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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 910, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human-centered design (HCD) is an increasingly recognized approach for engaging stakeholders and developing contextually appropriate health interventions. As a component of the ongoing STRENGTHS study (Strengthening Referral Networks for Management of Hypertension Across the Health System), we report on the process and outcomes of utilizing HCD to develop the implementation strategy prior to a cluster-randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We organized a design team of 15 local stakeholders to participate in an HCD process to develop implementation strategies. We tested prototypes for acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility through focus group discussions (FGDs) with various community stakeholder groups and a pilot study among patients with hypertension. FGD transcripts underwent content analysis, and pilot study data were analyzed for referral completion and reported barriers to referral. Based on this community feedback, the design team iteratively updated the implementation strategy. During each round of updates, the design team reflected on their experience through FGDs and a Likert-scale survey. RESULTS: The design team developed an implementation strategy consisting of a combined peer navigator and a health information technology (HIT) package. Overall, community participants felt that the strategy was acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. During the pilot study, 93% of referrals were completed. FGD participants felt that the implementation strategy facilitated referral completion through active peer engagement; enhanced communication between clinicians, patients, and health administrators; and integrated referral data into clinical records. Challenges included referral barriers that were not directly addressed by the strategy (e.g. transportation costs) and implementation of the HIT package across multiple health record systems. The design team reflected that all members contributed significantly to the design process, but emphasized the need for more transparency in how input from study investigators was incorporated into design team discussions. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive process of co-creation, prototyping, community feedback, and iterative redesign aligned our implementation strategy with community stakeholder priorities. We propose a new framework of human-centered implementation research that promotes collaboration between community stakeholders, study investigators, and the design team to develop, implement, and evaluate HCD products for implementation research. Our experience provides a feasible and replicable approach for implementation research in other settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02501746 , registration date: July 17, 2015.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Quênia , Projetos Piloto
2.
J Urban Health ; 98(Suppl 1): 15-30, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480327

RESUMO

Housing is a paradigmatic example of a social determinant of health, as it influences and is influenced by structural determinants, such as social, macroeconomic, and public policies, politics, education, income, and ethnicity/race, all intersecting to shaping the health and well-being of populations. It can therefore be argued that housing policy is critically linked to health policy. However, the extent to which this linkage is understood and addressed in public policies is limited and highly diverse across and within countries. This analysis seeks to describe the linkages between housing policies and health and well-being using examples from three countries at different levels of the wealth spectrum: Singapore, the UK, and Kenya.We conducted a comparative policy analysis across three country contexts (Singapore, the UK, and Kenya) to document the extent to which housing policies address health and well-being, highlighting commonalities and differences among them. To guide our analysis, we used the United Nations (UN) definition of adequate housing as it offers a broad framework to analyze the impact of housing on health and well-being.The anatomy of housing policies has a strong correlation to the provision of adequate housing across Singapore, the UK, and Kenya, especially for vulnerable groups. The paper demonstrates that contextual factors including population composition (i.e., aging versus youthful), political ideologies, legal frameworks (i.e., welfare versus market-based provision of housing), and presence (or absence) of adequate, quality, timely, reliable, robust data systems for decision-making, which are taken up by stakeholders/state, have strong implications of the type of housing policies developed and implemented, in turn directly and indirectly impacting the overall health and well-being of populations.This analysis demonstrates the value of viewing housing policies as public health policies that could significantly impact the health and well-being of populations, especially vulnerable groups. Moreover, the findings highlight the importance of the Health in All Policies approach to facilitate integrated policy responses to address social determinants of health such as housing. This is more critical than ever, given the context of the global pandemic that has led to worsening overall health and well-being.


Assuntos
Habitação , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Política Pública , Singapura , Reino Unido
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 440, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of treatment outcomes is important for service providers to assess if there is improvement or not. The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) was developed for this use in child and adolescent mental health services. Outcome measurement in routine mental health services is limited. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the self and clinician rated versions of the HoNOSCA for routine use in child and adolescent mental health services in Kenya. METHODS: Using a prospective design, the clinician- and self-rated versions of the HoNOSCA and the Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) were administered at the Youth Centre at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Initial ratings were obtained from adolescents 12-17 years (n = 201). A sample of 98 paired ratings with 2 follow-ups were examined for measurement of change over time. RESULTS: Our findings showed good reliability with the self-rated version of the HoNOSCA score, correlating well with the self-reported version of the PSC (r = .74, p < .001). Both versions correlated well at follow-up and were sensitive to change. Using factor analysis, the maximum likelihood factoring and Promax rotation resulted in a four-factor structure, which with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy of 0.8 explained 54.74% of total variance. CONCLUSION: The HoNOSCA appears to be of value, and easy to use in routine settings. Our findings suggest further investigation with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 444, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little data exists regarding depression and its associated factors in medical residents and doctors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Residents are at high risk of developing depression owing to the stressful nature of their medical practice and academic training. Depression in medical residents leads to decreased clinical efficiency, and poor academic performance; it can also lead to substance abuse and suicide. Our primary aim was to measure depression prevalence among medical residents in Kenya's largest national teaching and referral hospital. Secondary aims were to describe how depression was associated with perceived stress, perceived social support, substance use, and educational environment. METHODS: We sampled 338 residents belonging to 8 different specialties using self administered questionnaires in this cross-sectional survey between October 2019 and February 2020. Questionnaires included: sociodemographics, the Centres for Epidemiology Depression Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to assess for risk factors for depression. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 31.8 years and 53.4% were males. Most residents (70.4%) reported no to mild depressive symptoms, 12.7% had moderate, and 16.9% had severe depressive symptoms. Most residents had high social support (71.8%) and moderate stress (61.6%). The educational environment was rated as more positive than negative by 46.3% of residents. Bivariate analyses revealed significant correlations between depressive symptoms, perceived stress, substance use, perceived social support, and educational environment. Multivariate analysis showed that depression was strongly associated with: fewer hours of sleep (ß = - 0.683, p = 0.002), high perceived stress (ß = 0.709, p < 0.001) and low perceived social support (ß = - 2.19, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Only 30% of medical residents in our study had moderate and severe depressive symptoms. Most residents in our study reported high levels of social support, and moderate levels of stress. Though their overall appraisal of medical residency experience was positive, mental health support and self-care skills in the training of medical professionals needs prioritization.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049610, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an urgent challenge in low-income and middle-income countries, and interventions may require appraisal of patients' social networks to guide implementation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether egocentric social network characteristics (SNCs) of patients with chronic disease in western Kenya are associated with overall CVD risk and individual CVD risk factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of enrollment data (2017-2018) from the Bridging Income Generation with GrouP Integrated Care trial. Non-overlapping trust-only, health advice-only and multiplex (trust and health advice) egocentric social networks were elicited for each participant, and SNCs representing social cohesion were calculated. SETTING: 24 communities across four counties in western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n=2890) were ≥35 years old with diabetes (fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L) or hypertension. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: We hypothesised that SNCs would be associated with CVD risk status (QRISK3 score). Secondary outcomes were individual CVD risk factors. RESULTS: Among the 2890 participants, 2020 (70%) were women, and mean (SD) age was 60.7 (12.1) years. Forty-four per cent of participants had elevated QRISK3 score (≥10%). No relationship was observed between QRISK3 level and SNCs. In unadjusted comparisons, participants with any individuals in their trust network were more likely to report a good than a poor diet (41% vs 21%). SNCs for the trust and multiplex networks accounted for a substantial fraction of variation in measures of dietary quality and physical activity (statistically significant via likelihood ratio test, adjusted for false discovery rate). CONCLUSION: SNCs indicative of social cohesion appear to be associated with individual behavioural CVD risk factors, although not with overall CVD risk score. Understanding how SNCs of patients with chronic diseases relate to modifiable CVD risk factors could help inform network-based interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02501746; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02501746.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Rede Social
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046069, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thirty per cent of all women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the WHO's novel R.E.S.P.E.C.T framework and IPV among women in Kenya. METHODS: We used the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Only women selected for the domestic violence module and who were married/living with their partner were eligible for this study (n=3737). We created a summary score for the strategies denoted by R.E.S.P.T based on availability of questions addressing these strategies in the KDHS, and a total score that summed responses across all strategies. Each letter was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between R.E.S.P.T scores and IPV. RESULTS: All strategies except for E lowered the odds of IPV. Decision-making (R) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.62 (0.53 to 0.72)). Land and property ownership (E) were positively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=1.25 (1.08 to 1.43)). Access to healthcare (S) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.55 (0.48 to 0.63)). Higher levels of wealth (P) were negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.47 (0.37 to 0.62)). Not justifying wife-beating in any scenario (T) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.39 (0.29 to 0.53)). After adjusting for demographics, a 1-unit increase in total R.E.S.P.T score was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (AOR=0.63 (0.57 to 0.70)) with a similar finding for IPV in the past 12 months (AOR=0.59 (0.53 to 0.66)). Younger women, higher education and Muslim religion were associated with decreased odds of experiencing IPV while living in a rural location and working were associated with increased odds of experiencing IPV. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides initial evidence that by using the multistrategy R.E.S.P.E.C.T framework, countries can dramatically lower the odds of women experiencing IPV. IPV prevention strategies must have a wide approach. The DHS can be used as a tool to monitor implementation and efficacy of this novel strategy.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050995, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise adoption and explore specific clinical and patient factors that might influence pulse oximetry and oxygen use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) over time; to highlight useful considerations for entities working on programmes to improve access to pulse oximetry and oxygen. DESIGN: A multihospital retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: All admissions (n=132 737) to paediatric wards of 18 purposely selected public hospitals in Kenya that joined a Clinical Information Network (CIN) between March 2014 and December 2020. OUTCOMES: Pulse oximetry use and oxygen prescription on admission; we performed growth-curve modelling to investigate the association of patient factors with study outcomes over time while adjusting for hospital factors. RESULTS: Overall, pulse oximetry was used in 48.8% (64 722/132 737) of all admission cases. Use rose on average with each month of participation in the CIN (OR: 1.11, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.18) but patterns of adoption were highly variable across hospitals suggesting important factors at hospital level influence use of pulse oximetry. Of those with pulse oximetry measurement, 7% (4510/64 722) had hypoxaemia (SpO2 <90%). Across the same period, 8.6% (11 428/132 737) had oxygen prescribed but in 87%, pulse oximetry was either not done or the hypoxaemia threshold (SpO2 <90%) was not met. Lower chest-wall indrawing and other respiratory symptoms were associated with pulse oximetry use at admission and were also associated with oxygen prescription in the absence of pulse oximetry or hypoxaemia. CONCLUSION: The adoption of pulse oximetry recommended in international guidelines for assessing children with severe illness has been slow and erratic, reflecting system and organisational weaknesses. Most oxygen orders at admission seem driven by clinical and situational factors other than the presence of hypoxaemia. Programmes aiming to implement pulse oximetry and oxygen systems will likely need a long-term vision to promote adoption, guideline development and adherence and continuously examine impact.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Criança , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Quênia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 898, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been dozens of strikes by health workers in Kenya in the past decade, but there are few studies of their impact on maternal and child health services and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective survey study to assess the impact of nationwide strikes by health workers in 2017 on utilization of maternal and child health services in western Kenya. METHODS: We utilized a parent study to enroll women who were pregnant in 2017 when there were prolonged strikes by health workers ("strike group") and women who were pregnant in 2018 when there were no major strikes ("control group"). Trained research assistants administered a close-ended survey to retrospectively collect demographic and pregnancy-related health utilization and outcomes data. Data were collected between March and July 2019. The primary outcomes of interest were antenatal care (ANC) visits, delivery location, and early child immunizations. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk ratios between the strike and control groups, adjusting for socioeconomic status, health insurance status, and clustering. Adjusted risk ratios (ARR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: Of 1341 women recruited in the parent study in 2017 (strike group), we re-consented 843 women (63%) to participate. Of 924 women recruited in the control arm of the parent study in 2018 (control group), we re-consented 728 women (79%). Women in the strike group were 17% less likely to attend at least four ANC visits during their pregnancy (ARR 0.83, 95%CI 0.74, 0.94) and 16% less likely to deliver in a health facility (ARR 0.84, 95%CI 0.76, 0.92) compared to women in the control group. Whether a child received their first oral polio vaccine did not differ significantly between groups, but children of women in the strike group received their vaccine significantly longer after birth (13 days versus 7 days, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: We found that women who were pregnant during nationwide strikes by health workers in 2017 were less likely to receive WHO-recommended maternal child health services. Strategies to maintain these services during strikes are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 179, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls' risk of school dropout and reproductive health (RH) challenges may be exacerbated by girls' attitudes toward their bodies and inability to manage their menstruation. We assessed effects of sanitary pad distribution and RH education on girls in primary grade 7 in Kilifi, Kenya. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial design was used. Eligible clusters were all non-boarding schools in three sub-counties in Kilifi County that had a minimum of 25 girls enrolled in primary grade 7. 140 primary schools, 35 per arm, were randomly assigned to one of four study arms: (1) control; (2) sanitary pad distribution; (3) RH education; or (4) both sanitary pad distribution and RH education. Outcomes were school attendance, school engagement, RH knowledge and attitudes, gender norms, and self-efficacy. For outcomes measured both at baseline and endline, difference-in-differences (DID) models were estimated and for outcomes without baseline data available, analysis of covariance models were used. RESULTS: The study enrolled 3489 randomly selected girls in primary grade 7, with a mean age of 14.4 (SD 1.5). Girls in arms 2 and 4 received on average 17.6 out of 20 packets of sanitary pads and girls in arms 3 and 4 participated on average in 21 out of 25 RH sessions. Ninety-four percent of the baseline sample was interviewed at the end of the intervention with no differential attrition by arm. There was no evidence of an effect on primary school attendance on arm 2 (coefficient [coef] 0.37, 95% CI - 0.73, 1.46), arm 3 (coef 0.14, 95% CI - 0.99, 1.26) or arm 4 (coef 0.58, 95% CI - .37, 1.52). There was increased positive RH attitudes for girls in arm 3 (DID coef. 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.86) and arm 4 (DID coef. 0.85, 95% CI 0.64, - 1.07). There was also an increase in RH knowledge, gender norms and self-efficacy in arms 3 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that neither sanitary pad distribution nor RH education, on their own or together, were sufficient to improve primary school attendance. However, as the RH education intervention improved RH outcomes, the evidence suggests that sanitary pad distribution and RH education can be positioned in broader RH programming for girls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN10894523. Registered 22 August 2017-Retrospectively registered, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN10894523.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1622, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was done as part of a larger study that aims to identify the most impactful and cost-effective strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. Our objective was to involve stakeholders in the identification of the strategies that would be included in our larger study. The results from the stakeholder engagement are analyzed and reported in this paper. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study. A one-day stakeholder workshop that followed a deliberative dialogue process was conducted. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of stakeholders who participate in the national level policymaking process for health in Kenya. OUTCOME MEASURE: Strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. RESULTS: Out of the twenty-three stakeholders who confirmed attendance, fifteen participants attended the one-day workshop. The stakeholders identified a total of 24 strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. From the ranking process carried out the top six strategies identified were: a research-based strategy for the identification of the nutritional value of indigenous foods, implementation of health promotion strategies that focus on the creation of healthy environments, physical activity behavior such as gym attendance, jogging, walking, and running at the individual level, implementation of school curricula on nutrition and health promotion, integration of physical education into the new Competency-Based Education policy, and policies that increase use of public transport. CONCLUSION: The stakeholders identified and ranked strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. This informs future overweight and obesity prevention research and policy in Kenya and similar settings.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Trials ; 22(1): 629, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal Health Coverage ensures access to quality health services for all, with no financial hardship when accessing the needed services. Nevertheless, access to quality health services is marred by substantial resource shortages creating service delivery gaps in low-and middle-income countries, including Kenya. The Innovative Partnership for Universal Sustainable Healthcare (i-PUSH) program, developed by AMREF Health Africa and PharmAccess Foundation (PAF), aims to empower low-income women of reproductive age and their families through innovative digital tools. This study aims to evaluate the impact of i-PUSH on maternal and child health care utilization, women's health including their knowledge, behavior, and uptake of respective services, as well as women's empowerment and financial protection. It also aims to evaluate the impact of the LEAP training tool on empowering and enhancing community health volunteers' health literacy and to evaluate the impact of the M-TIBA health wallet on savings for health and health insurance uptake. METHODS: This is a study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) study that uses a four-pronged approach-including year-long weekly financial and health diaries interviews, baseline and endline surveys, a qualitative study, and behavioral lab-in-the-field experiments-in Kakemega County, Kenya. In total, 240 households from 24 villages in Kakamega will be followed to capture their health, health knowledge, health-seeking behavior, health expenditures, and enrolment in health insurance over time. Half of the households live in villages randomly assigned to the treatment group where i-PUSH will be implemented after the baseline, while the other half of the households live in control village where i-PUSH will not be implemented until after the endline. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the AMREF Ethical and Scientific Review Board. Research permits were obtained from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation agency of Kenya. DISCUSSION: People in low-and middle-income countries often suffer from high out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures, which, in turn, impede access to quality health services. Saving for healthcare as well as enrolment in health insurance can improve access to healthcare by building capacities at all levels-individuals, families, and communities. Notably, i-PUSH fosters savings for health care through the mobile-phone based "health wallet," it enhances enrolment in subsidized health insurance through the mobile platform-M-TIBA-developed by PAF, and it seeks to improve health knowledge and behavior through community health volunteers (CHVs) who are trained using the LEAP tool-AMREF's mHealth platform. The findings will inform stakeholders to formulate better strategies to ensure access to Universal Health Coverage in general, and for a highly vulnerable segment of the population in particular, including low-income mothers and their children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with Protocol Registration and Results System (protocol ID: AfricanPHRC; trial ID: NCT04068571 : AEARCTR-0006089 ; date: 29 August 2019) and The American Economic Association's registry for randomized controlled trials (trial ID: AEARCTR-0006089; date: 26 June 2020).


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Registros Médicos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
J Urban Health ; 98(Suppl 1): 31-40, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472014

RESUMO

The expansion in the scope, scale, and sources of data on the wider social determinants of health (SDH) in the last decades could bridge gaps in information available for decision-making. However, challenges remain in making data widely available, accessible, and useful towards improving population health. While traditional, government-supported data sources and comparable data are most often used to characterize social determinants, there are still capacity and management constraints on data availability and use. Conversely, privately held data may not be shared. This study reviews and discusses the nature, sources, and uses of data on SDH, with illustrations from two middle-income countries: Kenya and the Philippines. The review highlights opportunities presented by new data sources, including the use of big data technologies, to capture data on social determinants that can be useful to inform population health. We conducted a search between October 2010 and September 2020 for grey and scientific publications on social determinants using a search strategy in PubMed and a manual snowball search. We assessed data sources and the data environment in both Kenya and the Philippines. We found limited evidence of the use of new sources of data to study the wider SDH, as most of the studies available used traditional sources. There was also no evidence of qualitative big data being used. Kenya has more publications using new data sources, except on the labor determinant, than the Philippines. The Philippines has a more consistent distribution of the use of new data sources across the HEALTHY determinants than Kenya, where there is greater variation of the number of publications across determinants. The results suggest that both countries use limited SDH data from new data sources. This limited use could be due to a number of factors including the absence of standardized indicators of SDH, inadequate trust and acceptability of data collection methods, and limited infrastructure to pool, analyze, and translate data.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Quênia
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048636, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined patterns of sexual violence against adults and children in Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic to inform sexual violence prevention, protection, and response efforts. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional research design was used with data collected from March to August 2020. SETTING: Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: 317 adults, 224 children. MAIN MEASURES: Perpetrator and survivor demographic data, characteristics of the assault. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses found that children were more likely than adults to be attacked during daytime (59% vs 44%, p<0.001) by a single perpetrator rather than multiple perpetrators (31% vs 13%, p<0.001) in a private as opposed to a public location (66% vs 45%, p<0.001) and by someone known to the child (76% vs 58%, p<0.001). Children were violated most often by neighbours (29%) and family members (20%), whereas adults were equally likely to be attacked by strangers (41%) and persons known to them (59%). These variables were entered as predictors into a logistic regression model that significantly predicted the age group of the survivor, χ2(5, n=541)=53.3, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of sexual violence against adult and child survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic are different, suggesting age-related measures are needed in national emergency plans to adequately address sexual violence during the pandemic and for future humanitarian crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4809, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376689

RESUMO

Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is important for understanding both the evolution and the patterns of local and global transmission. Here, we generated 311 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from samples collected in coastal Kenya between 17th March and 31st July 2020. We estimated multiple independent SARS-CoV-2 introductions into the region were primarily of European origin, although introductions could have come through neighbouring countries. Lineage B.1 accounted for 74% of sequenced cases. Lineages A, B and B.4 were detected in screened individuals at the Kenya-Tanzania border or returning travellers. Though multiple lineages were introduced into coastal Kenya following the initial confirmed case, none showed extensive local expansion other than lineage B.1. International points of entry were important conduits of SARS-CoV-2 importations into coastal Kenya and early public health responses prevented established transmission of some lineages. Undetected introductions through points of entry including imports from elsewhere in the country gave rise to the local epidemic at the Kenyan coast.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Genoma Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência , Tanzânia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(Suppl): 1-7, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447417

RESUMO

Background: Limited data is available on the treatment outcomes of HIV infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at high risk of developing antiretroviral treatment failure. Objective: To determine the clinical, immunological and virologic outcomes of AYA at a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Methodology: A longitudinal study was conducted among AYA age 10-24 years attending Kenyatta National Hospital comprehensive care center. Clinical data was abstracted from electronic medical records for study participants with at least 6 months of follow-up using a structured data abstraction sheet. Results: A total of 250 AYA age 10 to 24 years were included. The median age was 16 years. The median CD4 cell count was 650.6 cells/mm3 (IQR 350.7-884.0). More than half (60.6%) of AYA had a CD4 cell count higher than 500 cells/mm3. Overall, 76.9% of AYA had achieved viral suppression (viral load <1000 copies/ml). There was a significant increase in virologic failure with higher age and late adolescents and young adults were more likely to have a viral load > 1000 copies/ml p<0.012. Conclusion: The overall virologic suppression in this cohort of AYA was sub-optimal. Both immunological and virologic outcomes were worse among late adolescents (18-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(Suppl): 18-24, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447419

RESUMO

Background: Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance. Objectives: To describe the uptake of HIV treatment services among children and adolescents in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay and determine how schooling, clinic attendance, and type of pill/regimen affect adherence to ART and viral suppression. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Mbita Sub-County Hospital. Medical chart data was abstracted from the hospital files of children and adolescents between the ages of 0-19 years on antiretroviral therapy, between the periods of October 2016 and September, 2017. Data was analyzed using measures of central tendency, and cross-tabulations were done to compare schooling, clinic attendance, type of pill/regimen and viral suppression. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between groups. Results: According to patient files reviewed, majority of patients, 244(91.4%) were enrolled into care within 2 weeks of HIV diagnosis according to guidelines, and 193(73.1 %) remained enrolled in care at end of study period. An overall viral suppression of 74.2 %( 132) was recorded. Of all the files reviewed, 121(74.7%) of patients attending school suppressed against 11(68.8 %) out of school, p=0.280. Suppression among Day and boarding reported at 78.6 %( 11) and 74.8 %( 113) of those out of school, respectively, p=0.533. Participants in primary school, 17(85.0%) suppressed better than those in secondary school, 102(73.4%), p=0.263. Keeping clinic appointments among eligible patient files reviewed decreased from 83.1% at 3 months, p=0.016, to 76.6%, p=0.526 at 6 months and to 52.9% at 12 months, p=0.278. Only 3- month clinic appointment return rates and Enhanced Adherence Counseling (EAC) were significant predictors of viral supression χ2 (2) = 0.280, p = 0.869 (> 0.05). Conclusion: The clinic attendance rate within the first 3 months, and Enhanced Adherence Counseling (EAC) were significant predictors of viral suppression, and therefore adherence to antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(Suppl): 59-63, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447425

RESUMO

Background: Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) is part of sustainable HIV prevention strategies in Kenya. The goals of the national EIMC program are to circumcise at least 40% of all newborn male infants delivered at hospitals offering the service and keep the rate of moderate and adverse events below 2%. Objectives: To determine the proportion of early male infants (age less than 60 days) born at hospitals in four counties of western Kenya who got circumcised and document the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) among those circumcised. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study involving all records for EIMC from 1st March 2014 through 31st March 2018 in four counties of western Kenya. Data analysis was done using EXEL to document proportion of facilities offering EIMC and compare EIMC uptake and outcomes in the four counties against the national goals for the program. Results: A mean of 4.3% of total health facilities offer EIMC in the region. Siaya had the highest proportion of facilities offering EIMC while Migori had the lowest proportion. Uptake of EIMC was low at 17.4% for all male infants born, far less than the anticipated target of 40%. Average adverse event rates were 0.3%. Conclusion: EIMC uptake remains low in this region of Kenya due to small number of health facilities offering the service. The proportion of circumcised early male infants born at the target health facilities is below the national target of 40% even though the rate of adverse events among those circumcised is acceptable.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/efeitos adversos , Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 35, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422158

RESUMO

Introduction: diabetes mellitus (DM) causes 1% of the mortality in Kenya and 2% of the population in Kenya has diabetes mellitus. Embu County was the 5th leading county in diabetes mellitus morbidity in Kenya in 2019. This study aimed at assessing the management of diabetes mellitus at the household level using the community health strategy in Embu County. Community health strategies in the county is implemented using Community Health Volunteers. Methods: it was a cross-sectional study using 422 household participants in Embu County and 150 community health volunteers´ (CHVs). Key informant interviews were used on community health strategy managers involved in diabetes management programmes in the County. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Results: factors that were positively associated with effective management of DM at household level in the County were financial support and supervision of community health units, provision of tools and commodities, use of health information system, training of level of CHVs in management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and subsequent knowledge on symptoms, defining and classifying DM, treatment, prescription of drugs, knowledge of risk factors of DM and prevention of DM at household level. Conclusion: success of utilization of community health strategies for diabetes management will require adequate training of CHVs in management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, financial support of community health units, adequate supervision of community health units, financial support of community health units, provision of tools and commodities and community health units (CHU) utilizing health information system.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 44, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422167

RESUMO

Introduction: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia the precursor of cervical cancer occurs with increased frequency in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study aimed at determining the prevalence and correlates of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected women and compare to the uninfected women. Methods: a cross-sectional study conducted among HIV-infected and uninfected women enrolled in a HIV study in Central Kenya. All women had baseline Pap smear examination assessed using Bethesda system. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed to assess the correlates of cervical squamous epithelial lesions (CSIL). Results: a total 480 women had an acceptable baseline smear, 373 (78%) were HIV-infected. Median age was 30.2 years [IQR 25.4-35.5]. Overall prevalence of CSIL was 37% (176/480) with the prevalence of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and atypical glandular cells (AGC) were 17%, 14%, 4% and 2% respectively. HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of CSIL at 42% as compared to HIV-uninfected women at 19%. HIV infection was the predictor associated with development of CSIL at multivariate analysis and specifically, HIV-infected women were 3 times (AOR 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 - 5.4, p<0.005) more likely to have CSIL than HIV-uninfected women. The age 35 - 44 years was protective to developing CSIL (AOR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.87, p=0.018). Conclusion: cervical squamous epithelial lesions is a major problem among Kenyan women. HIV infection confers a higher risk to development of CSIL. Cervical cancer screening should be an established practice in HIV programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou , Prevalência , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422179

RESUMO

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) involves the lymphocyte lineage and mimics Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease common in our region, making it difficult to diagnose and manage effectively. SCID in East Africa stands underdiagnosed because of lack of awareness and diagnostic resources. A case series of three SCID patients admitted to a Tertiary Paediatric Centre in Kenya between 2016 and 2019. The clinical presentations, laboratory findings, management and outcome for each were studied. Three cases were diagnosed between the ages of 4 to 15 months. Two of them were male and one was a female. All had a history of previous sibling death. There was no parental consanguinity. All presented with pneumonia. One of them had vaccine acquired Rotavirus infection and a persistent generalised maculopapular rash. The T, B cell profile was T- B- in two and T- B+ in one case and the immunoglobulins were reduced in all. All the cases were fatal. Thus, Primary immunodeficiency disorders are prevalent in East Africa. A proper clinical history, examination and laboratory tests like a haemogram, peripheral blood film can aid to suspect and diagnose SCID even with limited resources.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Pneumonia/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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