were reared with fresh mulberry leaves. Moreover, the activity was higher in the later embryonic stages (E144 h-E168 h) and the early pupal stage (before P24 h). The GULO activity in the pupal fat body dramatically decreased when the screened BmGulo-like gene (BGIBMGA005735) was knocked down with small interfering RNA; in addition, the survival rate and hatching rate of eggs significantly decreased 21% and 44%, respectively, and embryonic development was delayed. Thus, Bombyx mori can synthesize AsA through the l-gulose pathway, albeit with low activity, and this synthesis ability varies with developmental stages.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hexoses/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo
4.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21772, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719088

RESUMO

The ß-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2), which binds the biogenic amine octopamine, belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors and significantly regulates many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the MsOA2B2 gene in Mythimna separata was cloned, the full-length complementary DNA was 1191 bp and it encoded a 396-amino acid protein (GenBank accession number MN822800). Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of spatial and temporal expression analysis revealed that the MsOAB2 gene was expressed in all developmental stages of M. separata and was most abundant in egg stages and second and fourth instars compared with other developmental stages, while the expression level during the pupal stage was much lower than that at the other stages. Further analysis with sixth instar M. separata larvae showed that the MsOA2B2 gene was expressed 1.81 times higher in the head than in integument and gut tissues. Dietary ingestion of dsMsOA2B2 significantly reduced the messenger RNA level of MsOA2B2 and decreased mortality following amitraz treatment. This study provides both a pharmacological characterization and the gene expression patterns of OA2B2 in M. separata, facilitating further research for insecticides using MsOA2B2 as a target.


Assuntos
Mariposas/genética , Receptores de Amina Biogênica , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Insetos , Controle de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/química , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/química , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/genética , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/metabolismo , Toluidinas/farmacologia
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 263-269, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453254

RESUMO

In insects, the cytochrome P450 CYP6B family plays key roles in the detoxification of toxic plant substances. However, the function of CYP6 family genes in degrading plant toxicants in Tribolium castaneum, an extremely destructive global storage pest, have yet to be elucidated. In this study, a T. castaneum CYP gene, TcCYP6BQ7, was characterized. TcCYP6BQ7 expression was significantly induced after exposure to essential oil of the plant Artemisia vulgaris (EOAV). Spatiotemporal expression profiling revealed that TcCYP6BQ7 expression was higher in larval and adult stages of T. castaneum than in other developmental stages, and that TcCYP6BQ7 was predominantly expressed in the brain and hemolymph from the late larval stage. TcCYP6BQ7 silencing by RNA interference increased larvae mortality in response to EOAV from 49.67% to 71.67%, suggesting that this gene is associated with plant toxicant detoxification. Combined results from this study indicate that the CYP6 family gene TcCYP6BQ7 likely plays a pivotal role in influencing the susceptibility of T. castaneum to plant toxicants. These findings may have implications for the development of novel therapeutics to control this agriculturally important pest.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artemisia/química , Artemisia/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tribolium/genética , Tribolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tribolium/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111034, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758695

RESUMO

Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects; it not only serves as an energy source but also plays important roles in physiological responses to adverse conditions. However, only a few studies have explored the effects of heavy metal exposure stress on trehalose metabolism in insects. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of cadmium stress on changes in trehalose metabolism in Aedes albopictus. Three concentrations of cadmium (0.005, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/L) were selected for evaluation of long-term stress in Ae. albopictus (from eggs to adults); Ae. albopictus in double-distilled water was used as the control group. The trehalose and glucose contents, trehalase activity, and trehalose metabolism-related gene expression were determined. The effects of long-term cadmium exposure on growth, development, and reproduction were also assessed. Trehalose contents were increased, whereas glucose contents and trehalase activity were decreased in Ae. albopictus following long-term exposure to low concentrations of cadmium compared with those in untreated individuals. Moreover, the expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase was upregulated, and that of trehalase was downregulated, indicating that Ae. albopictus may enhance trehalose synthesis to resist cadmium stress. Cadmium exposure also caused Ae. albopictus individuals to become smaller with a longer developmental duration, whereas both reproduction and hatching rates of the offspring were decreased compared with those in the control group. Our findings demonstrated that cadmium exposure affected the morphology, physiology, and biochemistry of Ae. albopictus. These findings also confirmed the role of trehalose in the response of Ae. albopictus to cadmium stress, providing insights into the effects of heavy metal stress on trehalose metabolism in an insect model.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Trealose/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/metabolismo , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo
7.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 105(1): e21726, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681693

RESUMO

Eclosion hormone (EH) is an important neuropeptide that regulates growth and development. This study predicted the EH gene (HvEH) of Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from the transcriptome database and its expression patterns were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. HvEH was expressed in all developmental stages and especially in the head area. RNA interference-mediated silencing of HvEH (2 µg/individual) with double-stranded HvEH RNA (dsHvEH) was achieved within 48 hr. Abnormal phenotypes appeared in the pupa and adult stages. dsHvEH injection suppressed pupation and eclosion rates. HvEH expression increased upon treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone but decreased at extreme temperatures. These results suggest that HvEH plays an essential role in ecdysis and wing formation in H. vitessoides.


Assuntos
Hormônios de Inseto/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Muda/genética , Mariposas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365175

RESUMO

Six candidate sHSP genes were identified from the Glyphodes pyloalis transcriptome. All sHSP genes included full-length open reading frames and shared high similarity with the sequences of other lepidopteran species. These sHSP genes encoded 175-191 amino acid residues, and the predicted proteins had a molecular weight from 19.5 to 21.8 kDa. All GpsHSPs were expressed at lower levels at larval stages. All GpsHSPs were expressed at higher levels at diapaused, prepupal, or pupal stages, suggesting that sHSPs may be involved in metamorphosis in G. pyloalis. In addition to the developmental stage, extreme temperatures can induce variations in the expression of sHSPs genes. All GpsHSPs were significantly upregulated in larvae following exposure to heat shock, except GpHSP21.4 which downregulated at 4 h following exposure to the cold shock treatment. Furthermore, Starvation influenced the expression patterns of GpsHSPs as a function of the duration of food deprivation. Four GpsHSPs increased their expression with time of starvation until reaching to the peak level at 6 d of starvation. Finally, parasitism by the endoparasitoid Aulacocentrum confusum He et van Achterberg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)-induced fluctuations in the expression of all GpsHSPs, and the expression varied with time after parasitization. Our results from this study strongly suggest functional differentiation within the sHSPs subfamily in G. pyloalis. The present study would provide further insight into the roles of sHSPs in G. pyloalis and novel avenues for promoting integrated management of this pest.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico Pequenas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico Pequenas/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico Pequenas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Gene ; 751: 144779, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428697

RESUMO

In insects, nuclear receptors (NRs) including EcR (NR1H1), USP (NR2B4), E75 (NR1D3), HR3 (NR1F), HR4 (NR6) and FTZ-F1 (NR5A3) mediate the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling cascade to play a critical role during larval metamorphosis. In this present paper, we focused on hormone receptor 38 (HR38) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the only insect homolog of the NR4A subclass. RNA interference (RNAi) of LdHR38 in the penultimate (third) instar larvae reduced the expression of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene and declined the titer of 20E. Knockdown of LdHR38 intensified the expression of LdUSP, LdE75, LdE74, LdE93, LdBroad and LdHR3, whereas repressed the transcription of LdFTZ-F1. Disruption of 20E signaling inhibited chitin biosynthesis in the larval cuticle. Approximately 25% of the LdHR38 RNAi larvae died, around 40% of the resultant larvae remained as prepupae or become deformed pupae. The body surface of the HR38 depleted abnormal prepupae and pupae looked wet, just like the cuticle being covered with a layer of liquid. Moreover, the increase of larval mortality, and the impairment of pupation and emergence exhibited dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, silencing LdHR38 at the final (fourth) instar caused similar but less severe impairment of pupation. Dietary supplement with 20E for the third instar larvae did not rescue the high larval death and only slightly alleviated the low pupation rate in the LdHR38 RNAi hypomorphs. Accordingly, we propose that HR38 is necessary for tune of ecdysteroidogenesis and for mediation of 20E signaling during metamorphosis in L. decemlineata.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Quitina/biossíntese , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396202

RESUMO

A large number of ecdysteroid-regulated 16 kDa proteins (ESR16s) of insects have been isolated and annotated in GenBank; however, knowledge on insect ESR16s remain limited. In the present study, we characterized an ecdysteroid-regulated 16 kDa protein gene isolated in Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Méneville ('ApESR16' in the following), an important silk-producing and edible insect. The obtained cDNA sequence of ApESR16 is 1,049 bp, harboring an open reading frame of 441 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 146 amino acids. CD-search revealed that ApESR16 contains the putative cholesterol/lipid binding sites on conserved domain Npc2_like (Niemann-Pick type C-2) belonging to the MD-2-related lipid-recognition superfamily. Sequence comparison revealed that ApESR16 exhibits 51-57% identity to ESR16s of lepidopteran insects, 36-41% identity to ESR16 or NPC2a of nonlepidopteran insects, and 28-32% identity to NPC2a of vertebrates, indicating a high sequence divergence during the evolution of animals. Phylogenetic analysis found that the used sequences were divided into two groups corresponding to vertebrates and invertebrates, and the used insect sequences were also well clustered according to their families. The A. pernyi ESR16 mRNA is expressed during all four developmental stages and in all tested tissues. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) into A. pernyi diapausing pupae triggering diapause termination induced upregulation of ESR16 mRNA compared to the diapausing pupae, with the highest expression level at day 2 in the ovaries but day 12 in the fat body. Our results suggested that ApESR16 might be a diapause-related gene and plays a vital role in the pupal diapause of A. pernyi.


Assuntos
Ecdisteroides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(2): e21675, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285519

RESUMO

The Drosophila inner photoreceptors R7 and R8 are responsible for color vision and their differentiation starts at the third instar larval stage. Only a handful of genes with R7 or R8-cell-specific expression are known. We performed an enhancer-trap screen using a novel piggyBac transposable element, pBGay, carrying a Gal4 sequence under the control of the P promoter to identify novel genes expressed specifically in R7 or R8 cells. From this screen, three lines were analyzed in detail: piggyBacAC109 and piggyBacAC783 are expressed in R8 cells and piggyBacAC887 is expressed in R7 cells at the third instar larval stage and pupal stages. Molecular analysis showed that the piggyBac elements were inserted into the first intron of CG14160 and CG7985 genes and the second intron of unzipped. We show the expression pattern in the developing eye imaginal disc, pupal retina as well as the adult retina. The photoreceptor-specific expression of these genes is reported for the first time and we propose that these lines are useful tools for studying the development of the visual system.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/genética , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110380, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145528

RESUMO

Transgenic crops express Cry proteins exhibit high resistant to target insect pests. When we evaluate the effects of Cry proteins on the parasitoid of target insect pest via tritrophic experiments (transgenic plant-target insect pest-parasitoid) host quality of parasitoids might decrease because of insecticidal protein ingestion, this would cause host-quality mediated effects and influence the accuracy of biosafety assessment. In the current study, high dose of Cry2Aa protein was injected into the hemolymph of Plodia interpunctella by microinjection, and the hemolymph was used as the carrier to deliver Cry protein to Habrobracon hebetor, which has been previously reported as an ectoparasitoid of P. interpunctella larval, in order to avoid the "host-quality mediated effects". Results showed that injected Cry2Aa remained at high concentration and bioactive in the hemolymph of P. interpunctella parasitized by H. hebetor, the hemolymph of P. interpunctella could be used as carriers of Cry protein to H. hebetor, and high dose of Cry2Aa have no negative impacts on the development time, weight of pupa, sex ratio, adults weight (male and female), adult longevity and fecundity, and the activity of stress-related enzymes of H. hebetor. However, the hemolymph of P. interpunctella injected into Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (the positive control) showed significant negative impact on these parameters measured in the present study of H. hebetor. This indicated that Cry2Aa protein had no detrimental effects on the biological parameters of H. hebetor measured in the current study. Meanwhile, this study provides a new method for the safety evaluation of the ectoparasitoids of target pest and might be expanded to the other species of ectoparasitoids of target insects of Cry proteins in biosafety risk assessment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mariposas/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Vespas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/parasitologia , Masculino , Mariposas/parasitologia , Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2117, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034205

RESUMO

The mite Varroa destructor is a serious threat to honeybee populations. Selective breeding for Varroa mite tolerance could be accelerated by biomarkers within individual bees that could be applied to evaluate a colony phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated differences in kinase-mediated signaling between bees from colonies of extreme phenotypes of mite susceptibility. We expand these findings by defining a panel of 19 phosphorylation events that differ significantly between individual pupae from multiple colonies with distinct Varroa mite tolerant phenotypes. The predictive capacity of these biomarkers was evaluated by analyzing uninfested pupae from eight colonies representing a spectrum of mite tolerance. The pool of biomarkers effectively discriminated individual pupae on the basis of colony susceptibility to mite infestation. Kinome analysis of uninfested pupae from mite tolerant colonies highlighted an increased innate immune response capacity. The implication that differences in innate immunity contribute to mite susceptibility is supported by the observation that induction of innate immune signaling responses to infestation is compromised in pupae of the susceptible colonies. Collectively, biomarkers within individual pupae that are predictive of the susceptibility of colonies to mite infestation could provide a molecular tool for selective breeding of tolerant colonies.


Assuntos
Abelhas/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Olho/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Infestações por Ácaros/imunologia , Pupa/imunologia , Varroidae/imunologia , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Pupa/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2125, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034235

RESUMO

An animal's fitness strongly depends on successful feeding, avoidance of predators and reproduction. All of these behaviours commonly involve chemosensation. As a consequence, when species' ecological niches and life histories differ, their chemosensory abilities need to be adapted accordingly. The intertidal insect Clunio marinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) has tuned its olfactory system to two highly divergent niches. The long-lived larvae forage in a marine environment. During the few hours of terrestrial adult life, males have to find the female pupae floating on the water surface, free the cryptic females from their pupal skin, copulate and carry the females to the oviposition sites. In order to explore the possibility for divergent olfactory adaptations within the same species, we investigated the chemosensory system of C. marinus larvae, adult males and adult females at the morphological and molecular level. The larvae have a well-developed olfactory system, but olfactory gene expression only partially overlaps with that of adults, likely reflecting their marine vs. terrestrial lifestyles. The olfactory system of the short-lived adults is simple, displaying no glomeruli in the antennal lobes. There is strong sexual dimorphism, the female olfactory system being particularly reduced in terms of number of antennal annuli and sensilla, olfactory brain centre size and gene expression. We found hints for a pheromone detection system in males, including large trichoid sensilla and expression of specific olfactory receptors and odorant binding proteins. Taken together, this makes C. marinus an excellent model to study within-species evolution and adaptation of chemosensory systems.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Chironomidae/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Chironomidae/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Oviposição/fisiologia , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/fisiologia , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Sensilas/metabolismo , Olfato/fisiologia
15.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(1): e21657, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960991

RESUMO

The European map butterfly (Araschnia levana) is a well-known example of seasonal polyphenism because the spring and summer imagoes exhibit distinct morphological phenotypes. The day length and temperature during larval and prepupal development determine whether spring or summer imagoes emerge after metamorphosis. Inspired by the fundamentally different transcriptomic profiles in prepupae developing from larvae exposed to long days or short days, we postulate that posttranscriptional epigenetic regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to the epigenetic control of seasonal polyphenism in A. levana. To test this hypothesis, we used microarrays containing over 2,000 insect miRNAs to identify candidate regulators that are differentially expressed in last-instar larvae or pupae developing under long-day or short-day conditions. We used our transcriptomic database to identify potential 3'-untranslated regions of messenger RNAs to predict miRNA targets by considering both base pair complementarity and minimum free energy hybridization. This approach resulted in the identification of multiple targets of miRNAs that were differentially regulated in polyphenic morphs of A. levana including a candidate (miR-2856-3p) regulating the previously identified diapause bioclock protein gene. In conclusion, the expression profiling of miRNAs provided insights into their possible involvement in seasonal polyphenism of A. levana and offer an important resource for further studies.


Assuntos
Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metamorfose Biológica , MicroRNAs/genética , Fotoperíodo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Borboletas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Transcriptoma
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110134, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901541

RESUMO

The widely distributed ß-carboline alkaloids exhibit promising psychopharmacological and biochemical effects. Harmine, a natural ß-carboline, can inhibit insect growth and development with unclear mechanisms. In this study, harmine (at 0-200 mg/L) showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the pupal weight, length, height, pupation rate and eclosion rate of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, which was similar to the inhibition induced by the well-known botanical insect growth regulator azadirachtin. Moreover, the expression levels of major regulators from the developmental signaling network were down-regulated during the pupal stage except Numb, Fringe, Yorkie and Pten. The Notch, Wnt, Hedgehog and TGF-ß pathways mainly played vital roles in coping with harmine exposure in pupae stage, while the Hippo, Hedgehog and TGF-ß elements were involved in the sex differences. Notch, Hippo, Hedgehog, Dpp and Armadillo were proved to be suppressed in the developmental inhibition with fly mutants, while Numb and Punt were increased by harmine. In conclusion, harmine significantly inhibited the development of Drosophila by negatively affecting their developmental signaling network during different stages. Our results establish a preliminary understanding of the developmental signaling network subjected to botanical component-induced growth inhibition and lay the groundwork for further application.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Harmina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbolinas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophilidae , Hormônios Juvenis , Limoninas , Proteínas Nucleares , Pupa/metabolismo , Transativadores
17.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 117: 103286, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760134

RESUMO

Chouioia cunea (Yang) is a pupal parasitoid wasp and this species is able to seek host insects depending on its olfactory system. However, the molecular mechanism of the olfactory system in the C. cunea is still limited. To identify putative semiochemicals bound to CcOBP2, a protein specifically expressed in antennae, 14 compounds from the pupae of H. cunea and 11 common volatile compounds from plants were selected for competitive fluorescence binding assay. The result of the binding assay showed that five compounds were able to bind toCcOBP2. The electroantennogram (EAG) demonstrated that the antennae had a significant response to the 3-Carene, a bicyclic monoterpene, and C. cunea could be obviously attracted by this compound. The behavioral response to 3- carene was dramatically weakened when CcOBP2 was specifically knocked down. The molecular docking result indicated that several amino acids especially Ile-81, Val-122, Phe-123 of CcOBP2 were responsible for binding to 3-Carene. Furthermore, there was a repellent effect on the host H. cunea with the treatment of the 3-Carene. This study illustrated that CcOBP2 might be a crucial protein involved in the olfactory signaling pathway and the 3-Carene, secreted from plants, could probably have a potential role in repelling pests as well as attracting natural enemies.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mariposas/parasitologia , Percepção Olfatória , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mariposas/metabolismo , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/parasitologia
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21625, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565815

RESUMO

In insects, neuropeptides constitute a group of signaling molecules that act in regulation of multiple physiological and behavioral processes by binding to their corresponding receptors. On the basis of the bioinformatic approaches, we screened the genomic and transcriptomic data of the parasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum, and annotated 36 neuropeptide precursor genes and 33 neuropeptide receptor genes. Compared to the number of precursor genes in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera), Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), P. puparum (Hymenoptera) has the lowest number of neuropeptide precursor genes. This lower number may relate to its parasitic life cycle. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, pupae, adults, venom glands, salivary glands, ovaries, and the remaining carcass revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of the neuropeptides, and their receptors. These data provided basic information about the identity and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their receptors that are required to functionally address their biological significance in an endoparasitoid wasp.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/química , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/química , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
19.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21632, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621105

RESUMO

Biogenic amines (BAs), such as octopamine, tyramine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine regulate various behaviors and physiological functions in insects. Here, we identified seven genes encoding BA biosynthetic enzymes and 16 genes encoding BA G protein-coupled receptors in the genome of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum. We compared the genes with their orthologs in its host Pieris rapae and the related ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. All the genes show high (>90%) identity to orthologs in N. vitripennis. P. puparum and N. vitripennis have the smallest number of BA receptor genes among the insect species we investigated. We then analyzed the expression profiles of the genes, finding those acting in BA biosynthesis were highly expressed in adults and larvae and those encoding BA receptors are highly expressed in adults than immatures. Octα1R and 5-HT7 genes were highly expressed in salivary glands, and a high messenger RNA level of 5-HT1A was found in venom apparatuses. We infer that BA signaling is a fundamental component of the organismal organization, homeostasis and operation in parasitoids, some of the smallest insects.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Borboletas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Borboletas/química , Borboletas/metabolismo , Borboletas/parasitologia , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/enzimologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
20.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21634, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587360

RESUMO

Pteromalus puparum is a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid with a wide host range. It deposits eggs into pierid and papilionid butterfly pupae. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional detoxification enzymes that act in xenobiotic metabolism in insects. Insect genome projects have facilitated identification and characterization of GST family members. We identified 20 putative GSTs in the P. puparum genome, including 19 cytosolic and one microsomal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. puparum GSTs are clustered into Hymenoptera-specific branches. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, female pupae, male pupae, female adults, male adults, venom glands, carcass, salivary glands, and ovaries revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of GSTs in P. puparum. This is the most comprehensive study of genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profiling of GST family in hymenopterans. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the metabolic adaptation of this wasp.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Transferase/química , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
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