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1.
Global Health ; 17(1): 42, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the potential to reverse progress towards global targets. This study examines the risks that the COVID-19 pandemic poses to equitable access to essential medicines and vaccines (EMV) for universal health coverage in Africa. METHODS: We searched medical databases and grey literature up to 2 October 2020 for studies reporting data on prospective pathways and innovative strategies relevant for the assessment and management of the emerging risks in accessibility, safety, quality, and affordability of EMV in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the resulting pool of evidence to support our analysis and to draw policy recommendations to mitigate the emerging risks and improve preparedness for future crises. RESULTS: Of the 310 records screened, 134 were included in the analysis. We found that the disruption of the international system affects more immediately the capability of low- and middle-income countries to acquire the basket of EMV. The COVID-19 pandemic may facilitate dishonesty and fraud, increasing the propensity of patients to take substandard and falsified drugs. Strategic regional cooperation in the form of joint tenders and contract awarding, joint price negotiation and supplier selection, as well as joint market research, monitoring, and evaluation could improve the supply, affordability, quality, and safety of EMV. Sustainable health financing along with international technology transfer and substantial investment in research and development are needed to minimize the vulnerability of African countries arising from their dependence on imported EMV. To ensure equitable access, community-based strategies such as mobile clinics as well as fees exemptions for vulnerable and under-served segments of society might need to be considered. Strategies such as task delegation and telephone triage could help reduce physician workload. This coupled with payments of risk allowance to frontline healthcare workers and health-literate healthcare organization might improve the appropriate use of EMV. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative and sustainable strategies informed by comparative risk assessment are increasingly needed to ensure that local economic, social, demographic, and epidemiological risks and potentials are accounted for in the national COVID-19 responses.


Assuntos
/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Vacinas/economia , Vacinas/provisão & distribução , África , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25133, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725994

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to identify whether a certain set of drivers of satisfaction/perceived quality of healthcare (PQHC) could indirectly affect patients' confidence/trust in the emergency department (ED).Patients were seen at an ED in the public hospital in Lisbon, Portugal between January and December 2016. Data were collected between May and November 2017, using a questionnaire, by mail or e-mail. The total sample size comprised 382 patients. The data analysis included structural equation modeling to test the conceptual model with specific drivers of satisfaction/PQHC (privacy; accessibility and availability; doctors; meeting expectations; waiting time for triage [perception]; waiting time to be called back by the doctor following examinations and/or tests [perception]; information about possible delays in receiving treatment/waiting times) and with the main outcome (confidence/trust in the ED) using path analysis.The analysis of the coefficients revealed that all the mediated paths are statistically significant (P ≤ .05). Although, altogether, the direct paths did not prove statistically significant (P > .05), the overall satisfaction with doctors (P ≤ .01) and meeting expectations (P = .01) can still directly explain the confidence/trust in the ED without the mediating role of satisfaction and PQHC. Hence, overall satisfaction with doctors and meeting expectations can influence, both directly and indirectly, confidence/trust in the ED. All other variables can only indirectly affect confidence/trust in the ED, either through PQHC or through satisfaction.Even though there are more variables that influence confidence/trust in the ED through PQHC (1)waiting time to be called back by the doctor following examinations and/or tests [perception]; 2) privacy; 3) accessibility and availability; 4) doctors; 5) meeting expectations than through satisfaction (1)waiting time for triage [perception]; 2) information about possible delays in receiving treatment/waiting times; 3) doctors; 4) meeting expectations), we observe the strongest contribution in the mediation model through satisfaction, which reveals its dominant role over PQHC.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Portugal , Fatores de Tempo , Triagem/normas , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e75, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722335

RESUMO

We investigated whether countries with higher coverage of childhood live vaccines [BCG or measles-containing-vaccine (MCV)] have reduced risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality, while accounting for known systems differences between countries. In this ecological study of 140 countries using publicly available national-level data, higher vaccine coverage, representing estimated proportion of people vaccinated during the last 14 years, was associated with lower COVID-19 deaths. The associations attenuated for both vaccine variables, and MCV coverage became no longer significant once adjusted for published estimates of the Healthcare access and quality index (HAQI), a validated summary score of healthcare quality indicators. The magnitude of association between BCG coverage and COVID-19 death rate varied according to HAQI, and MCV coverage had little effect on the association between BCG and COVID-19 deaths. While there are associations between live vaccine coverage and COVID-19 outcomes, the vaccine coverage variables themselves were strongly correlated with COVID-19 testing rate, HAQI and life expectancy. This suggests that the population-level associations may be further confounded by differences in structural health systems and policies. Cluster randomised studies of booster vaccines would be ideal to evaluate the efficacy of trained immunity in preventing COVID-19 infections and mortality in vaccinated populations and on community transmission.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/normas , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(4): 379-389, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncology settings increasingly use patient experience data to evaluate clinical performance. Given that older patients with hematologic malignancies are a high-risk population, this study examined factors associated with patient-reported health care experiences during the first year of their cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the 2000-2015 SEER-CAHPS® data to examine patient experiences of Medicare enrollees with a primary diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma. The primary outcomes were three CAHPS assessments: overall care, personal doctor, and health plan overall. We estimated case-mix adjusted and fully adjusted associations between factors (i.e., clinical and sociodemographic) and the CAHPS outcomes using bivariate statistical tests and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: The final sample included 1,151 patients, with 431 diagnosed with leukemia and 720 diagnosed with lymphoma (median time from diagnosis to survey 6 months). Patients who completed the survey further apart from the diagnosis date reported significantly higher adjusted ratings of care overall (ß .39, p = .008) than those closer to diagnosis. American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, and Pacific Islander patients had lower adjusted ratings of care overall (ß - .73, p = .003) than Non-Hispanic white patients. Multimorbidity was significantly associated with higher adjusted personal doctor ratings (ß .26, p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable patient experiences among older adults diagnosed with hematologic malignancies warrant targeted efforts to measure and improve care quality. Future measurement of experiences of cancer care soon after diagnosis, coupled with careful sampling of high-priority populations, will inform oncology leaders and clinicians on strategies to improve care for high-risk, high-cost populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24666, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance depends on individual ability and training. Well-trained or professional rescuers can maintain high-quality CPR for longer than laypeople. This study aimed to examine the effects of reducing resting intervals on CPR performance, physiological parameters, and hemodynamic parameters during prolonged CPR in well-trained providers. METHODS: The study enrolled 90 volunteers from the paramedic students of our institution. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: 2 minutes, 1 minute 45 seconds, and 1 minute 30 seconds rest groups. Each participant performed 5 cycles of chest compression only CPR (2 min/cycle) with different resting intervals according to grouping. CPR quality, physiological variations, and hemodynamic variations were measured for each cycle and compared across the groups. RESULTS: Of the 90 volunteers, 79 well-trained providers were finally included. The variation of the average chest compression depth across the 5 cycles showed significant differences between the 3 groups: from cycle 1 to 2: 1.2 (3.1) mm, -0.8 (2.0) mm, and -2.0 (3.0) mm in the 2 minutes, 1 minute 45 seconds, and 1 minute 30 seconds groups, respectively (P < .001); from cycle 1 to 3: 0.0 (3.0) mm, -0.7 (3.2) mm, and -2.6 (3.9) mm, respectively (P = .030). However, all 3 groups maintained the recommended rate and chest compression depth for all 5 cycles. Physiological and hemodynamic parameters showed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Well-trained providers were able to maintain high-quality CPR despite reducing rest intervals. Adjusting the rest interval may help maintain overall CPR quality in special situations or where layperson rescuers are involved.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Descanso/fisiologia , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Oscilação da Parede Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oscilação da Parede Torácica/tendências , Auxiliares de Emergência/educação , Auxiliares de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Perm J ; 25: 1, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635780

RESUMO

None: Telehealth has been a well-established system of care delivery at Kaiser Permanente Northwest Pediatric Gastroenterology since before the COVID-19 era, where 54% of our completed pediatric gastroenterology encounters in the past year were virtual visits. Although it was previously limited in its use across the majority of health care in the US, telehealth is now a widely accepted system in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this unprecedented rapid expansion of telehealth within both new and established telehealth systems is not without challenges or quality concerns. In this report, we present our single-center experience from the past year where virtual care was already an integral part of our clinical practice in pediatric gastroenterology and review satisfaction data and quality measures from the COVID-19 era where our existing telehealth system expanded to nearly exclusive virtual care.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Pediatria/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Criança , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(1): 8-16, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618494

RESUMO

This article aims to introduce the inception and operation of the COVID-19 International Collaborative Research Project, the world's first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) open data project for research, along with its dataset and research method, and to discuss relevant considerations for collaborative research using nationwide real-world data (RWD). COVID-19 has spread across the world since early 2020, becoming a serious global health threat to life, safety, and social and economic activities. However, insufficient RWD from patients was available to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with COVID-19, or to provide necessary information to the government for policy-making. Countries that saw a rapid surge of infections had to focus on leveraging medical professionals to treat patients, and the circumstances made it even more difficult to promptly use COVID-19 RWD. Against this backdrop, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) of Korea decided to open its COVID-19 RWD collected through Korea's universal health insurance program, under the title of the COVID-19 International Collaborative Research Project. The dataset, consisting of 476 508 claim statements from 234 427 patients (7590 confirmed cases) and 18 691 318 claim statements of the same patients for the previous 3 years, was established and hosted on HIRA's in-house server. Researchers who applied to participate in the project uploaded analysis code on the platform prepared by HIRA, and HIRA conducted the analysis and provided outcome values. As of November 2020, analyses have been completed for 129 research projects, which have been published or are in the process of being published in prestigious journals.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Seguradoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , /transmissão , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia
9.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(1): 81-84, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618503

RESUMO

The delivery of high-quality antenatal care is a perennial global concern for improving maternal and neonatal outcomes. Antenatal care is currently provided mainly on a one-to-one basis, but growing evidence has emerged to support the effectiveness of group antenatal care. Providing care in a small group gives expectant mothers the opportunity to have discussions with their peers about certain issues and concerns that are unique to them and to form a support system that will improve the quality and utilization of antenatal care services. The aim of this article is to promote group antenatal care as a means to increase utilization of healthcare.


Assuntos
Prática de Grupo/normas , Pobreza/classificação , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Prática de Grupo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Surgery ; 169(4): 708-720, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomies at high risk for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula are uncommon, yet intimidating, situations. In such scenarios, the impact of individual surgeon experience on outcomes is poorly understood. METHODS: The fistula risk score was applied to identify high-risk patients (fistula risk score 7-10) from 7,706 pancreatoduodenectomies performed at 18 international institutions (2003-2020). For each case, surgeon pancreatoduodenectomy career volume and years of practice were linked to intraoperative fistula mitigation strategy adoption and outcomes. Consequently, best operative approaches for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula prevention and best performer profiles were identified through multivariable analysis models. RESULTS: Eight hundred and thirty high-risk pancreatoduodenectomies, performed by 64 surgeons, displayed an overall clinically relevant pancreatic fistula rate of 33.7%. Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula rates decreased with escalating surgeon career pancreatoduodenectomy (-49.7%) and career length (-41.2%; both P < .001), as did transfusion and reoperation rates, postoperative morbidity index, and duration of stay. Great experience (≥400 pancreatoduodenectomies performed or ≥21-year-long career) was a significant predictor of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula prevention (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.76) and was more often associated with pancreatojejunostomy reconstruction and prophylactic octreotide omission, which were both independently associated with clinically relevant pancreatic fistula reduction. A risk-adjusted performance analysis also correlated with experience. Moreover, minimizing blood loss (≤400 mL) significantly contributed to clinically relevant pancreatic fistula prevention (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.74). CONCLUSION: Surgeon experience is a key contributor to achieve better outcomes after high-risk pancreatoduodenectomy. Surgeons can improve their performance in these challenging situations by employing pancreatojejunostomy reconstruction, omitting prophylactic octreotide, and minimizing blood loss.


Assuntos
Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões , Idoso , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 53(1): 3-11, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200083

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar las características métricas del índice Primary Care Assessment Tool de 10 ítems, para adultos (PCAT-A10), versión en castellano y catalán, reducida del original Primary Care Assessment Tool-Adult Edition (PCAT-AE), habiendo modificado el ítem de salud mental. DISEÑO: Estudio observacional transversal. Emplazamiento: Población residente en la ciudad de Barcelona. PARTICIPANTES: De los 3.496 participantes mayores de 14 años de la muestra aleatoria representativa de la población de Barcelona, de la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona 2016-17, se seleccionaron los que declararon tener un médico/a de cabecera, que alguna vez en la vida habían realizado una visita a algún especialista y que habían contestado más del 50% de ítems del PCAT-A10 (n = 3.107). Mediciones principales: Descriptiva de los ítems, análisis de consistencia interna y de correlación ítem-total corregida del índice PCAT-A10 modificado y los 10 ítems que lo conforman. Se analizan tres escenarios de tratamiento de las no respuestas: sustitución por 0, por el valor intermedio (2,5) y excluyendo las personas que no contestaron algún ítem. RESULTADOS: El índice PCAT-A10 obtuvo alfa de Cronbach de 0,73, 0,79 y 0,85 en los tres escenarios nombrados, correlaciones ítem-total corregida entre 0,41 y 0,66, y 20,8% de no respuesta al ítem de salud mental. CONCLUSIONES: La nueva versión del PCAT-A10 presenta una alta fiabilidad con una mayor respuesta en el ítem de salud mental respecto a la versión anterior


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the measurement characteristics of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the 10-Item Primary Care Assessment Tool for adults (PCAT-A10), shortened from the original Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT), with a new mental health item. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. LOCATION: The city of Barcelona. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 3,496 people over 14 years of age from the representative random sample of the Barcelona population, from the 2016-17 Barcelona Health Survey, those who declared they had a family doctor, and had visited a specialist at some time in their lives, and had answered more than 50% of PCAT-A10 items were selected (n = 3,107). MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Item descriptive analysis, analysis of internal consistency, corrected item - total correlation, of the PCAT-A10 index and the 10 items that make it up. Three scenarios for non-response to treatment were analysed: substitution by 0, by the intermediate value, and excluding people who did not answer any item. RESULTS: The PCAT-A10 index obtained Cronbach alphas of 0.73, 0.79, and 0.85 in the three mentioned scenarios, correlation item total corrected between 0.41 and 0.66, and 20.8% non-responses to the mental health item. CONCLUSIONS: The new version of PCAT-A10 has a high reliability with a higher response in the mental health item compared to the previous version


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Med Care ; 59(1): 22-28, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nearly 38 million Americans have hearing loss. Understanding how sensory deficits such as hearing loss, which limit communication, impact satisfaction has implications for Medicare value-based reimbursement mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the association of functional hearing loss and dissatisfaction with quality of health care over the past year among Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of satisfaction with quality of health care among Medicare beneficiaries with self-reported trouble hearing from the 2015 Medicare Current Beneficiaries Survey. There were 11,441 Medicare beneficiaries representing a 48.6 million total weighted nationally representative sample. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of Medicare beneficiaries reported a little or a lot of trouble hearing. Medicare beneficiaries with a little trouble hearing (odds ratio=1.496; 95% confidence interval, 1.079-2.073; P=0.016) and a lot of trouble hearing (odds ratio=1.769; 95% confidence interval, 1.175-2.664; P=0.007) had 49.6% and 76.9% higher odds of being dissatisfied with the quality of their health care over the previous year, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare beneficiaries with functional hearing loss had higher odds of dissatisfaction with health care over the past year compared to those without functional hearing loss. Given Medicare's reliance on patient satisfaction as a value-based measure for hospital reimbursement, interventions to address hearing loss in the health care system are needed.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Perda Auditiva Funcional/psicologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002113, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179134

RESUMO

Antecedentes. La continuidad del cuidado (CoC) suele describir en qué medida los pacientes ven al mismo profesional a lo largo del tiempo. Constituye un elemento necesario para garantizar la longitudinalidad en la atención, elemento clave dela atención primaria y de la medicina familiar en particular, entendido como el cuidado centrado en la persona a lo largo del tiempo, independientemente del tipo de problema consultado. Esta ha sido vinculada con una serie de beneficios para los pacientes y algunos indicadores duros de utilización de servicios de salud, por ejemplo visitas a la central de emergencias(CE), internaciones hospitalarias y mortalidad. En Argentina y América Latina no habíamos podido identificar estudios que dieran cuenta del nivel local de CoC o de su impacto en la utilización de los servicios de salud. Objetivo. Cuantificar los niveles de CoC de los afiliados de un Seguro de Salud de un Hospital Universitario Privado y describir su asociación con la utilización de servicios de salud, tales como consultas a la CE e internaciones hospitalarias. Métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de cohorte retrospectiva; realizado sobre la totalidad de afiliados que hubieran realizado al menos dos consultas programadas con un médico de atención primaria entre 2015 y 2016.Las mediciones principales consistieron dos indicadores: el índice del proveedor usual de cuidados y el índice de continuidad del cuidado (UPC y COC, respectivamente, por sus iniciales en inglés) -cuyos valores oscilan entre 0 y 1, y se interpretan como: el paciente siempre fue atendido por diferentes médicos vs siempre por el mismo médico-y el recuento de visitas a la CE e internaciones hospitalarias. Resultados. Fueron identificados 112.062 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 59 (P5-P95;4 a 87) años. Las medianas(P5-P95) de los indicadores de continuidad, UPC y COC, fueron 0,66 (0,25 a 1) y 0,33 (0,04 a 1), respectivamente. Se observó una asociación inversa y estadísticamente significativa entre los indicadores de CoC y la cantidad de visitas a la CE, evidenciada por una razón de incidencia decreciente de consultas contra quintilos crecientes de COC (tomando como referencia el quintilo más bajo de continuidad). Esta asociación no pudo demostrarse para las internaciones. Conclusiones. Los niveles de CoC alcanzados y su impacto en la utilización de servicios de salud reflejan valores semejantes a los de otros estudios publicados fuera de nuestra región y podrían aportar elementos útiles para delinear estrategias tendientes a la mejora de la calidad de la atención médica. (AU)


Background. Continuity of care (CoC) usually describes the extent to which patients see the same professional over time. It is a necessary element to ensure continuity of care, a key element of primary care and family medicine, in particular, understood as person-centred care over time, regardless of the type of problem consulted. It has been linked to a series of benefits for patients as well as to hard indicators of health services utilization (e.g. emergency room [ER] visits, hospitalizations) and mortality. In Argentina and Latin America, we have not been able to identify studies that account for the local level of CoC and its impact. Objective. To quantify the CoC levels among members of a private university hospital's health insurance scheme and to describe its association with the use of health services, such as ER visits and hospitalizations. Methods. Observational, descriptive, retrospective cohort study; conducted on the total number of members who hadmade at least two schedurivled consultations with a primary care physician between 2015 and 2016.The main outcomes were two indicators: the usual provider continuity index and the continuity of care index (UPC and COC, respectively) -both range between 0 and 1, and are interpreted as: the patient was always treated by different doctorsvs. always by the same doctor- and the number of visits to the ER and hospitalizations. Results. A total of 112,062 patients with a median age of 59 (P5-P95, 4 to 87) years were identified. The median (P5-P95) of the continuity indicators, UPC and COC, was 0.66 (0.25 to 1) and 0.33 (0.04 to 1), respectively. A significant inverse association was observed between the CoC indicators and the number of ER visits, evidenced by adecreasing incidence rate of consultations versus increasing quintiles of CoC (taking the lowest quintile of continuity as a reference). This association was not observed for hospitalizations. Conclusions. The levels of CoC reached and their impact on the use of health services reflect similar values to those of other studies published outside our region and could provide useful elements for outlining strategies aimed at improvingthe quality of medical care. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Relações Médico-Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002112, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179185

RESUMO

El concepto de continuidad del cuidado (CoC) suele utilizarse para describir en qué medida los pacientes ven al mismo profesional a lo largo del tiempo, aunque más específicamente es un atributo o característica del proceso de atención de salud de un individuo en el que la calidad de la conexión y retroalimentación de los eventos que se suceden influyen en la experiencia final de sentirse cuidado. La CoC abarca diferentes dominios conceptuales: la continuidad de la información, de la relación y del manejo. Se han utilizado diferentes instrumentos de medición que pueden agruparse en herramientas elaboradas a partir de reportes de pacientes (como por ej., encuestas) o a partir de datos administrativos (como los indicadores de prestador usual de cuidados o el indicador de Bice y Boxerman). Existen también investigaciones que evaluaron el impacto sanitario de la CoC. Si bien muchas de ellas muestran gran heterogeneidad en cuanto a los indicadores y los desenlaces utilizados, se observa una tendencia clara que parece indicar que a mayor nivel de continuidad del cuidado, mejores resultados en salud. (AU)


The concept of continuity of care (CoC) is often used to describe the extent to which patients see the same professional over time, but more specifically it is an attribute or characteristic of an individual's health care process in which the quality of the connection and feedback of the events that follow influences the final experience of feeling cared for. CoC encompasses different conceptual domains: continuity of information, relationship, and management. Different measurement instruments have been used, which can be grouped into tools developed from patient reports (e.g. surveys) or from administrative data (e.g. usual caregiver indicators or the Bice & Boxerman indicator). There is also research that has assessed the health impact of CoC. While many of them show great heterogeneity in terms of the indicators and outcomes used, there is a clear trend that seems to indicate that the higher the level of continuity ofcare, the better the health outcomes. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 286-292, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351662

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded across the United States, troubling disparities in mortality have emerged between different racial groups, particularly African Americans and Whites. Media reports, a growing body of COVID-19-related literature, and long-standing knowledge of structural racism and its myriad effects on the African American community provide important lenses for understanding and addressing these disparities.However, troubling gaps in knowledge remain, as does a need to act. Using the best available evidence, we present risk- and place-based recommendations for how to effectively address these disparities in the areas of data collection, COVID-19 exposure and testing, health systems collaboration, human capital repurposing, and scarce resource allocation.Our recommendations are supported by an analysis of relevant bioethical principles and public health practices. Additionally, we provide information on the efforts of Chicago, Illinois' mayoral Racial Equity Rapid Response Team to reduce these disparities in a major urban US setting.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , /etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
17.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(10): 705-711, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199591

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de eventos adversos evitables (EAE) en atención primaria (AP). DISEÑO: Estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. Emplazamiento: consultas de medicina de familia y pediatría de Andalucía, Aragón, Castilla La Mancha, Cataluña, Madrid, Navarra y Comunidad Valenciana. PARTICIPANTES: Se determinó revisar un mínimo de 2.397 historias clínicas (nivel de confianza del 95% y una precisión del 2%). La muestra se estratificó por grupos de edad de forma proporcional a su frecuentación y con revisión paritaria de historias de hombres y mujeres. Mediciones principales: Número y gravedad de los EAE identificados entre febrero de 2018 y septiembre de 2019. RESULTADOS: Se revisaron un total de 2.557 historias clínicas (1.928, 75.4% de pacientes adultos y 629, 24.6% pediátricos). Se identificaron 182 EAE que afectaron a 168 pacientes (7,1%, IC 95% 6,1-8,1%); en adultos 7,6% (IC 95% 6,4-8,8%) y 5,7% (IC 95% 3,9-7,5%) en pacientes pediátricos. Las mujeres sufrieron más EAE que los hombres (p = 0,004). La incidencia de EAE en niños y niñas fue similar (p = 0,3). 6 (4.1%) de los EAE supusieron un daño permanente en pacientes adultos. CONCLUSIONES: Buscar fórmulas para incrementar la seguridad en AP, particularmente en pacientes mujeres, debe seguir siendo un objetivo prioritario incluso en pediatría. Uno de cada 24 EAE supone un daño grave y permanente en el adulto


OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of avoidable adverse events (AAEs) in Primary Care (PC). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. LOCATION: Family medicine and paediatric clinics in Andalusia, Aragon, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Madrid, Navarre, and Valencia. PARTICIPANTS: A review was performed on a designated sample of 2,397 medical records (95% confidence level and 2% accuracy). The sample was stratified by age group as regards the frequency of physician consultations and considering equal distribution of male and female patients. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Number and severity of identified AAEs from February 2018 to September 2019. RESULTS: A total of 2,557 medical records were reviewed (1,928, 75.4% of adult patients, and 629, 24.6% paediatrics). A total of 182 (7.1%, 95% CI 6.1-8.1%) AAEs that affected 168 patients were identified, which included 7.6% (95% CI 6.4-8.8%) in adults and 5.7% (95% CI 3.9-7.5%) in paediatric patients. The number of AAEs in women was higher than in men (P = 0.006). The incidence of AAEs in boys and girls was similar (P = 0.3). Permanent damage was caused by AAEs in 6 (4.1%) adult patients. CONCLUSIONS: Seeking formulas to increase patient safety in PC should remain a priority objective, particularly in female patients and in paediatrics. One in 24 AAEs causes serious and permanent damage in adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Dano ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e22410, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181639

RESUMO

Despite the enormous burden on patients with severe psoriasis, their utilization of medical care is not well understood in Korea.To compare the characteristics and treatment patterns of psoriasis patients by economic status as well as to examine the factors influencing systemic treatments of psoriasis.We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using National Health Insurance sample cohort data in 2015. Psoriasis patients were classified as either the "topical treatment only" or the "systemic treatment" group based on the types of treatment. Patients' economic status was defined by the deciles of health insurance premium, which was determined based on income and assets. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors influencing systemic treatments of psoriasis.We identified 6041 psoriasis patients; 39.5% were in the bottom 5 deciles of health insurance premium and 60.5% were in the top 5 deciles. Only 1.9% of the low economic status group and 4.0% of the high economic status group were treated with expensive biologics, although the difference was not statistically significant.Overall, psoriasis patients with higher economic status had a lower likelihood of receiving systemic treatments but had a higher probability of being treated with expensive biologics.


Assuntos
Psoríase/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
20.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 112(11): 826-831, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198765

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la calidad de la asistencia prestada a los pacientes cirróticos se puede medir analizando una serie de indicadores. Los estudios publicados hasta la actualidad muestran una tasa de adherencia a las indicaciones de las guías clínicas del 40-80 %. OBJETIVO: valorar la calidad de la asistencia prestada en un hospital docente de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: estudio observacional retrospectivo en pacientes cirróticos controlados durante un semestre en consultas externas. Se han revisado 324 historias clínicas recogiendo 14 indicadores de calidad de cinco dominios diferentes y se ha estudiado la adherencia global y en relación a la experiencia del médico responsable. RESULTADOS: excelentes (más del 90 % de adherencia) en indicadores relacionados con documentación de la etiología de la cirrosis y profilaxis de la hemorragia digestiva por varices; aceptables (60-90 %) en despistaje del carcinoma hepatocelular y valoración de la gravedad de la enfermedad; y malos (menos del 50 %) en vacunaciones. Los residentes obtuvieron significativamente mejores resultados que los adjuntos en etiología, valoración de la gravedad y dos indicadores de profilaxis de hemorragia digestiva. Por su parte, los adjuntos presentaron mejores resultados en el despistaje de carcinoma hepatocelular. CONCLUSIONES: a pesar de haber obtenido excelentes resultados en algunos indicadores, muchos deben ser mejorados, especialmente las vacunaciones. La calidad asistencial prestada por los residentes es igual o incluso mejor que la prestada por los adjuntos. Analizar la calidad asistencial es esencial para medir y mejorar la atención prestada a los pacientes cirróticos, y puede ser una herramienta muy eficaz para supervisar a los especialistas en formación


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Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Endoscopia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia
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