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3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 352: 109265, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116257

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen that can be found in various ready-to-eat (RTE) products. It tolerates adverse conditions such as high salt concentrations and refrigerated storage, thus, the elimination of the pathogen in food processing often relies on heat processing. The objective of this study was to create a model to predict the effect of salt on heat tolerance of L. monocytogenes in meat and seafood products during heat treatments conducted at 57 to 65 °C to reduce numbers by ≥3 log10 cycles. Salt concentrations, up to 6% in the water phase (WPS%), were applied to cover a variety of lightly salted RTE meat and seafood products. The experimental work involved samples of ground pork tenderloin, ground chicken breast fillet and skinned, ground salmon fillet adjusted to different WPS% i.e., 3.6 and 5.2 WPS% for pork samples, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5 and 6.0 WPS% for chicken samples and 3.0 and 6.0 WPS% for salmon samples. All samples were inoculated with late-stationary phase L. monocytogenes cultures. For pork samples, a two-strain mixture of a pork isolate (MS22254) and an environmental isolate (MS22246) was applied. For chicken and salmon samples, a seafood isolate (MS22258) and isolate MS22246 was applied as single cultures. Samples were vacuum-packed in sterile bags, immerged in water bath, and held at constant temperatures of 57, 60 and 65 °C for pork samples and 58, 61 and 62.5 °C for chicken and salmon samples. For survivor curves, where at least 3 log10-reduction were obtained, heat tolerance was expressed as decimal reduction times, D-values. D-values were observed to increase with increasing WPS%. The effect of salt on heat tolerance of L. monocytogenes was defined as the relative increase (RI-value) in D-value obtained when salt had been added to the food. The effect of WPS% on RI-values was independent of heating temperatures, foods and strains. For secondary modelling, RI-values were transformed using the natural logarithm, ln(RI) and fitted to a linear model as a function of WPS%. Model validation, with 56 independent values collected from the scientific literature, resulted in bias and accuracy factors of 0.89 and 1.26, respectively, suggesting acceptable performance with tendency to slightly under-predict. The developed predictive model can be used to guide the design of heat processes for manufacturers of lightly preserved and mildly processed meat and seafood products requiring more than 3 log10 reduction of L. monocytogenes to ensure safety.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta
4.
Int J Pharm ; 602: 120580, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174310

RESUMO

Counterfeiting has never been more challenging than during the COVID-19 pandemic as counterfeit test kits and therapeutics have been discovered in the market. Current anti-counterfeiting labels have weaknesses: they can either be duplicated easily, are expensive or ill-suited for the existing complex supply chains. While RFID tags provide for an excellent alternative to current anti-counterfeiting methods, they can prove to be expensive and other routes involving nanomaterials can be difficult to encrypt. A DNA based anticounterfeiting system has significant advantages such as relative ease of synthesis and vast data storage abilities, along with great potential in encryption. Although DNA is equipped with such beneficial properties, major challenges that limit its real-world anti-counterfeiting applications include protection in harsh environments, rapid inexpensive sequence determination, and its attachment to products. This review elaborates the current progress of DNA based anti-counterfeiting systems and identifies technological gaps that need to be filled for its practical application. Progress made on addressing the primary challenges associated with the use of DNA, and potential solutions are discussed.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases/genética , Medicamentos Falsificados , Nanoestruturas/análise , Pandemias , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , COVID-19 , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , DNA , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Pharm ; 602: 120580, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839229

RESUMO

Counterfeiting has never been more challenging than during the COVID-19 pandemic as counterfeit test kits and therapeutics have been discovered in the market. Current anti-counterfeiting labels have weaknesses: they can either be duplicated easily, are expensive or ill-suited for the existing complex supply chains. While RFID tags provide for an excellent alternative to current anti-counterfeiting methods, they can prove to be expensive and other routes involving nanomaterials can be difficult to encrypt. A DNA based anticounterfeiting system has significant advantages such as relative ease of synthesis and vast data storage abilities, along with great potential in encryption. Although DNA is equipped with such beneficial properties, major challenges that limit its real-world anti-counterfeiting applications include protection in harsh environments, rapid inexpensive sequence determination, and its attachment to products. This review elaborates the current progress of DNA based anti-counterfeiting systems and identifies technological gaps that need to be filled for its practical application. Progress made on addressing the primary challenges associated with the use of DNA, and potential solutions are discussed.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases/genética , Medicamentos Falsificados , Nanoestruturas/análise , Pandemias , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , COVID-19 , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , DNA , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 2145-2162, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928644

RESUMO

In this work, the occurrence of 34 common antibiotic (15 sulfonamides and 19 quinolones) residues were evaluated in 236 ready-to-eat duck eggs (salted and preserved duck eggs) marketed through e-commerce stores by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent dietary risk assessments for Chinese consumers were conducted. Among violated positives in duck egg samples, 11 analytes were found including sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamonomethoxine, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, flumequine, sarafloxacin, and nalidixic acid. A higher number of antibiotics were detected in salted duck eggs (five sulfonamides and six quinolones) than in preserved duck eggs (one sulfonamide and two quinolones). The maximum contamination of sulfonamides and quniolones was 448.0 µg/kg (sulfaquinoxaline) and 563.7 µg/kg (enrofloxacin) in salted duck eggs, respectively. Dietary exposure was evaluated through the estimated daily intake (EDI) of risky antibiotics (sulfamethazine, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) and hazard quotients (HQs). The results showed that EDIs and HQs were in the range of 0.0004 to 0.0099 µg/kg bw/day and 0.0009 to 0.1594%, respectively. The risk was low since HQs obtained were less than 100%. However, a special attention should be paid to ready-to-eat duck egg products high percentile consumers with the prosperity of e-commerce market in China. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The present analytical method could be used for multiresidue determination of antibiotics in ready-to-eat duck eggs, and dietary risk assessments of risky antibiotics provided a support for the work of regulatory bodies to conduct surveillance programs regarding food safety evaluation of ready-to-eat foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Comércio/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Patos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806400

RESUMO

Analytical limitations have constrained the determination of nanopollution character from real-world sources such as nano-enabled products (NEPs), thus hindering the development of environmental safety guidelines for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This study examined the properties of ENMs in 18 commercial products: sunscreens, personal care products, clothing, and paints-products exhibiting medium to a high potential for environmental nanopollution. It was found that 17 of the products contained ENMs; 9, 3, 3, and 2 were incorporated with nTiO2, nAg, binaries of nZnO + nTiO2, and nTiO2 + nAg, respectively. Commonly, the nTiO2 were elongated or angular, whereas nAg and nZnO were near-spherical and angular in morphology, respectively. The size ranges (width × length) were 7-48 × 14-200, 34-35 × 37-38, and 18-28 nm for nTiO2, nZnO, and nAg respectively. All ENMs were negatively charged. The total concentration of Ti, Zn, and Ag in the NEPs were 2.3 × 10-4-4.3%, 3.4-4.3%, and 1.0 × 10-4-11.3 × 10-3%, respectively. The study determined some key ENM characteristics required for environmental risk assessment; however, challenges persist regarding the accurate determination of the concentration in NEPs. Overall, the study confirmed NEPs as actual sources of nanopollution; hence, scenario-specific efforts are recommended to quantify their loads into water resources.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Nanoestruturas/química
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109163, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798966

RESUMO

Pork and pork products are important staple food in the diet of Vietnamese consumers. The safety of pork, including biological contamination, is a concern to several public authorities and value chain actors. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify Salmonella and total bacterial count (TBC) contamination of cut pork sold in different outlets, and determine the potential factors leading to contamination. A total of 671 pork samples were collected from different retail channels in three provinces in Northern Vietnam. Hygiene conditions and practices at pork vending premises were also observed and recorded. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Overall, Salmonella prevalence in retailed pork was 58.1%. Salmonella contamination in pork from traditional retail, modern retail and food services were 60.5%, 50.9% and 80.5%, respectively. Eighty percent and 68% of fresh pork in canteen and street food was contaminated with Salmonella. Only a small proportion of a subset of the pork samples (6.2%) tested met the Vietnamese standard requirement for TBC contamination. Average concentration of TBC in fresh pork in traditional retail, modern retail and food services were 6.51 (SD: 0.64), 6.38 (0.65), and 6.96 (0.85) LogCFU/g, respectively. Transport time, use of the same tools for pork and other types of meat, storage temperature, and environment hygiene are important factors that might affect microbial contamination. The findings underline the high level of microbial contamination, which requires practical interventions to improve food safety hygiene practices and behavior of pork retailers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Higiene , Carne de Porco/economia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
9.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103781, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875209

RESUMO

An increasing proportion of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) are community acquired. This study tested farm, abattoir and retail food samples for C. difficile, using peer reviewed culture and molecular methods. The contamination rate on beef, sheep and broiler farms ranged from 2/30 (7%) to 25/30 (83%) in faeces, soil and water samples, while concentrations ranged from 2.9 log10 cfu/ml to 8.4 log10 cfu/g. The prevalence and associated counts were much lower in abattoir samples. Although 26/60 were C. difficile positive by enrichment and PCR, only 6 samples yielded counts by direct plating (1.1 log10 cfu/cm2 to 5.1 log10 cfu/g). At retail, 9/240 samples were C. difficile positive, including corned beef (1), spinach leaves (2), iceberg lettuce, little gem lettuce, wild rocket, coleslaw, whole milk yogurt and cottage cheese (1 sample each), with counts of up to 6.8 log10 cfu/g. The tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, tcdC and tcdR genes were detected in 41%, 99.2%, 33.6%, 32%, 46.7% and 31.1%, respectively, of the 122 C. difficile isolates obtained. It was concluded that although the prevalence of C. difficile decreased along the food chain, retail foods were still heavily contaminated. This pathogen may therefore be foodborne, perhaps necessitating dietary advice for potentially vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Clostridioides difficile/classificação , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Clostridioides difficile/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Carne/economia , Ovinos , Verduras/economia
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109165, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770679

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and their antimicrobial resistance pose exacerbating global health threats and endangering everyone. Thus, the prevalence, molecular characterization of virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of strains isolated from 225 beef burger and hot dog sandwiches vended in Mansoura city, Egypt were determined. 83.1% of the sandwiches tested were contaminated with coagulase-positive S. aureus, with a mean count of 4 × 103 CFU/g. Genes encoding mecA, α-hemolysin, staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were detected in 22.6%, 96.3%, 61.1%, and 0% of the strains isolated, respectively. Of the 190 coagulase-positive strains, 43 (22.6%) were confirmed as MRSA. Among them, 4 strains (2.1%) were vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and resistant to all antimicrobials tested. Interestingly, all isolates were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, with 75.2% being multi-drug resistant (MDR) and an average multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index of 0.503. Not less important, 100%, 96.3%, 90.5%, 79.5%, 73.7%, 62.6%, and 48.9% of isolates were resistant to Kanamycin, Nalidixic acid, Cefotaxime, Sulphamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, Penicillin G, Tetracycline, and Cephalothin, respectively. The potential hazard of MDR-, MRSA-, and VRSA-contaminated sandwiches may be an indication of the presence of what is more dangerous. Hence, strict hygienic measures and good standards of food handler's personal hygiene to prevent transmission of these pathogens to consumers are imperative.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Egito , Enterotoxinas/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saúde Pública , Suínos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Vancomicina/genética
11.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(3): 256-260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Convertible cars have existed since among the first automobiles, and the lack of substantial roof structure creates some safety concerns. Though crash tests have demonstrated that convertibles can resist excessive intrusion in front and side crashes and that strong A-pillars and roll bars can help maintain survival space in rollovers, little work has been done examining the real-world crash experience of these vehicles. The objective of this study was to compare the crash experience of recent convertibles with nonconvertible versions of the same cars using the most recent crash data. METHODS: Crash and exposure data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation and IHS Markit, respectively. Rates of driver deaths and police-reported crash involvements were compared for 1- to 5-year-old convertible cars and their nonconvertible versions during 2014-2018. Exposure measures included registered vehicle years (RVY) and vehicle miles traveled (VMT). These rates were compared using the standardized mortality ratio to account for possible differences in exposure distribution. Crash circumstances (e.g., point of impact, rollover, ejection) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., speeding, alcohol impairment, seat belt use) were compared for drivers killed in crashes. RESULTS: Convertibles had lower driver death rates and police-reported crash involvement rates on the basis of both RVY and VMT. However, the differences in driver death rates were not statistically significant. Driver deaths per 10 billion VMT were 11% lower for convertibles, and driver involvement in police-reported crashes per 10 million VMT was 6% lower. On average, convertibles were driven 1,595 fewer miles per year than the nonconvertible versions of these cars. Among fatally injured drivers, convertibles had slightly higher rates of ejection, and behavioral differences were minimal. The number of rollovers was small and their rate did not substantially differ between convertibles and their nonconvertible versions. CONCLUSIONS: Safety concerns associated with convertibles' retractable roof structures were not supported by the results of this study.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Acidentais/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Polícia , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672426

RESUMO

Consumption of cereals contaminated by mycotoxins poses health risks. For instance, Fumonisins B, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusariumproliferatum, and the type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol, typically produced by Fusarium graminearum, are highly prevalent on cereal grains that are staples of many cultural diets and known to represent a toxic risk hazard. In Peru, corn and other cereals are frequently consumed on a daily basis under various forms, the majority of food grains being sold through traditional markets for direct consumption. Here, we surveyed mycotoxin contents of market-bought grain samples in order to assess the threat these mycotoxins might represent to Peruvian population, with a focus on corn. We found that nearly one sample of Peruvian corn out of six was contaminated with very high levels of Fumonisins, levels mostly ascribed to the presence of F. verticillioides. Extensive profiling of Peruvian corn kernels for fungal contaminants could provide elements to refine the potential risk associated with Fusarium toxins and help define adapted food safety standards.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Micotoxinas/análise , Zea mays/microbiologia , Comércio , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Peru , Medição de Risco
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530316

RESUMO

The most common, toxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxins found in human food and animal feed are the aflatoxins (AFs). The United States is a leading exporter of various nuts, with a marketing value of $9.1 billion in 2019; the European Union countries are the major importers of U.S. nuts. In the past few years, border rejections and notifications for U.S. tree nuts and peanuts exported to the E.U. countries have increased due to AF contamination. In this work, we analyzed notifications from the "Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF)" on U.S. food and feed products contaminated with mycotoxins, primarily AFs, for the 10-year period 2010-2019. Almost 95% of U.S. mycotoxin RASFF notifications were reported for foods and only 5% for feeds. We found that 98.9% of the U.S. food notifications on mycotoxins were due to the AF contamination in almond, peanut, and pistachio nuts. Over half of these notifications (57.9%) were due to total AF levels greater than the FDA action level in food of 20 ng g-1. The Netherlands issued 27% of the AF notifications for U.S. nuts. Border rejection was reported for more than 78% of AF notifications in U.S. nuts. All U.S. feed notifications on mycotoxins occurred due to the AF contamination. Our research contributes to better understanding the main reasons behind RASFF mycotoxins notifications of U.S. food and feed products destined to E.U. countries. Furthermore, we speculate possible causes of this problem and provide a potential solution that could minimize the number of notifications for U.S. agricultural export market.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Comércio , Análise de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Nozes/microbiologia , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , União Europeia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562833

RESUMO

Tea has been consumed for thousands of years. Despite the different varieties, particular emphasis has been placed on green tea (GT), considering the associated health benefits following its regular consumption, some of which are due to its polyphenol constituents, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Tea is not prone to the growth of microorganisms, except fungus, when proper storage, handling, and packing conditions are compromised. Consequently, mycotoxins, secondary metabolites of fungi, could contaminate tea samples, affecting human health. In the present study, we aimed to assess the balance between risks (due to mycotoxins and high levels of EGCG) and benefits (due to moderate intake of EGCG) associated with the consumption of GT. For this, 20 GT samples (10 in bulk and 10 in bags) available in different markets in Lisbon were analyzed through a LC-MS/MS method, evaluating 38 different mycotoxins. Six samples revealed detectable values of the considered toxins. Current levels of mycotoxins and EGCG intake were not associated with health concerns. Scenarios considering an increasing consumption of GT in Portugal showed that drinking up to seven cups of GT per day should maximize the associated health benefits. The present study contributes to the future establishment of GT consumption recommendations in Portugal.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Micotoxinas/análise , Chá/química , Catequina/análise , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Portugal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Chá/efeitos adversos
18.
J Food Prot ; 84(2): 286-290, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003208

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Growing consumer demand for clean-label "natural" products has encouraged more meat processors to cure meat products with natural sources of nitrate or nitrite such as celery juice powder. One challenge for these producers is to identify safe cooling rates in products cured with celery juice powder where extended cooling could allow growth of pathogens. The Food Safety and Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture recently added guidelines for stabilization of meat products cured using naturally occurring nitrites based on control of Clostridium spp. However, a knowledge gap exists for safe cooling rates that prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, potential postlethality contaminants, in naturally cured ham. The study was conducted to investigate the temperature profiles of naturally cured hams of typical sizes during refrigerator cooling and to determine the behavior of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on ham during these cooling periods. Whole hams (14 lb [6,300 g]), half hams (6 lb [2,700 g]), and quarter hams (3 lb [1,400 g]) were slowly cooked in a smokehouse until internal temperatures reached a minimum of 140°F (60°C) and then were immediately transferred into a walk-in cooler (38°F [3.3°C]). Cooling times for hams of all sizes were within the requirements for cured products but not for uncured products. Worst-case scenarios of postprocessing surface contamination were simulated by inoculating small naturally cured ham samples with S. aureus or L. monocytogenes. These inoculated hams were then cooled under controlled conditions of 130 to 45°F (54.4 to 7.2°C) for 720 to 900 min. By the end of cooling, small decreases (0.5 to 0.6 log CFU/g) were found for each inoculum. These findings may help small ham processors evaluating production and quality control methods to determine whether recommended concentrations of natural curing agents used to prevent growth of clostridial pathogens may also prevent growth of other pathogens during meat cooling.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Nitritos , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
J Food Prot ; 84(2): 213-219, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977335

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sake (Japanese rice wine) has been recognized as being low risk in terms of its microbiological safety. However, a confirmation of the food safety aspects of sake based on scientific evidence is important for establishing consumer confidence, in part because consumer concerns regarding food safety have increased. The presence of Bacillus cereus spores in refined rice wine has been reported, and in light of consumers' growing concern over food safety, the establishment of food and beverage safety is important for consumers' reassurance. Herein, to confirm the microbiological safety of sake, we investigated the content and growth of B. cereus. We conducted a spore addition test to determine whether B. cereus spores grow during sake production, and we observed no growth or germination of B. cereus spores during the manufacturing process. We also observed that processes such as solid-liquid separation and filtration help remove the risk posed by B. cereus. We then conducted a survey to assess the density of B. cereus in various commercial sake products. We analyzed 162 samples of commercial sake and observed that 11 of the products had ≥1 CFU of living cells in 1 mL of sake (detection rate, 6.8%). There was no product in which ≥100 CFU of living cells per 1 mL of sake was detected. Our findings confirmed that the density of these bacteria in sake is lower than that in other foods and that the probability of infection is very low. The emetic toxin produced by B. cereus was not detected in any of the sake samples. This is the first study based on experimental data demonstrating that B. cereus is not able to grow in sake or during the sake manufacturing process. We, thus, conclude that the safety risk of B. cereus in sake is negligible. Our findings indicating that B. cereus is not a significant hazard in the sake brewing process will contribute to food hygiene management based on scientific evidence in sake breweries.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Esporos Bacterianos
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