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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 448-457, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596256

RESUMO

In the present study, continuous-flow column experiments (using glass column, Tygon tubing, and peristaltic pump Manostat Carter) were conducted to investigate the performance of permeable sorption barriers for the removal of cadmium and zinc from synthetic groundwater. Zeolite, ion-exchange resin and granular activated carbon as reactive materials were used. The effectiveness and stability of reactive materials were studied by monitoring of changes of metal ions concentration and selected background anions and cations concentration in groundwater during its flow through columns. Results showed that ion exchange resin was the most effective material of permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Performance of resin barrier remained effective (>99.5% metal ions removal) for the time corresponding to on average of about 10,000 min. The high efficiency of ion-exchange resin in PRB for removal of heavy metals from groundwater was coupled with its reactivity and long barrier lifetime. The breakthroughs in the column tests on activated carbon and zeolite using synthetic groundwater occurred much earlier as compared to resin. Therefore, the system using resin requires smaller amount to treat a given volume of groundwater as compared to other materials. Moreover, the presence of other ions did not impact on activity and permeability of barrier filled with resin.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zinco/análise , Íons
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 499-506, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596261

RESUMO

We investigated how UV treatment of indoor pool water affects the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines (NCl3) in the air above one therapy pool. One-hundred and sixty-two samples of tTHMs (sum of the four most common THMs in swimming facilities) and thirty-six samples of NCl3 were collected simultaneously at poolside and in the extract channel in a room with one therapy pool for 2 days a week over a period of 5 weeks. When the UV lamp was on, the concentration of combined chlorine in the water decreased 58%, the concentration of tTHMs in the air increased 37%, and the concentration of NCl3 in the air decreased 15%. Between 42% and 56% of the gases in the air are recirculated back into the poolroom along with the recycled air. The correlation between NCl3 and THMs in the air was stronger when the UV treatment was on (r2 = 0.963) compared to when the UV treatment was off (r2 = 0.472). Using a linear mixed model, 30% of the variability in THMs was attributed to UV treatment. For NCl3, the number of bathers was the most important predictor variable. UV treatment has a limited effect on airborne NCl3 but increases the air concentration of tTHMs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cloretos , Cloro , Trialometanos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 507-516, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596262

RESUMO

Adsorption characteristics of high-silica zeolites (HSZSM-5) for two selected sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) (sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine) were investigated. The SAs were almost completely (>90%) removed from the water by HSZSM-5. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics with liquid-film diffusion as the dominant mechanism. SA adsorption capacity on high-silica zeolites was examined in terms of pH, temperature, and the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). HSZSM-5 had better adsorption performance in acidic conditions, and the apparent distribution coefficient indicated that SA0 species were the major contribution to the overall adsorption at pH of 2-10. Adsorption of SAs on HSZSM-5 was a spontaneous and exothermic physisorption process. SA removal by HSZSM-5 was a mixed mechanism through ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction. HSZSM-5 has potential application prospects in removing SAs from wastewater.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cinética , Dióxido de Silício
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 575-586, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596268

RESUMO

Preparation and characterization of activated carbons (ACs) from oily sludge by physical and chemical activation using steam, ZnCl2 and FeCl3 were investigated. The characteristics of produced adsorbents were determined by iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Batch adsorption experiments for phenol and phosphate were performed to evaluate the efficiency of adsorbents. The optimum porous structure of adsorbents with a BET surface area of 1,259 m2 g-1, total pore volume of 1.22 cm3 g-1 and iodine number of 994 mg g-1 was achieved by ZnCl2 activation at 500 °C and impregnation ratio of 1:1. The adsorption data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2>0.99) and Freundlich isotherm (R2>0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity of phenol (238 mg g-1) and phosphate (102 mg g-1) based on the Langmuir model was achieved at pH of 6.0 and adsorbent dose of 1 g L-1. Thermodynamic parameters were negative and showed that adsorption of phenol and phosphate onto the AC was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic. The results suggested that prepared AC was an effective adsorbent for removal of phenol and phosphate ions from the polluted water.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Fenol/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cinética , Esgotos , Soluções
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 587-596, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596269

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by the electro-persulfate (EC-PS) process using aluminum (Al) electrodes. The effects of variables including pH, contact time, PS concentration, initial CIP concentration and current density on the removal efficiency of CIP were studied. In order to determine the mechanisms of the EC-PS process, the radical scavenger tests, as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed on the sludge. The results showed that the PS process alone had no effect on the CIP removal, and the EC process alone could remove 25% of CIP after 160 min. However, the EC-PS process under the optimum conditions: pH of 7, time of 40 min, current density of 2.75 mA/cm2, CIP concentration of 20 mg/L, and PS concentration of 0.84 mM removed 90% of CIP. The effect of the EC-PS process on the actual hospital wastewater was 81% in optimal conditions. The kinetic study also showed that the second-order kinetic model was the most consistent. The oxidation process during the initial contact was dominant in the EC-PS process and, over time, the EC process was dominant for CIP removal.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Alumínio/química , Eletrodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 147-155, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471021

RESUMO

Polymer hydrogel-based materials have been shown to act as novel Fenton catalysts for water treatment, but the rational design of hydrogel-based catalysts with good stability has been a great challenge. To increase the stability and activity of polymer-based Fenton catalysts, uniform urchin-like α-Fe2O3 was grown in situ in a PVA carrier matrix here. PVA molecules promoted the growth of urchin-like α-Fe2O3, and then the PVA hydrogel acted as a barrier and carrier to reduce agglomeration. Through coordination by hydroxyl groups, PVA had good combination with Fe ions and α-Fe2O3. The formation of Fe-O-C bonds between iron oxides and polymers was reported for the first time, enhancing the material stability during catalysis. Under higher PVA concentrations, the resulting composite hydrogel could generate more ˙OH due to the increase in the number of active sites because of the hairy urchin-like structure. In tetracycline degradation through a heterogeneous Fenton reaction, the resulting material had good catalytic activity from pH 2 to pH 10 with low iron leaching, good reusability and remained at a level of nearly 90% after five consecutive cycles. Density functional theory calculations were used to further prove the mechanism of structural change of the iron oxides. The HOMO and LUMO energies of the iron oxides changed from 5.428 and 4.899 eV to 5.926 and 5.310 eV, indicating that the presence of PVA could influence the charge of the iron atom. The results provide new insights into the preparation of polymer hydrogel-based heterogeneous Fenton catalysts with enhanced stability for water treatment.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Compostos Férricos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Polímeros
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 300-307, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537766

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to study the performances of isomeric α-, ß-, and γ-FeOOH (goethite, akaganéite and lepidocrocite, including five samples named as Gth1 and Gth2, Aka1 and Aka2, and Lep, respectively) for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption mechanisms were explored by kinetic and isothermal experiments. Adsorption efficiencies under the different pH values, anions, and the levels of adsorbate and adsorbent were also measured. Results showed that the Cr(VI) adsorption by isomeric FeOOH could be best described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The processes of Cr(VI) isothermal adsorption could be greatly fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations with the high correlation coefficients of R2 (>0.92). Also, there were the optimum pH values of 3.0-8.0 for FeOOH to adsorb Cr(VI), and their adsorption capacities were tightly related with the active sites of adsorbents. Cr(VI) adsorptions by these adsorbents were easily influenced by H2PO4-, and then SO42-, while there were little effects by Cl-, CO32- and NO3-. These obtained results could provide a potentially theoretical evidence for isomeric FeOOH materials applied in the engineering treatment of the polluted chromate-rich waters.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cromo/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(2): 308-316, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537767

RESUMO

In this study, a novel composite of modified diatomite supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (mD-NZVI) was synthesized and characterized. The effects of four factors (mD-NZVI dose, temperature, contact time and initial pH) on the removal of Cr(VI) by mD-NZVI were studied by experimental work and analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). A second-order polynomial equation fitted by Box-Behnken design was used as a statistical model and proved to be precise in describing the significance of four factors. The analysis results show that the effects of four factors on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) were significant (F value is 19.83), initial pH was found to be the key factor. In addition, the effect of initial pH was further studied and the maximum removal efficiency of 89.34% was obtained at pH of 3, the decrease in removal efficiency with the increase in pH is a synergistic effect of Cr(VI) species, surface charge of mD-NZVI and OH- amount at different pH.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cromo/análise , Terra de Diatomáceas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 117-125, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461428

RESUMO

In this study the removal of phosphates from solution by Donnan dialysis and by adsorption onto calcium alginate beads were studied separately and then together. This hybrid process was conducted in order to benefit from each process, and it is an original and new combination. First, the Donnan dialysis process was performed with different parameters: the type of counter-ion, the concentration of the counter-ion, the initial phosphate concentration, the pH of the solution and the choice of anion-exchange membranes. Donnan dialysis achieved 68% and 12.5% phosphorus removal with AMX and AFN membranes respectively. Then a preliminary study into the adsorption of phosphate onto calcium alginate beads was carried out. A full factor design was applied in order to determine the effect of the main parameters and their mutual interactions for the adsorption process. The removal of phosphate onto calcium alginate beads reached 82.5%. Finally, coupling Donnan dialysis with adsorption onto calcium alginate beads for the removal of phosphate reached 89.5% with the AMX membrane. This hybrid process can be considered to be a solution for improving the contact time and for enhancing the removal of phosphate by 10% compared to adsorption onto calcium alginate.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Fosfatos/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cálcio/química , Diálise , Ácido Glucurônico , Ácidos Hexurônicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos/análise
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 126-133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461429

RESUMO

This work is dedicated to the removal of free cyanide from aqueous solution through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 catalyzed by copper oxide nanoparticles. Effects of initial molar ratio [H2O2]0/[CN-]0, catalyst dose, temperature, pH and the catalyst stability on cyanide removal have been investigated. The use of copper oxide has improved the reaction rate showing catalytic activity. The cyanide removal efficiency was increased from 60% to 94% by increasing in the dose of catalyst from 0.5 g/L to 5.0 g/L. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 35 °C promotes cyanide removal and the four successive times re-use of catalyst shows good stability. Kinetics of cyanide removal was found to be of pseudo-first-order with respect to cyanide. The rate constants have been determined.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Cianetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Catálise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 134-143, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461430

RESUMO

The aim of this article was to clarify which type of dye chromophores could be decolorized efficiently with the use of laccase enzyme. For this purpose, enzymatic degradation of different type of dye classes (4 reactive, 2 acid and 1 basic dye) having various chromophore groups was investigated by using commercial laccase from Cerrena unicolor. It was observed that the chromophore structure of dye is very important on enzymatic color removal efficiency. According to the experimental results, it was found that color removal efficiencies (20 mg/L initial dye) were 98.7% for RB220 (0.1 g/L enzyme after 6 h), 95.1% for RB19 (0.1 g/L enzyme after 48 h), 90.8% for AR42 (0.1 g/L enzyme after 48 h) while they were 60.9% for AR114 (0.25 g/L enzyme), 58.6% for RB21 (0.5 g/L enzyme), 39.7% for RR239 (0.25 g/L enzyme) even after seven days. As a result, it can be said that the highest decolorization rate was achieved for the reactive dye having formazan copper complex (RB220) chromophore. On the other hand, the enzymatic degradation of basic dye (BB9) was found to be rather difficult compared to the acid and reactive dyes used in this study and the maximum color removal was 42.8% after seven days.


Assuntos
Corantes/análise , Lacase/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cor , Corantes/química , Cobre , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(12): 2387-2394, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411593

RESUMO

The frequent detection of antibiotics in water bodies gives rise to concerns about their removal technology. In this study, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of norfloxacin (NOR), a typical fluoroquinolone pharmaceutical, by the UV/peroxydisulfate (PDS) was investigated. NOR could be degraded effectively using this process, and the degradation rate increased with the increasing dosage of PDS but decreased with the increasing concentration of NOR. In real water, the degradation of NOR was slower than that in ultrapure water, which indicated that laboratory results cannot be directly used to predict the natural fate of antibiotics. Further experiments suggested that the degradation of NOR was the most fast under neutral condition, the existence of HA or FA inhibited the degradation of NOR, and the presence of inorganic ions (NO3-, Cl-, CO32- and HCO3-) had no significant effect on degradation of NOR. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate (40%) indicated NOR was not completely mineralized, and six transformation products were identified, and possible degradation pathways of NOR had been proposed. It can be prospected that UV/PDS technology could be used for advanced treatment of wastewater containing fluoroquinolones.


Assuntos
Norfloxacino/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta
13.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 139-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376343

RESUMO

One of the most important quality characteristics associated with wastewater reuse in discharging in water bodies is the microbial quality. This study aimed to determine the efficiency of Médéa wastewater treatment plant (conventional activated sludge system) in the removal of protozoan cysts and parasitic eggs. This study was carried out during four months and samples were collected at weekly intervals from influent and effluent of the wastewater plant. In order to determine the concentration of ova, samples were analyzed according to Bailenger method. The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Médéa has removed 88.9­100% of parasite eggs and more than 95% of protozoan cysts.


Assuntos
Cistos , Eucariotos , Helmintos , Esgotos , Purificação da Água , Argélia , Animais , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109415, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299471

RESUMO

Erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZI) and telithromycin (TEL) are widely-used macrolide antibiotics that are frequently detected in various water environments, including resource water and drinking water. In the performed chlorination disinfection process, at least 10, 20 and 200 new disinfection byproducts of ERY, AZI and TEL, respectively, were observed (the mixtures of the disinfection byproducts of ERY, AZI and TEL were named ERY-M, AZI-M and TEL-M, respectively). There is limited information available regarding their comparative toxicities, and their potential health risks are still unknown. In this study, the Jurkat cell line was used to compare the toxicities of the disinfection byproduct mixtures and their precursor compounds. The cell viability results indicated that the toxicity of ERY-M may not be enhanced after disinfection by chlorination. In contrast, at the same concentrations, AZI-M and TEL-M induced more significant inhibitory effects on cell viability than their parent compounds. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and cell cytokine release (including interleukin-2, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) analyses of AZI-M and TEL-M further verified these results. Our findings demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of AZI and TEL was enhanced during the chlorination disinfection process. This investigation will provide substantial new details related to the toxicity of the mixed disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of ERY, AZI and TEL generated in the chlorination disinfection process.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Eritromicina/análise , Halogenação , Cetolídeos , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180394, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269105

RESUMO

The petrochemical industry has played a considerable role in generation and release of waste in the environment. Activated sludge and facultative lagoons are commonly used for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment due to their low-cost and minimal need for operational requirements. Microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are responsible for most nutrient removal. In this study, microbiological and physicochemical parameters were used to estimate changes in bacterial community in a petrochemical industrial WWTP. The activated sludge was the place with higher heterotrophic bacterial quantification. Denitrifying bacteria was reduced at least 5.3 times throughout all collections samples. We observe a decrease in the total Kjeldahl nitrogen, oxygen demand and phosphate throughout the WWTP. In this work, we also use Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for bacteria isolates identification comparing with 16S rDNA sequencing. The MALDI-TOF MS allowed the identification of 93% of the isolates and only 5% show different results from 16S rDNA sequencing showing that the MALDI-TOF MS can be a tool for identifying environmental bacteria. The observation of microbial community dynamics in the WWTP is important in order to understand the functioning of the ecological structure formed in a specific environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Bactérias/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(10): 1922-1933, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294709

RESUMO

Hybrid adsorbents (ES) were prepared with mixing of eggshell and sericite as binders, and Pb(II) was removed from aqueous solutions. Sericite has the advantage of not only serving as a binder for hybrid adsorbent but also having a negative charge on the surface to improve the removal efficiency of heavy metals. Various parameters affecting the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions were investigated using the optimal conditions derived. In addition, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic analyses were performed using the experimental results of each parameter. The ES had a more specific surface area and porosity than sericite or eggshell and contained a large number of OH groups favoring heavy metal adsorption. As a result of the adsorption of Pb(II) using the ES, the adsorption process was physical and suitable for the Freundlich isotherm. In addition, the adsorption process of Pb(II) by the ES was a spontaneous endothermic reaction. The ES can quickly reach the adsorption equilibrium and strong adsorption strength. In addition, the CaOH contained in the ES can neutralize the pH of wastewater, and it is possible to treat heavy metal ions in industrial wastewater and acid mine wastewater without controlling the pH. ES adsorbents using waste eggshells are very economic because they recycle what would otherwise be waste and have great significance in terms of resource reuse.


Assuntos
Chumbo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Animais , Casca de Ovo/química , Cinética , Dióxido de Silício/química , Termodinâmica , Purificação da Água/métodos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 165-177, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319253

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants are widely detected and persistent in environmental waters. Advanced oxidation processes are among the most effective methods for removing emerging contaminants from water; however, high energy consumption greatly increases the operating costs and limits large-scale applications. In this study, a passive treatment system consisting of four columns packed with mixtures of silica sand, zero-valent iron (ZVI), biochar (BC), and a mixture of (ZVI + BC) were evaluated for simultaneous removal of eight pharmaceuticals, four artificial sweeteners, and two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from water. Overall, the passive treatment system was more effective for removing target pharmaceuticals (almost complete removal) than artificial sweeteners and PFASs (partial removal). Columns ZVI, BC, and (ZVI + BC) exhibited similarly effective removal (>97%) of target pharmaceuticals, including carbamazepine, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, and naproxen, from ~9 to <0.25 µg L-1; pharmaceuticals were more rapidly removed by Columns ZVI and (ZVI + BC) than Column BC, except for ibuprofen. Column ZVI was more effective for removing artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K and sucralose than Columns BC and (ZVI + BC); however, BC exhibited relatively greater removal of saccharin than ZVI and (ZVI + BC). Acesulfame-K and saccharin (~110 µg L-1) were partially removed in the treatment columns. Cyclamate was not removed in any of the columns. However, >76% of input sucralose (~110 µg L-1) was removed in the three treatment columns. Reactive medium BC alone was more effective for removing target PFASs than ZVI and (ZVI + BC). Input perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (~45 µg L-1) was partially removed in the columns containing BC but not ZVI alone. Between 10 and 80% of input perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (24 ̶ 90 µg L-1) was removed in Column ZVI; greater removals (57 ̶ 99%) were observed in Columns BC and (ZVI + BC).


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Edulcorantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ferro
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 322-331, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323577

RESUMO

A detailed comparison of sand filtration (SF) and ultrafiltration (UF) was conducted in this study with the aim to provide systematic support for alternative UF and SF technologies. The results of natural organic matter (NOM) removal indicated that SF conferred a slightly higher removal rate for UV-absorbing compounds, humic-like substances and protein-like substances than UF, with removal efficiencies of 21.9%, 19.8% and 26.1%, respectively. In addition, SF and UF exhibited different removal performances for organic fractions: UF better removed high molecular-weight (MW) organics, while SF exhibited higher removal of medium-MW organics. Furthermore, chlorine and chlorine dioxide were used as disinfectants to compare the different influences of SF and UF on disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. Unexpectedly, SF exhibited a better capacity for reducing the formation of chlorite than the UF process, with concentrations of 0.57 mg/L and 0.69 mg/L, respectively. Importantly, for the emergency scenario, e.g. seasonal algae pollution, the UF process achieved significantly higher removal of algae cells (98.7%) than SF due to size exclusion, indicating substantial resistance to algae load shocks. Therefore, these findings are beneficial for making practical decisions to adopt SF or UF technology in drinking water treatment plants.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Água Potável/química , Membranas Artificiais
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 417-429, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323587

RESUMO

The pharmaceutical compounds sulfamethoxazole (SMX), propranolol (PRO) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are biorecalcitrant and frequently detected in waters causing negative impacts on human health and aquatic organisms. Electrochemical oxidation appears as an effective option for the removal of recalcitrant compounds and its enhancement is an important issue for the removal of emerging compounds in water. The contribution of this research lies in the comprehensive analysis of the oxygenated electro chemical oxidation of CBZ, SMX and PRO using Nb/BDD mesh anode. The effect of treatment time, current, pH and oxygen injection on the SMX, PRO and CBZ degradation was assessed using Na2SO4 as electrolyte, process optimization was performed, by-products were identified, kinetic and toxicity tests were carried out using different electrolytes. Finally, the process effectiveness was tested using real secondary effluent spiked with the mixture of the pharmaceutical compounds and the acute toxicity was determined. The obtained results indicated that the oxygenated electrochemical oxidation allows effective simultaneous SMX, PRO and CBZ degradation, which showed a significant dependence of treatment time, current and oxygen injection in Na2SO4 electrolyte. At 90 min of electrolysis the parent compounds were detected as well as eight by-products. At 150 min of treatment, further to the already determined by-products and the parent compounds, appeared phenol and p-benzoquinone. Based on the identified compounds, degradation pathways were explained as a result of two main mechanisms: transformation (hydroxylation, deamination, desulfunation) and bond rupture. The kinetic study indicated an increase of the first-order kinetic constant in the oxygenated electrochemical oxidation process using Na2SO4 and NaBr as electrolyte, nevertheless the constant decreased in the presence of NaCl. In the assays with secondary effluent spiked with SMX, PRO and CBZ, the oxygenation did not enhance the performance of the process, however; pharmaceuticals were degraded with a higher removal rates compared with the ones determined in the Na2SO4 synthetic solutions assays; the oxygenation enhanced the TOC and COD removal. The acute toxicity of spiked secondary effluent was reduced from the first few minutes of the electrochemical oxidation process.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 621-630, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325862

RESUMO

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal supply water have been a concern. Many DBPs have been characterized as possible and probable human carcinogens, which can pose elevated cancer risks through lifetime exposure to municipal supply water. Few DBPs are regulated in many countries to control human exposure and risk from DBPs. In risk assessment studies, concentration of DBPs in water distribution systems is often used, whereas populations are typically exposed to indoor tap water. Through employing several techniques, DBPs can be reduced prior to water consumption, which is likely to reduce human exposure and risk of DBPs. This study investigated six indoor techniques in reducing trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in synthetic water and the effects of these techniques on exposure and risk. The techniques are: S1, S2: storing water in a refrigerator with and without lids respectively; S3, S4: boiling water for 1 min followed by storing in a refrigerator with and without lids respectively; S5, S6: filtering water using new and used granular activated carbon (GAC) filters and storing in a refrigerator without lids. Storing of water (S1, S2) reduced THMs in the range of 14.8-47.2% while boiling (S3, S4) and filtration (S5, S6) reduced THMs in the range of 77.3-92.8%. In S1-S4 techniques, HAAs were not reduced significantly while in S5 - S6 techniques, HAAs were reduced in the range of 64.7-69.8%. In S3-S6 techniques, overall cancer and non-cancer risks were reduced by 45.5-82.6% and 26.3-80.0% respectively. The findings might prove useful in understanding DBPs exposure, associated risks, strategies to minimize exposure to these contaminants and updating regulatory guidelines for better protection of health risks from DBPs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise
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