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1.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 113(8): 792-803, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-208307

RESUMO

Los filtros ultravioleta (UV) se han convertido en compuestos de uso diario para millones de personas. Sin embargo, algunos de ellos no son biodegradables al 100% y las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales muchas veces no son capaces de filtrarlos correctamente. Todo ello está llevando a su diseminación ambiental y a la detección de distintos filtros UV en el suelo, las aguas continentales, los océanos y en múltiples organismos (algas, corales, peces, mamíferos, incluso aves terrestres). Además, algunos filtros UV, especialmente la benzofenona-3 y el octocrileno se han mostrado tóxicos en estos organismos. Entre sus efectos tóxicos destacamos el blanqueamiento de los corales y problemas metabólicos, enzimáticos y de capacidad reproductiva en prácticamente cualquier organismo. Existen datos preliminares sobre la posible bioacumulación de estos filtros UV en humanos, al detectarse en muestras de orina y leche materna. Sin embargo, el estudio del impacto medioambiental de los filtros UV presenta muchas limitaciones (AU)


UV filters are used daily by millions of people. Not all of these filters, however, are 100% biodegradable, and many wastewater treatments plants are ill-equipped to filter them properly. As a result, UV filters are increasingly reaching the environment. Various types have been detected in soil, continental water, oceans, and numerous organisms, including algae, corals, fish, mammals, and even land birds. In addition, some filters, benzophenone-3 and octocrylene in particular, are toxic to these organisms. Toxic effects include coral bleaching and interference with metabolic, enzymatic, and reproductive activities in practically all organisms. Preliminary data suggest that UV filters may be bioaccumulating in humans, as they have been detected in urine and breast milk. It should be noted, however, that research into the environmental impact of UV filters holds challenges and limitations (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Protetores Solares , Poluição da Água , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/normas
2.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 113(8): t792-t803, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208308

RESUMO

UV filters are used daily by millions of people. Not all of these filters, however, are 100% biodegradable, and many wastewater treatments plants are ill-equipped to filter them properly. As a result, UV filters are increasingly reaching the environment. Various types have been detected in soil, continental water, oceans, and numerous organisms, including algae, corals, fish, mammals, and even land birds. In addition, some filters, benzophenone-3 and octocrylene in particular, are toxic to these organisms. Toxic effects include coral bleaching and interference with metabolic, enzymatic, and reproductive activities in practically all organisms. Preliminary data suggest that UV filters may be bioaccumulating in humans, as they have been detected in urine and breast milk. It should be noted, however, that research into the environmental impact of UV filters holds challenges and limitations (AU)


Los filtros ultravioleta (UV) se han convertido en compuestos de uso diario para millones de personas. Sin embargo, algunos de ellos no son biodegradables al 100% y las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales muchas veces no son capaces de filtrarlos correctamente. Todo ello está llevando a su diseminación ambiental y a la detección de distintos filtros UV en el suelo, las aguas continentales, los océanos y en múltiples organismos (algas, corales, peces, mamíferos, incluso aves terrestres). Además, algunos filtros UV, especialmente la benzofenona-3 y el octocrileno se han mostrado tóxicos en estos organismos. Entre sus efectos tóxicos destacamos el blanqueamiento de los corales y problemas metabólicos, enzimáticos y de capacidad reproductiva en prácticamente cualquier organismo. Existen datos preliminares sobre la posible bioacumulación de estos filtros UV en humanos, al detectarse en muestras de orina y leche materna. Sin embargo, el estudio del impacto medioambiental de los filtros UV presenta muchas limitaciones (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Protetores Solares , Poluição da Água , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/normas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954723

RESUMO

Aluminum is an element found in nature and in cosmetic products. It can interfere with the metabolism of other cations, thus inducing gastrointestinal disorder. In cosmetics, aluminum is used in antiperspirants, lipsticks, and toothpastes. The aim of this work is to investigate aluminum bioavailability after accidental oral ingestion derived from the use of a toothpaste containing a greater amount of aluminum hydroxide than advised by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). To simulate in vitro toothpaste accidental ingestion, the INFOGEST model was employed, and the amount of aluminum was measured through the ICP-AES analysis. Tissue barrier integrity was analyzed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance, and the tissue architecture was checked through light microscopy. The margin of safety was also calculated. Overall, our results indicate that the acute exposure to aluminum accidentally ingested from toothpastes is safe for the final user, even in amounts higher than SCCS indications.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Cosméticos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Cremes Dentais
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 379: 109843, 2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952465

RESUMO

Ready to Eat (RTE) cooked meat products are among the most consumed RTE food subcategories in the EU/EEA. They are also associated with the highest number of identified listeriosis cases per year (>850), thus posing a public health risk especially among the susceptible population. This study estimated the risk of listeriosis from Italian head cheese (Coppa di Testa) consumption using a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) based on data of prevalence and starting concentrations of Listeria monocytogenes in the product during a 3-year period (n = 1568). A consumer survey (n = 162) was conducted to provide information on domestic storage time and consumption habits, and storage conditions were determined from recordings of temperatures of domestic refrigerators (n = 57). A probabilistic model was designed for the evaluation of the growth of L. monocytogenes at each stage of the product pathway from production to consumption, using Monte Carlo simulations and employing the @Risk software. Risks associated to consumption of vacuum-packed and sliced-at-retail head cheese were assessed: The model predicted that the risk of listeriosis per serving of vacuum-packed product was in the 10-4 and 10-6 range (mean) for the high-risk and general populations respectively, and listeriosis cases were estimated to be greater than those due to consumption of sliced product (with risks in the range of 10-7 and 10-8). Overall, the model predicted that the mean number of listeriosis cases ranged from 0.001 to 0.24 and from 0.06 to 10 per one hundred thousand people, for the healthy and the high-risk population, respectively. Scenario analyses indicated that better control of the temperature of domestic refrigerators is effective in reducing the predicted risk of listeriosis for the longer stored vacuum-packed product by ~80 % for both the healthy and high-risk populations, whereas a shorter use-by-date of 30 days is an effective risk mitigation measure for both types of packed product. Model assumptions, as well as data gaps are discussed.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose , Produtos da Carne , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
9.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 46(4): 355-360, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929145

RESUMO

Combination products face unique R&D, manufacturing, clinical, and regulatory challenges compared to individual devices, drugs, or biological products. Based on the interpretation of the relevant policies and the latest principles of combination products, this paper expounds the FDA's guidance, application trends, and application strategies for the pre-market pathways of combination products, with a view to providing relevant information for Chinese researchers and manufacturers when they start to entry the United States market.


Assuntos
Comércio , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805820

RESUMO

Dietary supplements (DS) in the countries of the European Union falls within the scope of the food law. DS may, however, contain substances that are simultaneously applied in medicinal products as defined in the pharmaceutical law. The presence of such ingredients may cause problems with the product qualification. The phenomenon of applying such borderline ingredients in dietary supplements may require additional regulations, and ensuring them may be problematic. We conducted an analysis aiming to identify dishonest market practices resorted to by the producers and distributors of non-conforming dietary supplements. We examined mostly questioned DS and compared them with data from the RASFF system and registers of medicinal substances and pharmaceutical entities. The results show that some operators tend to re-notify the same products in response to the initiation of official control procedures. Products in the form of capsules or powders were the most common re-notifications within the 50-100 days. Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that some entities are obliged to document the safety of the product or its compliance with the regulations, use the imperfection of the notification procedure, and re-notify the questioned product in order to keep it on the market despite potential non-compliance.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Alimento Funcional , Suplementos Nutricionais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Polônia
15.
Int J Toxicol ; 41(2_suppl): 21S-42S, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668614

RESUMO

The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 19 skin and connective tissue-derived proteins and peptides, which are reported to function mainly as skin and/or hair conditioning agents in cosmetics. The Panel reviewed the relevant data provided and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos , Tecido Conjuntivo , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Peptídeos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Pele
19.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(6): 901-915, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666914

RESUMO

Given the worldwide popularity of hair dyeing, there is an urgent need to understand the toxicities and risks associated with exposure to chemicals found in hair dye formulations. Hair dyes are categorized as oxidative and nonoxidative in terms of their chemical composition and ingredients. For several decades, the expert panel's Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) has assessed the safety of many of the chemicals used in hair dyes; however, a comprehensive review of hair dye ingredients and the risk of exposure to hair dyeing has not been documented. Herein, we review the safety of the various chemicals in oxidative and nonoxidative hair dyes, toxicities associated with hair dyeing, and the carcinogenic risks related to hair dyeing. While many compounds are considered safe for users at the concentrations in hair dyes, there are conflicting data about a large number of hair dye formulations. The CIR expert panel has ratified a number of coloring ingredients for hair dyes and banned a series of chemicals as carcinogenic to animals and unsafe for this application. The use of these chemicals as raw materials for producing hair dyes may result in the synthesis of other contaminants with potential toxicities and increased risk of carcinogenesis. It is an open question whether personal or occupational hair dyeing increases the risk of cancer; however, in specific subpopulations, a positive association between hair dye use and cancer occurrence has been reported. To address this question, a better understanding of the chemical and mechanistic basis of the reported toxicities of hair dye mixtures and individual hair dye ingredients is needed. It is anticipated that in-depth chemical and systems toxicology studies harnessing modern and emerging techniques can shed light on this public health concern in the future.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Tinturas para Cabelo , Alérgenos , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Cabelo , Tinturas para Cabelo/química , Tinturas para Cabelo/toxicidade
20.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 133: 105198, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659913

RESUMO

Material jetting and vat photopolymerization additive manufacturing (AM) processes use liquid resins to build objects. These resins can contain skin irritants and/or sensitizers but product safety data sheets (SDSs) might not declare all ingredients. We characterized elemental and organic skin irritants and sensitizers present in 39 commercial products; evaluated the influence of resin manufacturer, system, color, and AM process type on the presence of irritants and sensitizers; and compared product SDSs to results. Among all products, analyses identified 23 irritant elements, 54 irritant organic substances, 22 sensitizing elements, and 23 sensitizing organic substances; SDSs listed 3, 9, 4, and 6 of these ingredients, respectively. Per product, the number and total mass (an indicator of potential dermal loading) of ingredients varied: five to 17 irritant elements (8.32-4756.65 mg/kg), one to 17 irritant organics (3273 to 356,000 mg/kg), four to 17 sensitizing elements (8.27-4755.63 mg/kg), and one to seven sensitizing organics (15-382,170 mg/kg). Median numbers and concentrations of irritants and sensitizers were significantly influenced by resin system and AM process type. The presence of undeclared irritants and sensitizers in these resins supports the need for more complete information on product SDSs for comprehensive dermal risk assessments.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Irritantes , Luzes de Cura Dentária , Irritantes/toxicidade , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários , Medição de Risco
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