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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577467

RESUMO

Different cultivars of pear trees are often planted in one orchard to enhance yield for its gametophytic self-incompatibility. Therefore, an accurate and robust modelling method is needed for the non-destructive determination of leaf nitrogen (N) concentration in pear orchards with mixed cultivars. This study proposes a new technique based on in-field visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy and the Adaboost algorithm initiated with machine learning methods. The performance was evaluated by estimating leaf N concentration for a total of 1285 samples from different cultivars, growth regions, and tree ages and compared with traditional techniques, including vegetation indices, partial least squares regression, singular support vector regression (SVR) and neural networks (NN). The results demonstrated that the leaf reflectance responded to the leaf nitrogen concentration were more sensitive to the types of cultivars than to the different growing regions and tree ages. Moreover, the AdaBoost.RT-BP had the best accuracy in both the training (R2 = 0.96, root mean relative error (RMSE) = 1.03 g kg-1) and the test datasets (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 1.29 g kg-1), and was the most robust in repeated experiments. This study provides a new insight for monitoring the status of pear trees by the in-field VIS-NIR spectroscopy for better N managements in heterogeneous pear orchards.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Nitrogênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 219, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pears have been world-widely used as a sweet and nutritious food and a folk medicine for more than two millennia. METHODS: We conducted a review from ancient literatures to current reports to extract evidence-based functions of pears. RESULTS: We found that pears have many active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phenolic acids including arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, etc. Most of researchers agree that the beneficial compounds are concentrated in the peels. From various in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, the medicinal functions of pears can be summarized as anti-diabetic,-obese, -hyperlipidemic, -inflammatory, -mutagenic, and -carcinogenic effects, detoxification of xenobiotics, respiratory and cardio-protective effects, and skin whitening effects. Therefore, pears seem to be even effective for prevention from Covid-19 or PM2.5 among high susceptible people with multiple underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: For the current or post Covid-19 era, pears have potential for functional food or medicine for both of communicable and non-communicable disease.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pyrus/química , COVID-19 , Flavonoides , Humanos , Fenóis , Triterpenos
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338771, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482899

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy models for fresh fruit quality prediction often fail when used on a new batch or scenario having new variability which was absent in the primary calibration. To handle the new variability often model updating is required. In this study, to solve the challenge of updating NIR models related to fresh fruit quality properties, the use of a semi-supervised parameter-free calibration enhancement (PFCE) approach was proposed. Model updating with PFCE was shown in two ways: first where the model on the primary batch was updated individually for each new fruit batch, and second where the model was sequentially updated for the next batches. Furthermore, for the first time, a case of updating an instrument transferred model was also presented. The PFCE approach was shown in two real cases related to moisture and total soluble solids prediction in pear and kiwi fruit. In the case of pear, the model was later updated for 3 new measurement batches, while, for kiwi, a commercial model was updated to incorporate the variability of a new experiment carried out with a new instrument in the laboratory environment. For each modelling demonstration, the performance was benchmarked with the partial least-square (PLS) regression analysis on the primary batch. The results showed that the models updated with a semi-supervised approach kept a high predictive performance on new measurement batches, without any extra parameter optimization. An instrument transferred model was also updated to maintain its performance on different batches. Further, the sequential updating approach was found to be performing better than the update for individual batches, as the models were able to learn from multiple batches. Model updating with a semi-supervised approach can allow the NIR spectroscopy of fresh fruit to be scalable, where models can be shared between scientific or application community.


Assuntos
Frutas , Pyrus , Calibragem , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10311-10320, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431666

RESUMO

Based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), untargeted differential metabolomics analysis was performed on the pear wine samples before and after browning to determine the key compounds that affect the browning of Dangshan pear wine. A total of 196 significantly differential metabolites were found, 22 of which might be related to the browning of Dangshan pear wine. d-(+)-glucose, l-phenylalanine, l-norleucine, methionine, d-(+)-proline, aloin, and rutin were the key differential metabolites in pear wine before and after browning. The Maillard reaction of d-(+)-glucose, l-norleucine, methionine, and the oxidation of aloin played critical roles in the browning of Dangshan pear wine. The reaction of aloin and glucose to form 5-hydroxyaloin A, 7-hydroxyaloin B, and elgonica-dimer A was one of the important metabolic pathways in which the phenolic compounds formed anthraquinone during the browning process of Dangshan pear wine.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Vinho , Frutas , Reação de Maillard , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Vinho/análise
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2881-2885, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338875

RESUMO

Here, we describe a novel mycovirus, tentatively designated as "Botryosphaeria dothidea mitovirus 3" (BdMV3), isolated from Botryosphaeria dothidea strain FJ, which causes pear ring rot disease in Fujian Province, China. The complete genome nucleotide sequence of BdMV3 is 2538 nt in length and contains a single 2070-nt open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 689 amino acids (aa) using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code. BLASTp analysis revealed that the RdRp of BdMV3 shares 28.91%-69.36% sequence identity (query sequence coverage more than 90%) with those of members of the genus Mitovirus, with the highest sequence identity of 69.36% and 68.79% to the corresponding RdRp aa sequences of Rhizoctonia solani mitovirus 10 and Macrophomina phaseolina mitovirus 4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp aa sequences indicated that BdMV3 is a new member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Mitoviridae.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pyrus/microbiologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , China , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445149

RESUMO

Anthocyanins contribute to the quality and flavour of fruits. They are produced through the phenylpropanoid pathway, which is regulated by specific key genes that have been identified in many species. The dominant anthocyanin forms are reversibly transformed at different pH states, thus forming different colours in aqueous solutions. In plants, anthocyanins are controlled by specific factors of the biosynthetic pathway: light, temperature, phytohormones and transcription factors. Although great progress in research on anthocyanin structures and the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has been made, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in different plants remain less clear. In addition, the co-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this review, we summarise previous findings on anthocyanin biosynthesis, including the biochemical and biological features of anthocyanins; differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis among fruit species, i.e., apple, red pear, and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; and the developmental and environmental regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. This review reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in different plant species and provides valuable information for the development of anthocyanin-rich red-skinned and red-fleshed apple and pear varieties.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361698

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN) are the most common mycotoxins produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species and are often associated with fruits and fruit by-products. Hence, simple and reliable methods for monitoring these toxins in foodstuffs are required for regular quality assessment. In this study, we aimed to establish a cost-effective method for detection and quantification of PAT and CTN in pome fruits, such as apples and pears, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectroscopic detectors without the need for any clean-up steps. The method showed good performance in the analysis of these mycotoxins in apple and pear fruit samples with recovery ranges of 55-97% for PAT and 84-101% for CTN, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) of PAT and CTN in fruits were 0.006 µg/g and 0.001 µg/g, while their limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.018 µg/g and 0.003 µg/g, respectively. The present findings indicate that the newly developed HPLC method provides rapid and accurate detection of PAT and CTN in fruits.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrinina/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Patulina/análise , Pyrus/química , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Penicillium/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371978

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the impact of fruit preloads on the acute postprandial glycemic response (PGR) and satiety response of a rice meal in healthy female subjects based on iso-carbohydrate (IC) and hyper-carbohydrate (HC) contents, respectively. The IC test meals including (1) rice preload (R + 35R), (2) orange preload (O + 35R), (3) apple preload (A + 35R) and (4) pear preload (P + 35R), contained 50.0 g available carbohydrates (AC) where the preload contributed 15.0 g and rice provided 35.0 g. The HC meals included (1) orange preload (O + 50R), (2) apple preload (A+50R) and (3) pear preload (P + 50R), each containing 65.0 g AC, where the fruits contributed 15.0 g and rice provided 50.0 g. Drinking water 30 min before the rice meal was taken as reference (W + 50R). All the preload treatments, irrespective of IC or HC meals, resulted in remarkable reduction (p < 0.001) in terms of incremental peak glucose (IPG) and the maximum amplitude of glycemic excursion in 180 min (MAGE0-180), also a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the area of PGR contributed by per gram of AC (AAC), compared with the W + 50R. Apple elicited the lowest PGR among all test meals, as the A + 35R halved the IPG and slashed the incremental area under the curve in 180 min (iAUC0-180) by 45.7%, while the A + 50R reduced the IPG by 29.7%, compared with the W + 50R. All the preload meals and the reference meal showed comparable self-reported satiety in spite of the difference in AC. In conclusion, pre-meal consumption of three fruits effectively curbed post-meal glycemia even in the case of a 30% extra carbohydrate load.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutas , Período Pós-Prandial , Adolescente , Adulto , Citrus sinensis , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Malus , Refeições , Oryza , Pyrus , Saciação , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 298, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In present study, the effects of the leaf extract of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse on tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced toxicity in the HepG2 cell line were investigated. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were exposed to different concentrations of both extract (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL) and t-BHP (100, 150, and 200 µM). The total flavonoid and phenolic contents, the cell viability, lipid peroxidation, NO generation, and the total antioxidant capacity in cell media were assessed. The amount of arbutin was estimated 12.6% of the dry weight of leaves (equivalent to 126 mg/g). Additionally, the amounts of flavonoids and phenols in extract were estimated 119 mg/g and 418 mg/g, respectively. The cells incubated with t-BHP showed a significant decrease in survival (p < 0.001). Preincubation with extract (1.5 mg/mL and 2.0 mg/mL) attenuated the t-BHP toxicity and increased the cell viability in cells exposed even to the highest concentration of t-BHP (200 µM) (p value < 0.001, and p value = 0.035) respectively. Additionally, treatment with extract reduced the cell growth suppression caused by t-BHP. The P. biossieriana Buhse leaf extract at concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL is capable of attenuating t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/toxicidade
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 378, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms of sugar accumulation and composition is essential to determining fruit quality and maintaining a desirable balance of sugars in plant storage organs. The major sugars in mature Rosaceae fruits are sucrose, fructose, glucose, and sorbitol. Among these, sucrose and fructose have high sweetness, whereas glucose and sorbitol have low sweetness. Japanese pear has extensive variation in individual sugar contents in mature fruit. Increasing total sugar content and that of individual high-sweetness sugars is a major target of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with fruit traits including individual sugar accumulation, to infer the candidate genes underlying the QTLs, and to assess the potential of genomic selection for breeding pear fruit traits. RESULTS: We evaluated 10 fruit traits and conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 106 cultivars and 17 breeding populations (1112 F1 individuals) using 3484 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By implementing a mixed linear model and a Bayesian multiple-QTL model in GWAS, 56 SNPs associated with fruit traits were identified. In particular, a SNP located close to acid invertase gene PPAIV3 on chromosome 7 and a newly identified SNP on chromosome 11 had quite large effects on accumulation of sucrose and glucose, respectively. We used 'Golden Delicious' doubled haploid 13 (GDDH13), an apple reference genome, to infer the candidate genes for the identified SNPs. In the region flanking the SNP on chromosome 11, there is a tandem repeat of early responsive to dehydration (ERD6)-like sugar transporter genes that might play a role in the phenotypes observed. CONCLUSIONS: SNPs associated with individual sugar accumulation were newly identified at several loci, and candidate genes underlying QTLs were inferred using advanced apple genome information. The candidate genes for the QTLs are conserved across Pyrinae genomes, which will be useful for further fruit quality studies in Rosaceae. The accuracies of genomic selection for sucrose, fructose, and glucose with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were relatively high (0.67-0.75), suggesting that it would be possible to select individuals having high-sweetness fruit with high sucrose and fructose contents and low glucose content.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/genética , Açúcares/análise , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Frutas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 1096-1108, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304127

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) plays a crucial role in plant growth, development and response to various environmental changes. However, whether alternative splicing of MADS-box transcription factors contributes to the flower bud dormancy process in fruit trees still remains unknown. In this work, the AS profile of genes in the dormant flower buds of 'Dangshansu' pear tree were examined. A total number of 3661 alternatively spliced genes were identified, and three mRNA isoforms of the dormancy associated MADS box (DAM) gene, PpDAM1, derived by alternative splicing, designated as PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.2 and PpDAM1.3, were characterized. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis indicated that AS of PpDAM1 didn't affect the nucleus localization and homo-/heterodimerization of PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.2 and PpDAM1.3 proteins, but disturbed the translocation of PpDAM1.1/PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.3/PpDAM1.3, PpDAM1.1/PpDAM1.3, and PpDAM1.2/PpDAM1.3 dimers to the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PpDAM1.2, but not PpDAM1.1 and PpDAM1.3, in Arabidopsis retarded the growth and development of transgenic plants. Further comparative expression analyses of PpDAM1.1, PpDAM1.2 and PpDAM1.3 in the flower buds of 'Dangshansu' and a less dormant pear cultivar, 'Cuiguan', exhibited that the expression of all the three isoforms in 'Dangshansu' were significantly higher than in 'Cuiguan', especially PpDAM1.2, which showed a predominantly higher expression than PpDAM1.1 and PpDAM1.3 in both cultivars. Our results suggest that alternative splicing of PpDAM1 could play a crucial role in pear flower bud dormancy process.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Processamento Alternativo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Dormência de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(4): 673-686, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273013

RESUMO

Euseius sojaensis (Ehara) is an effective indigenous natural enemy of some eriophyid mites and spider mites in Japan. However, pesticides that are toxic to it are frequently applied in commercial Japanese pear orchards until early summer, when the predator densities are at their peak. Here, we examined the suppressive effect of inoculative release of E. sojaensis on Eriophyes chibaensis Kadono and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida under conservation control using selective pesticides from late April to late June. The densities of E. sojaensis peaked in early June. In E. sojaensis-release plots, phytoseiid populations were larger, E. chibaensis and T. kanzawai populations were smaller, and rates of leaf mosaic and russeting caused by E. chibaensis were significantly lower than in control plots. These results suggest that E. sojaensis can control E. chibaensis and T. kanzawai populations simultaneously. As it may be difficult to suppress E. chibaensis densities below the control threshold of 50 mites per leaf only by conservation using selective pesticides, enhancement and augmentation of E. sojaensis for sustainable control of mites should be considered as an option in commercial Japanese pear orchards.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Pyrus , Tetranychidae , Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198776

RESUMO

In this paper, peptide conjugates were designed and synthesized by incorporating the antimicrobial undecapeptide BP16 at the C- or N-terminus of the plant defense elicitor peptide flg15, leading to BP358 and BP359, respectively. The evaluation of their in vitro activity against six plant pathogenic bacteria revealed that BP358 displayed MIC values between 1.6 and 12.5 µM, being more active than flg15, BP16, BP359, and an equimolar mixture of BP16 and flg15. Moreover, BP358 was neither hemolytic nor toxic to tobacco leaves. BP358 triggered the overexpression of 6 out of the 11 plant defense-related genes tested. Interestingly, BP358 inhibited Erwinia amylovora infections in pear plants, showing slightly higher efficacy than the mixture of BP16 and flg15, and both treatments were as effective as the antibiotic kasugamycin. Thus, the bifunctional peptide conjugate BP358 is a promising agent to control fire blight and possibly other plant bacterial diseases.


Assuntos
Erwinia amylovora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/síntese química , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Erwinia amylovora/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Pyrus/microbiologia
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 321, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Browning spot (BS) disorders seriously affect the appearance quality of 'Huangguan' pear and cause economic losses. Many studies on BS have mainly focused on physiological and biochemical aspects, and the molecular mechanism remains unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, the structural characteristics of 'Huangguan' pear with BS were observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the water loss and brown spots were evaluated, and transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses were conducted to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying 'Huangguan' pear skin browning disorder. The results showed that the occurrence of BS was accompanied by a decrease in the wax layer and an increase in lignified cells. Genes related to wax biosynthesis were downregulated in BS, resulting in a decrease in the wax layer in BS. Genes related to lignin were upregulated at the transcriptional level, resulting in upregulation of metabolites related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Expression of calcium-related genes were upregulated in BS. Cold-induced genes may represent the key genes that induce the formation of BS. In addition, the results demonstrated that exogenous NaH2PO4·2H2O and ABA treatment could inhibit the incidence of BS during harvest and storage time by increasing wax-related genes and calcium-related genes expression and increasing plant resistance, whereas the transcriptomics results indicated that GA3 may accelerate the incidence and index of BS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate a molecular mechanism that could explain BS formation and elucidate the effects of different treatments on the incidence and molecular regulation of BS.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Metaboloma/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Pyrus/ultraestrutura , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300543

RESUMO

This study aimed to produce a robust real-time pear fruit counter for mobile applications using only RGB data, the variants of the state-of-the-art object detection model YOLOv4, and the multiple object-tracking algorithm Deep SORT. This study also provided a systematic and pragmatic methodology for choosing the most suitable model for a desired application in agricultural sciences. In terms of accuracy, YOLOv4-CSP was observed as the optimal model, with an AP@0.50 of 98%. In terms of speed and computational cost, YOLOv4-tiny was found to be the ideal model, with a speed of more than 50 FPS and FLOPS of 6.8-14.5. If considering the balance in terms of accuracy, speed and computational cost, YOLOv4 was found to be most suitable and had the highest accuracy metrics while satisfying a real time speed of greater than or equal to 24 FPS. Between the two methods of counting with Deep SORT, the unique ID method was found to be more reliable, with an F1count of 87.85%. This was because YOLOv4 had a very low false negative in detecting pear fruits. The ROI line is more reliable because of its more restrictive nature, but due to flickering in detection it was not able to count some pears despite their being detected.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Algoritmos , Frutas
17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(4-5): 407-417, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117570

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Sunlight enhanced peel color and significantly up-regulated the expression of PyMYB10 and PybHLH genes. MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcriptional complex forms in the light and is involved in regulating anthocyanin accumulation in the peel. Anthocyanin is the major pigment in the peel of Yunnan red pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nak.). A transcriptional activation protein complex, involving members of the transcription factor classes of MYB, bHLH and WD40, regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis. This complex was examined in the peel of red pear. In order to clarify the interaction of PyMYB10, PybHLH and PyWD40, fruit were bagged then peel samples collected 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after bag removal. Samples were used for Western blotting and protein interaction analysis. The results showed that sunlight enhanced peel color and significantly up-regulated the expression of both PyMYB10 and PybHLH genes. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis showed that PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 or PyWD40, and PyMYB10 interacted with PyWD40. Using onion cells as a model system, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) confirmed these interactions and showed that the interaction localized to the nuclei. GST Pull down and Far-Western blotting assays demonstrated that PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 or PyWD40, respectively, and PyMYB10 interacted with PyWD40 in vitro. In addition, EMSA assay showed that PyMYB10 can directly bind to the promoter of the gene encoding the anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme anthocyanidin synthase (PyANS). Taken together, these results showed that the ternary complex of PyMYB10, PybHLH and PyWD40 transcription factors forms to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in Yunnan red pear.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Pyrus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Repetições WD40
18.
Food Chem ; 364: 130326, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171812

RESUMO

Herein, a dual-mode method based on fluorescent and colorimetric sensor was developed for determination of organophosphate pesticides (OPs). In this study, indoxyl acetate (IDA) was hydrolyzed by esterase into indophenol. Indophenol leads to changes in fluorescence signal and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); ultimately changing the color from red to blue. When OPs exist, the formation of indophenol was inhibited. With increasing the concentrations of OPs, the enhancement rate of fluorescence signal decreases, and the color change of AuNPs weakened gradually. The assay was applied for determination of dichlorvos, trichlorfon, and paraoxon, and the limits of detection (LODs) were 0.0032 mg/kg, 0.0096 mg/kg, and 0.0074 mg/kg (fluorometric assay), and 0.0120 mg/kg, 0.0224 mg/kg, and 0.0106 mg/kg (colorimetric assay), respectively. Finally, such a convenient and sensitive sensing assay was successfully applied for quantification of OPs in pear and Chinese cabbage with good recoveries ranged between 80.19 and 116.93%.


Assuntos
Brassica , Inseticidas , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Praguicidas , Pyrus , China , Colorimetria , Diclorvós , Ouro , Praguicidas/análise
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 4836-4847, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148291

RESUMO

Pear cultivation accounts for a large proportion of worldwide orchards, but its sustainability is controversial because it relies on intensive use of pesticides. It is therefore crucial and timely to find alternative methods to chemical control in pear orchards. The psyllids Cacopsylla pyri and Cacopsylla pyricola are the most important pests of pear trees in Europe and North America, respectively, because they infest all commercial varieties, causing damage directly through sap consumption or indirectly through the spread of diseases. A set of natural enemies exists, ranging from generalist predators to specialist parasitoids. Trechnites insidiosus (Crawford) is undoubtedly the most abundant specialist parasitoid of psyllids. In our literature review, we highlight the potential of this encyrtid species as a biological control agent of psyllid pests by first reviewing its biology and ecology, and then considering its potential at regulating psyllids. We show that the parasitoid can express fairly high parasitism rates in orchards, and almost perfectly matches the phenology of its host and is present early in the host infestation season, which is an advantage for controlling immature stages of psyllids. We propose new research directions and innovative approaches that would improve the use of T. insidiosus in integrated pest management strategies in the future, regarding both augmentative and conservation biocontrol. We conclude that T. insidiosus has many advantages and should be included as part of integrated biological control strategies of pear psyllids, along with predators, in-field habitat conservation, and the rational use of compatible chemicals. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Pyrus , Animais , Biologia , Ecossistema , Simbiose
20.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187976

RESUMO

Drought limits the pear yield and quality. The birch-leaf pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge) is one of the most frequently used pear rootstocks. Identifying genes involved in drought resistance of P. betulifolia would suggest candidate genes for molecular breeding. We used single-molecule long-read sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome of birch-leaf pear under drought stress. As a result, 362,139 consensus reads were identified using six databases, among which 342,162 genes were functionally annotated. Further, we identified 7094 long noncoding RNAs. The sequencing data contained 9891 alternative splicing and 100,836 alternative polyadenylation events. We report here the full-length sequence of birch-leaf pear, which can be used for breeding enhanced varieties.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Secas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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