Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.853
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109626, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072960

RESUMO

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the social, economic and environmental aspect is widely accepted although still represents a big challenge for its implementation in global, regional and local scales. This is particularly important in the situation of new investments. In the case of already existing hydro-technical facilities, which were built at the end of the nineties of the last century, water management takes into account only the ecological awareness for their design and social participation is limited to acceptance of the local community. The Msciwojów retention reservoir analysed in the article is an example of an object whose project included ecological solutions aimed at ensuring high water quality, and its construction was approved and supported by the local community. At present, the reservoir does not function in accordance with the adopted assumptions, and water management requires the implementation of system solutions that take into account contradicting expectations of users and stakeholders of the reservoir. The current situation can be categorized as a wicked problem. The article presents a proposal to solve the situation on the basis of a participatory approach involving stakeholders through social learning as a part of the reservoir management system. The system approach was developed based on the principles of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and 10 Steps Planning Processing by Wilhite while using the causal loop diagrams (CLD). The result is an organizational model of the reservoir management structure and framework methodology for building solution scenarios. The key assumption of the proposed approach is the cyclicality of activities as part of the management process taking into account changes in the reservoir system and its settings in the social, economic and environmental aspects.


Assuntos
Recursos Hídricos , Água , Ecologia , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Water Res ; 171: 115454, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918388

RESUMO

The water quality prediction performance of machine learning models may be not only dependent on the models, but also dependent on the parameters in data set chosen for training the learning models. Moreover, the key water parameters should also be identified by the learning models, in order to further reduce prediction costs and improve prediction efficiency. Here we endeavored for the first time to compare the water quality prediction performance of 10 learning models (7 traditional and 3 ensemble models) using big data (33,612 observations) from the major rivers and lakes in China from 2012 to 2018, based on the precision, recall, F1-score, weighted F1-score, and explore the potential key water parameters for future model prediction. Our results showed that the bigger data could improve the performance of learning models in prediction of water quality. Compared to other 7 models, decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and deep cascade forest (DCF) trained by data sets of pH, DO, CODMn, and NH3-N had significantly better performance in prediction of all 6 Levels of water quality recommended by Chinese government. Moreover, two key water parameter sets (DO, CODMn, and NH3-N; CODMn, and NH3-N) were identified and validated by DT, RF and DCF to be high specificities for perdition water quality. Therefore, DT, RF and DCF with selected key water parameters could be prioritized for future water quality monitoring and providing timely water quality warning.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água , Água , Big Data , China , Aprendizado de Máquina
3.
Water Res ; 171: 115343, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918389

RESUMO

River water quality is one of the main challenges that societies face during the 21st century. Accurate and reliable real-time prediction of water quality is an effective adaptation measure to counteract water quality issues such as accidental spill and harmful algae blooms. To improve accuracy and skill of water quality forecasts along the Yeongsan River in South Korea three different ensemble data assimilation (DA) methods have been investigated: the traditional Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and two related algorithms (Dud-EnKF and EnKF-GS) that offer either possibilities to improve initial conditions for non-linear models or reduce computation time (important for real-time forecasting) by using a (smaller) time-lagged ensemble to estimate the Kalman gain. Twin experiments, assimilating synthetic observations of three algae species and phosphate concentrations, with relatively small ensemble sizes showed that all three DA methods improved forecast accuracy and skill with only subtle difference between the methods. They all improved the model accuracy at downstream locations with very similar performances but due to spurious correlation, the accuracy at upstream locations was somewhat deteriorated. The experiments also showed no clear trend of improvement by increasing the ensemble size from 8 to 64. The real world experiments, assimilating real observations of three algae species and phosphate concentrations, showed that less improvement was achieved compared to the twin experiments. Further improvement of the model accuracy may be achieved with different state variable definitions, use of different perturbation and error modelling settings and/or better calibration of the deterministic water quality model.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Qualidade da Água , Previsões , República da Coreia , Rios
4.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125272, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896182

RESUMO

Eutrophication pollution seriously threatens the sustainable development of Lake Taihu, China. In order to identify the primary parameters of water quality and the potential pollution sources, the water quality dataset of Lake Taihu (2010-2014) was analyzed with the water quality index (WQI) and multivariate statistical analysis methods. Principle component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and correlation analysis screened out five significant water quality indicators, i.e. potassium permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chloride ion (Cl-) and dissolved oxygen (DO), to represent the whole datasets and evaluate the water quality with WQI. Since northwestern of Lake Taihu was the most heavily polluted area, the parameters of the water quality were analyzed to further explore the potential sources and their contributions. Five potential pollution sources of northwestern lake were identified, and the contribution rate of each pollution source was calculated by the absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. In brief, the PMF model was more suitable for pollution source apportionment of the northwestern lake, and the contribution rate was ranked as agricultural non-point source pollution (26.6%) > domestic sewage discharge (23.5%) > industrial wastewater discharge and atmospheric deposition (20.6%) > phytoplankton growth (16.0%) > rainfall or wind disturbance (13.4%). This study might provide useful information for the optimization of water quality management and pollution control strategies of Lake Taihu.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Modelos Estatísticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , China , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Eutrofização , Análise Fatorial , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Water Res ; 171: 115440, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955059

RESUMO

Managing waterborne and water-related diseases is one of the most critical factors in the aftermath of hurricane-induced natural disasters. The goal of the study was to identify water-quality impairments in order to set the priorities for post-hurricane relief and to guide future decisions on disaster preparation and relief administration. Field investigations were carried out on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands as soon as the disaster area became accessible after the back-to-back hurricane strikes by Irma and Maria in 2017. Water samples were collected from individual household rain cisterns, the coastal ocean, and street-surface runoffs for microbial concentration. The microbial community structure and the occurrence of potential human pathogens were investigated in samples using next generation sequencing. Loop mediated isothermal amplification was employed to detect fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis. The results showed both fecal indicator bacteria and Legionella genetic markers were prevalent but were low in concentration in the water samples. Among the 22 cistern samples, 86% were positive for Legionella and 82% for Escherichia-Shigella. Enterococcus faecalis was detected in over 68% of the rain cisterns and in 60% of the coastal waters (n = 20). Microbial community composition in coastal water samples was significantly different from cistern water and runoff water. Although identification at bacterial genus level is not direct evidence of human pathogens, our results suggest cistern water quality needs more organized attention for protection of human health, and that preparation and prevention measures should be taken before natural disasters strike.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Qualidade da Água , Fezes , Humanos , Ilhas , Chuva , Ilhas Virgens Americanas , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Water Res ; 170: 115296, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760361

RESUMO

Increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events (i.e., floods and droughts) combined with higher temperatures can threaten surface water quality and downstream drinking water production. This study characterized the effects of extreme weather events on dissolved organic matter (DOM) washout from watershed soils and the corresponding contribution to disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors under simulated weather conditions. A laboratory simulation was performed to assess the effects of temperature, drought, rainfall intensity, sea level rise, and acid deposition on the amount of DOM released from soil samples. DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) were obtained to assess the effect of extreme weather events on DBP formation and drinking water quality. The results demonstrated that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbonaceous DBP levels increased with increasing temperature in a dry (drought) scenario. Regardless of the watershed from which a soil sample was obtained and the incubation temperature during rewetting or chlorination processes, the DOC and carbonaceous DBP levels also increased with increasing temperature. Brominated DBP formation was increased when bromide was present during the rewetting of soil, indicating the effect of sea level rise. When bromide was present during the chlorination of water for DBPFP tests, only the level of brominated DBPs increased. Acid deposition had various effects under different weather conditions. The results of heavy rainfall simulations suggested that water quality deteriorates at the beginning of an extreme rainfall event. Abundant DOM was washed out of soil, leading to a peak in the DBPFP level. The level of DOM in seepage water was less than that of the surface runoff water during rainfall. The situation was more severe when the rainfall came after a long drought and the drought-rewetting cycle effect occurred.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Trialometanos , Qualidade da Água
7.
Water Res ; 169: 115209, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669904

RESUMO

Lead contamination in municipal drinking water is a national public health issue and is generally the result of water contact with leaded distribution piping and on premise plumbing. As a result, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Lead and Copper Rule requires point of use sampling methods at a small fraction of consumer taps on the public water distribution system. While this approach is practical, it leaves large gaps of consumers without direct monitoring and protection. In response, a novel contest-based crowdsourcing study was conducted to engage the public in monitoring their own water quality at their home taps and study factors that shaped participation in drinking water monitoring. Participants were asked to collect samples of their household drinking water through social media postings, kiosks, and community events with the chance to win a cash prize. The project distributed approximately 800 sampling packets and received 147 packets from participants of which 93% had at least partially completed surveys. On average, private wells were found to have higher lead levels than the public water supply, and the higher lead levels were not attributed to older building age. There is also no statistical relevance between the participants' perceived and actual tap water quality. Survey responses indicated that citizens were motivated to participate in the project due to concerns about their own health and/or the health of their families. In contrast, participants reported that they were not motivated by the cash prize. This project helps inform future public engagement with water quality monitoring, create new knowledge about the influence of personal motivations for participation, and provide recommendations to help increase awareness of water quality issues.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo , Saúde Pública , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Water Res ; 169: 115248, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706125

RESUMO

The effect of watershed characteristics (land use land cover and morphology) on spatial variability in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] and nitrogen [DON] was assessed in a coastal river basin draining into Pamlico Sound in eastern North Carolina, USA. Understanding the factors that influence DOM concentration and composition i.e., structurally complex molecules with high molecular weight versus low molecular weight, simple molecules can provide insights on DOM cycling and water composition implications. Such information is imperative for large coastal river networks undergoing rapid and intense land use and land cover (LULC) changes. DOM composition was estimated using optical indices calculated from DOM absorbance and fluorescence measurements. DOM was derived from terrestrial sources, and ordination analysis indicated that LULC, in particular, % wetland area was the most significant control on DOM composition and concentration. Wetland and agricultural coastal streams were abundant in humic and complex DOM, whereas forested and urban streams were least abundant in humic DOM. We speculate that greater availability of mobilizable DOM in wetland and agricultural watersheds contributed to this observation. In comparison, mixed urbanized and forested streams in North Carolina's Piedmont region were abundant in [DOC], less complex, low molecular weight DOM, as well as greater amounts [DON] due to higher urban runoff and elevated DOM production in these streams. Our results indicated that physiographic transition from Piedmont to coastal plain and varying LULC influenced the spatial variability in DOM composition and concentration. Our findings highlight that increasing anthropogenic alterations might increase the abundance of reactive DOM in coastal rivers and estuaries resulting in severe water quality issues. This information is important for monitoring and developing land use policies.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Estuários , North Carolina
9.
Water Res ; 169: 115224, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710917

RESUMO

This paper presents results from an intensive long term investigation in three comparable trunk mains and downstream impact of non-invasive, in-service flow conditioning to manage discolouration risk. Findings show that flow conditioning, the careful regular increase in flows to mobilise small amounts of material from cohesive layers formed at the pipe wall, provides immediate risk mitigation and system resilience benefits. Evidence is presented showing longer term risk reduction in the trunk mains and a 25% discolouration risk reduction in the downstream networks. Whilst the flow conditioning produced an acute but short duration controlled mobilisation of material from the trunk main, longer term downstream monitoring showed reduced chronic or background material loading. It is proposed this change is due to altering the material exchange behaviour and volumes bound within cohesive layers that develop on bulk water/infrastructure interfaces. The paper provides evidence that flow conditioning is an efficient strategy to manage discolouration risk and improve consumer water quality throughout water distribution systems.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
10.
Water Res ; 169: 115257, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726396

RESUMO

Stormwater biofilters have great potential to treat stormwater for harvesting and reuse, but their variable performance in pathogen removal requires further optimisation prior to widespread uptake. This paper provides the first evidence that real time control (RTC) of stormwater biofilters can mitigate the impact of operational characteristics that result in poor microbial removal. We developed two RTC strategies and validated them using long-term laboratory experiments, utilising biofilters with a raised outlet pipe that creates a submerged zone. The first RTC strategy focuses on delivering the best water quality for harvesting and reuse or for recreational waterways. It has two components which ensure adequate treatment (microbial die-off): (1) it retains water in the biofilter for at least two days before allowing any further inputs into the system, and (2) the input volume is restricted to the submerged zone's pore volume. This strategy was effective and significantly improved water quality in the biofilter effluent. However, since the system favours bypassing influent to ensure good quality effluent, only 28.4% of the stormwater was treated. This still resulted in a 62.3% reduction in the influent E. coli load because the system was effective at removing E. coli under controlled conditions. The second RTC strategy builds upon the first strategy, and focuses on delivering a balance between good water quality for harvesting and protecting the environment (i.e., lower bypass). Three hours before the next rainfall event begins, the water that has remained in the biofilter's submerged zone for at least two days is drained and collected for harvesting through a bottom pipe. When stormwater inflow begins, the bottom pipe is closed and the biofilter operates without control, with water leaving the biofilter to the environment via the raised outlet pipe. The harvested effluent of this RTC strategy met the Australian stormwater harvesting guideline requirements for dual reticulation with indoor and outdoor use and irrigation of commercial food crops. Although only 5.4% of stormwater was collected for harvesting in this strategy, the environment was better protected because of a significantly reduced bypass volume. Our experiments also showed that the nutrient and sediment removal was high for both RTC strategies. This study presents the first stepping stone toward RTC of stormwater biofilters, demonstrating that these systems can deliver safe stormwater for harvesting and reuse, and for active recreational uses.


Assuntos
Filtração , Purificação da Água , Austrália , Escherichia coli , Chuva , Qualidade da Água
11.
Water Environ Res ; 92(2): 278-290, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544306

RESUMO

There are noteworthy problems in current strategies to calculate river water environmental capacity (WEC), including the generalization of tributaries and water intakes, which results in inaccurate calculation results of the WEC, and the difficulty in adapting to dynamic changes in demands and hydrological conditions in terms of practical application. To address these flaws, the subsection summation model (SSM) was built for river WEC calculation. The SSM increases the number of control sections according to drain outlets, water intakes, and tributaries and acquires the WEC of the functional area section by section. The Wei River was taken as the study area for verification and application of the SSM. Supported by a comprehensive integration platform, the WEC simulation system of the Wei River was constructed. The results show that the SSM enhances the accuracy of the WEC calculation, and the results are closer to the actual situation. The simulation system could obtain the WEC according to the demands and changes in the hydrological conditions, thus providing technical means for policymakers. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The subsection summation model provides a more accurate water environmental capacity (WEC) calculation method considering tributaries and water intakes avoiding generalization. The simulation system should be established to make the WEC calculation adapt to the demands or changes in the hydrological conditions. The model and system could supply the basis and technical means for decision-making.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Hidrologia , Qualidade da Água
12.
Water Environ Res ; 92(2): 255-265, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512801

RESUMO

Urban scenery lakes are not only popular sites for recreation, water sport, and visit of citizens and tourists, but also function for urban water drainage and storage, and hence, their water quality is a sensitive indicator of urban aquatic environment. This study focused on two important water quality parameters, TSM (total suspended matter) and CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) in West Lake, a world famous urban scenery lake in Hangzhou, China. Based on Landsat 8 images, remote sensing inversion models for TSM and CDOM in West Lake were compared and the best ones were determined using exponential functions and green/red band ratios. Results show that the accuracy of TSM models is relatively better while CDOM models performed relatively poor, indicating that empirical estimation of CDOM for inland complex waters remains a challenge. The Landsat 8-derived results in West Lake from 2013 to 2017 show that TSM presented diverse distributions in different sections and months/seasons-the relatively high-concentration TSM was usually found in the north section and during spring festivals, holidays and summer vacations. These spatiotemporal patterns demonstrate the evidence that TSM in West Lake was highly linked to anthropogenic impacts, such as tourist visits, commercial activities, and urban drainage projects in Hangzhou. The relations between TSM and precipitation were also examined, but no significant correlations were found, showing that the impacts of rainfall on water quality of urban lakes are complicated, and using remote sensing for such studies is still with limitations. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Water quality (TSM and CDOM) of urban scenery lakes is highly influenced by urban tourist activities. Precipitation and TSM have not found significant relations in urban scenery lakes. An exponential model based on Landsat 8's bands 3 and 4 is good for TSM estimation. CDOM estimation remains a challenge for water color remote sensing in urban scenery lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Qualidade da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano
13.
Water Res ; 170: 115349, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830650

RESUMO

Levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) provide a surrogate measure of the microbial quality of water used for a wide range of applications. Despite the common use of these measures, a significant limitation is a delay in results due to the time required for cultivation and enumeration of FIB. Testing requires at least 18-24 h, and therefore, FIB cannot be used to identify current or real-time microbial water quality. An approach of nowcasting or empirical modelling approaches that incorporate water quality, environmental, and weather variables to predict FIB levels in real-time has been developed with some success. However, FIB levels are dependent on a complex interaction of numerous variables, which can be challenging to model with ordinary linear regression or classification methods most commonly applied. In this study, novel use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) that allow for a probabilistic representation of complex variable interactions is investigated for real-time modelling of FIB levels surface waters. In particular, the integration of both water quality measures and current/historical weather for prediction of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli levels is achieved using BBNs. For 4-bin classification of fecal coliform levels, BBNs increased prediction accuracy by 25%-54% compared to other previously used techniques including logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, and random forests. Binary prediction of E. coli levels exceeding a threshold of 20 CFU/100 mL was also significantly improved using BBNs with prediction accuracies >90% for all monitoring sites. Advantages of the BBN approach are also demonstrated identifying the ability to make predictions from incomplete monitoring data as well as probabilistic inference of variable importance in FIB levels. In particular, the results indicate that water quality surrogates such as conductivity are essential to real-time prediction of FIB. The results and models described in this work can be readily utilized to provide accurate and real-time assessments of FIB levels in surface waters utilizing commonly monitored parameters.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Qualidade da Água , Teorema de Bayes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Microbiologia da Água , Tempo (Meteorologia)
14.
Water Res ; 170: 115365, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830654

RESUMO

Unlike most unit processes in drinking water treatment, the performance of deep-bed filtration processes vary systematically on short time-scales; the particle removal capacity changes with time since the previous backwash, even when the influent water quality is stable. For microorganisms, the removal efficiency may vary by orders of magnitude. In this note, the potential impact of such dynamics on microbial risk estimates is studied, using representative experimental filtration data for viruses and bacteria in conjunction with single-hit dose-response models for microbial infection. Assuming that filtration is the only source of variation in pathogen concentrations on the time-scale of a single filter cycle, it is concluded that such variations are unlikely to substantially affect risk estimates, except possibly in an outbreak situation with extremely high pathogen concentrations; it is generally sufficient to know the mean pathogen concentrations. Future studies should include concurrent variation in the performance of other unit processes and raw water pathogen concentrations. Experimental work should focus on capturing the variation in filtration performance in order to correctly estimate mean removal rates.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Bactérias , Filtração , Qualidade da Água
15.
Water Environ Res ; 92(1): 5-10, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350936

RESUMO

The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago adopted the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) to reduce combined sewer overflow (CSO) events in the Chicago region. The Thornton Composite Reservoir (TCR) became operational in 2015 providing an additional 30 million m3 of CSO-impacted stormwater capacity. In the United States, no other mega reservoirs are in operation to provide as a reference to study the long-term impacts of biosolids operations in water resource recovery facilities. The mean daily volume pumped from the Calumet TARP system to the Calumet Plant increased 144-238 m3 from 2012-2014 to 273-360 m3 from 2016-2018. Overall annual digester feed solids for the 2016-2018 post-TCR period were 28,182 Mg, which was 11 percent less than the mean for the 2012-2014 period of 31,745 Mg. Annual digester draw solids for the 2016-2018 post-TCR period were 19,422 Mg, which were 4 percent less than the 2012-2014 pre-TCR period mean of 20,190 Mg. This paper demonstrated a decrease in digester feed loading to the Calumet Plant and, ultimately, a decrease in digester draw solids with an overall increase in plant and TARP flow in the years following operation of the TCR for the capture and treatment of CSO-impacted stormwater. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Reservoirs capturing combined sewer overflow-impacted stormwater improve water quality of local waterways. Mega reservoirs may impact solids loading to water resource recovery facilities. Hydraulic loading to water resource recovery facilities may be substantial with mega reservoirs.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Esgotos , Água , Poluição da Água , Qualidade da Água
16.
Water Res ; 170: 115353, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881501

RESUMO

Microbial regrowth during drinking water distribution can result in a variety of problems such as a deviating taste and odor, and may even pose a risk to public health. Frequent monitoring is essential to anticipate events of biological instability, and relevant microbial parameters for operational control of biostability of drinking water should be developed. Here, online flow cytometry and derived biological metrics were used to assess the biological stability of a full-scale drinking water tower during normal and disturbed flow regime. Pronounced operational events, such as switching from drinking water source, and seasonal changes, were detected in the total cell counts, and regrowth was observed despite the short hydraulic residence time of 6-8 h. Based on the flow cytometric fingerprints, the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity was calculated and was developed as unambiguous parameter to indicate or warn for changing microbial drinking water quality during operational events. In the studied water tower, drastic microbial water quality changes were reflected in the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, which demonstrates its use as an indicator to follow-up and detect microbial quality changes in practice. Hence, the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity can be used in an online setup as a straightforward parameter during full-scale operation of drinking water distribution, and combined with the cell concentration, it serves as an early-warning system for biological instability.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Bactérias , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 310-318, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791504

RESUMO

Changes in water quality from source water to finished water and tap water at two conventional drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) were monitored. Beside the routine water quality testing, Caenorhabditis elegans-based toxicity assays and the fluorescence excitation-emission matrices technique were also applied. Both DWTPs supplied drinking water that met government standards. Under current test conditions, both the investigated finished water and tap water samples exhibited stronger lethal, genotoxic and reprotoxic potential than the relative source water sample, and the tap water sample was more lethal but tended to be less genotoxic than the corresponding finished water sample. Meanwhile, the nearly complete removal of tryptophan-like substances and newly generated tyrosine-like substances were observed after the treatment of drinking water, and humic-like substances were identified in the tap water. Based on these findings, toxic pollutants, including genotoxic/reproductive toxicants, are produced in the drinking water treatment and/or distribution processes. Moreover, further studies are needed to clarify the potentially important roles of tyrosine-like and humic-like substances in mediating drinking water toxicity and to identify the potential sources of these contaminants. Additionally, tryptophan-like fluorescence may be adopted as a useful parameter to monitor the treatment performance of DWTPs. Our observations provided insights into the importance of utilizing biotoxicity assays and fluorescence spectroscopy as tools to complement the routine evaluation of drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Qualidade da Água/normas
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 71-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791519

RESUMO

Microtopography affects hydrological processes and forms different microhabitats. Our previous study uncovered that riparian zone microtopography created various microhabitats with different soil environments and runoff-infiltration patterns. However, how riparian microtopography and microtopography within the water area (waterfall and tributary) affects downstream water quality remains unclear. Therefore, water samples were taken almost monthly in both the main stream and the tributary, before and after waterfalls, and near the bottom of three microtopographic types from June 2016 to March 2017. Compared with the dry season, the fact that water quality worsened in the wet season and that there were positive correlations for nitrate (NO3-) between water and the corresponding soil samples suggested that the riparian-soil environment affected the adjacent water quality mainly in the wet season. Nevertheless, riparian microtopography did not influence water quality downstream because of the low rainfall frequency and the weak leaching process due to plant interception. In the wet season, both the tributary and the waterfall increased the dissolved oxygen in the water body and, therefore, lowered the risk of eutrophication. The tributary has two pathways for improving the water quality, by increased disturbance and flow velocity, while the waterfall only has the former. However, such effects were not significant in the dry season. We conclude that the application of microtopographic modification is useful in maintaining urban wetland water quality in wet seasons.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Oxigênio , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
19.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124804, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541900

RESUMO

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the most important water quality parameters that quantifies the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize oxidizable pollutants (mainly organics) in water samples. However, erroneous COD results were commonly observed for bromide-rich industrial wastewater samples using standard COD test. Bromide in water sample is known to seriously interfere with COD test. However, there is no satisfactory approach to effectively eliminate bromide interference thus far. In this study, two strategies, namely masking and correction, were investigated for their effectiveness to suppress bromide interference. For the masking strategy, silver ion was assessed for its effectiveness to neutralize bromide in water samples through precipitation and complex formation reactions. Silver ion offered only partial masking effect on bromide, while the residue bromide can still cause significant interference on COD determination. For the correction strategy, an equivalent redox reaction reflecting bromide interference mechanism was proposed, and a theoretical correction factor of 0.1 g COD/g Br- was found based on stoichiometry. The effectiveness of the proposed correction factor for bromide interference under different wastewater pollutant matrix was evaluated using different types of wastewater samples (synthetic wastewater, domestic wastewater and bromide-rich industrial wastewater) with varying amounts of bromide (from 0 to 2000 mg L-1) added to the samples. The findings showed that with bromide concentration up to 600 mg L-1, the correction factor of 0.1 g COD/g Br- was applicable to all the tested wastewater samples, suggesting that this correction strategy could be practically used to eliminate bromide interference in standard COD test.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Brometos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Indústrias , Oxigênio/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Qualidade da Água
20.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124741, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518921

RESUMO

In many parts of the world, wastewater irrigation has become a common practice because of freshwater scarcity and to increase resource reuse efficiency. Wastewater irrigation has positive impacts on livelihoods and at the same time, it has adverse impacts related to environmental pollution. Hydrochemical processes and groundwater behaviour need to be analyzed for a thorough understanding of the geochemical evolution in the wastewater irrigated systems. The current study focuses on a micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad of India, where farmers practice intensive wastewater irrigation. To evaluate the major factors that control groundwater geochemical processes, we analyzed the chemical composition of the wastewater used for irrigation and groundwater samples on a monthly basis for one hydrological year. The groundwater samples were collected in three settings of the watershed: wastewater irrigated area, groundwater irrigated area and upstream peri-urban area. The collected groundwater and wastewater samples were analyzed for major anions, cations and nutrients. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences and hydrogeochemical processes such as cation exchange, precipitation and dissolution of minerals using saturated indices, and freshwater-wastewater mixtures at the aquifer interface. Saturation indices of halite, gypsum and fluorite are exhibiting mineral dissolution and calcite and dolomite display mineral precipitation. Overall, the results suggest that the groundwater geochemistry of the watershed is largely controlled by long-term wastewater irrigation, local rainfall patterns and water-rock interactions. The study results can provide the basis for local decision-makers to develop sustainable groundwater management strategies and to control the aquifer pollution influenced by wastewater irrigation.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Águas Residuárias , Ânions/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Cátions/análise , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/análise , Hidrologia/métodos , Índia , Magnésio/química , Salinidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Qualidade da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA