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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603372

RESUMO

Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) dips often have pH and water activity combinations conducive to the proliferation of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes. This study conducted product assessments of five refrigerated RTE dips: baba ghanoush, guacamole, hummus, pesto, and tahini, along with individual dip components including avocado, basil, chickpeas, cilantro, eggplant, garlic, and jalapeno pepper. Dips and dip components were inoculated with 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and stored at 10°C for 28 days. The pathogen was enumerated throughout storage and growth rates were determined using the DMFit program to compute the time required for L. monocytogenes to achieve a 1 log CFU/g increase in population. Survival and growth rates varied significantly between the refrigerated RTE dips and dip components assessed in this study. For dips, L. monocytogenes progressively decreased in baba ghanoush, pesto, and tahini. In contrast, the pathogen proliferated in both hummus and guacamole and the highest growth rate was observed in guacamole (0.34±0.05 log CFU/g per day) resulting in a 1 log CFU/g increase in population in 7.8 days. L. monocytogenes proliferated in all dip components with the exception of eggplant and garlic. The pathogen achieved the highest growth rate in chickpeas (2.22±1.75 log CFU/g per day) resulting in a computed 1 log CFU/g increase in only 0.5 days. Results from this study can aid in understanding how L. monocytogenes behaves in refrigerated RTE dips and dip components and data can be utilized in understanding product formulations and in risk assessments.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/microbiologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 235-244, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729564

RESUMO

Sound animal traceability systems and supply chain management rely on data and information to respond to outcomes that will both protect animal and human health and facilitate trade. Digital technologies present opportunities and new methods for identifying and tracking animals, collecting more data, integrating communication flows, sharing data securely in supply chains, and analysing data to inform decisions and predict outcomes. Together, these technologies drive more efficient, productive and traceable supply chains, which can help to build more effective animal traceability systems. In addition, they can improve monitoring of, and response to, animal disease, food safety risks and food fraud risks; ensure compliance with animal health and food safety standards; simplify border procedures; facilitate trade with less friction; and raise consumer awareness. As the cost of these technologies decline and they become more accessible, the implementation of a digitally enabled animal traceability system will require an increase in supply chain capacity, improvements in digital infrastructure, and the development of a regulatory framework of standards and policies. Ensuring that these requirements are met will require strong commitment from governments, intergovernmental organisations and the wider animal health community.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Tecnologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664624

RESUMO

In recent years, the chaotic habits of modern life have favored the consumption of quickly prepared meals, using ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and condiments. The aim of this study was to establish the microbiological safety of RTE sauces and pesto from markets analyzed at different stages of shelf life. In the bacterial investigation, all samples were shown to be acceptable, although differences were observed concerning shelf life times. On the other hand, the fungal investigation showed frequent positive results, with concentrations higher than threshold values. Detected microbial diffusion was the lowest when products were far from the expiry date and had just been opened, while high microbial proliferation was observed when analyzing the same package after 48 h, higher than for a product close to the end of its shelf life. This study highlights the discreet microbiological quality of processed and RTE foods, underlining the importance of hygienic-sanitary surveillance of these foods to their shelf life. Consequently, it is necessary to: (1) implement a food control plan for all food categories to carry out risk analysis associated with their consumption; and (2) better adapt the regulations relating to microbiological analysis, and understand the biological significance of each microbial parameter throughout the shelf life of foods.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Higiene , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes , Controle de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2437-2451, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607726

RESUMO

A total of 15 samples of thalassotherapy products, distributed in Tunisia in their intact and final state of production, was analyzed to determine their microbiological safety status. The result shows the absence of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coliforms). The incidence of contamination by Gram-positive Bacilli (mesophelic bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic spore forming bacteria, anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria) was found to be higher in products composed by mud and extract of alga. The biochemical and molecular identification of the major contaminant show that Bacilli were the most covered from 75% of the thalassotherapy products. Mineral analysis (organic matter, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na d K, Al, Si and Ti) shows strong composition on Aluminum and Silica. Cytotoxicity study of six thalassotherapy products and three essential oil extracts (Menthol, Clove and Eucalyptus) did not show any cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, antibacterial acitivity of 5 essentila oils, against 30 isolates of the genus Bacillus and 10 reference strains, has been characterized showing an interesting bactericidal potential of the extract of menthol and Eucalyptus.


Assuntos
Climatoterapia/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tunísia
5.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 165-176, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638606

RESUMO

The authors have provided an in-depth review of the history of saline and silicone gel-filled breast implants. In the history of medicine, no devices have been more scrutinized and thoroughly studied than breast implants. Although we as plastic surgeons recognize and appreciate the benefits that our patients derive from these devices, society as a whole continues to remain skeptical. The reasons for this are complex and multifactorial but appear to be fueled by the media, oppositional organizations, and several trial lawyers. Prior to 1990, when the silicone gel implant controversy began, there were only eight indexed publications that dealt with the issue of silicone gel breast implants. Since 1990, there have been more than 500 indexed publications dealing with silicone gel implants. At the time of the moratorium in 1992, we as plastic surgeons did not have a leg to stand on because there was a paucity of scientific evidence to support our observations that silicone breast implants were safe and effective devices.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama/história , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Desenho de Prótese/história , Géis de Silicone/história , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Géis de Silicone/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Plástica/história
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 329: 108685, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497791

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogens constitute a major food safety risk for cantaloupe, and pathogen biofilms formed are particularly difficult to remove. The goal of this study was to evaluate abrasive brushing in removing biofilms from cantaloupe surface using Listeria monocytogenes V7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 as models. Cantaloupe rind pieces were inoculated and then subjected to 30 min or 24 h incubations. The incubated rind pieces were subject to different washing and/or brushing procedures and then the bacterial cells were enumerated. Cryo-SEM showed planktonic cells after 30 min incubation, whereas biofilms formed at rind surfaces after 24 h incubation. For L. monocytogenes 30 min incubation group, the log reductions were 1.4 for brushing, 2.1 for brushing with diatomaceous earth (DE), 2.8 for peroxyacetic acid (PAA) washing, 4.2 for brushing with PAA, and 4.0 for brushing with DE and PAA. In contrast, for the 24 h incubation group, the log reductions were 0.4 for brushing, 1.5 for brushing with DE, 1.1 for PAA washing, 1.6 for brushing with PAA, and 3.0 for brushing with DE and PAA. Similar results were observed for the S. Typhimurium group. These outcomes showed the pathogen-removal efficacy of brushing with DE (abrasive brushing) in the presence of biofilms, suggesting the potential application of abrasive brushing in cleaning cantaloupe for improved food safety.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cucumis melo/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1542-1547, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271959

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to establish a relationship between consumers' socioeconomic aspects, key meat attributes, and consumer perception and conduct toward traced beef in Brazil. The authors applied a structured form in 52 supermarkets in eight Brazilian cities, through interviews with 2.949 consumers, in 2012. Federal or state inspection stamp was the attribute that most influenced the consumers' purchase decision (14.1%). Most of the interviewees (57.3%) had never heard about bovine traceability. Among those who had heard about bovine traceability, 63.2% would be willing to pay more for beef with certified origin. Consumers with higher education and income had a better knowledge about this type of certification, as well as older consumers, and therefore they would be willing to pay more for certified beef. This research suggests that educational level was the reason that most influenced Brazilian consumers during beef purchase.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Carne Vermelha/normas , Adulto , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Certificação , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
8.
Ars pharm ; 61(1): 39-43, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188573

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los medicamentos falsificados son un problema emergente en la sociedad actual. Una de las principales estrategias para poder combatirlos es el empleo del Derecho. Por ello se promulgó, por parte de las instituciones europeas legalmente competentes para ello, el Reglamento Delegado de la Unión Europea 2016/161 de la Comisión de 2 de octubre de 2015, que completa la Directiva 2001/83/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo estableciendo disposiciones detalladas relativas a los dispositivos de seguridad que figuran en el envase de los medicamentos de uso humano (de fabricación industrial). MÉTODO: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de esta nueva normativa, promulgada por diversas instituciones comunitarias, con el objetivo de analizar las novedades existentes en el ámbito del medicamento. RESULTADOS: La norma comunitaria, objeto de nuestro estudio, establece las directrices para verificar aquellos medicamentos con mayor riesgo de falsificación, mediante unos dispositivos de seguridad compuestos de dos partes. Un dispositivo anti-manipulación que permite visualizar que el envase no ha sido alterado y un código identificador único, que será reconocido en todos los países comunitarios y que posee información sobre el medicamento. Desde las oficinas de farmacia se autentifica cada medicamento mediante la verificación y desactivación del código identificador en el momento de la dispensación del mismo. CONCLUSIONES: Esta nueva normativa pretende evitar la posible entrada de medicamentos falsificados en la cadena de suministro legal de medicamentos. Sus principales ventajas son, garantizar al paciente la veracidad del medicamento dispensado en las oficinas de farmacia y mejorar la trazabilidad de los mismos


INTRODUCTION: Falsified medicines are an emerging problem in today's society. One of the main strategies to combat them is the use of law. That is why the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/161 of 2 October 2015 was enacted by the relevant European institutions, which supplements Directive 2001/83/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council by laying down detailed provisions relating to safety features appearing on the external packaging of medicinal products for human use (industrial manufacturing). METHOD: A literature review of this new legislation enacted by various Community institutions has been carried out with the aim of analyzing developments in the scope of the medicinal product. RESULTS: The Community regulation sets out the guidelines for verifying those medicinal products which have an increased risk of been falsified, using safety features consist of two parts: an anti-tampering device that allows to view that the packaging has not been altered, and a unique identifier code, which will be recognized in all Community countries and it has information on the medicinal product. Each drug is authenticated from the Pharmacies by verifying and deactivating the identifier code at the time of dispensing it. CONCLUSIONS: This new regulation aims to avoid the possible entry of falsified medicines into the legal supply chain of medicinal products. Its main advantages are ensuring to the patient the veracity of the drugs dispensed in the Pharmacy and improving the traceability of them


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicamentos Falsificados , Legislação de Medicamentos/normas , Retirada de Medicamento Baseada em Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193829

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El etiquetado nutricional representa una valiosa herramienta para ayudar a los consumidores a tomar decisiones informadas acerca de su dieta y estilo de vida. Son escasos los estudios realizados en España sobre la percepción de la información alimentaria por el consumidor y ninguno considera la población con obesidad y sobrepeso como objetivo principal. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la percepción de esta población frente a la información que le proporciona el etiquetado de los alimentos, su comprensión, utilidad y uso. MÉTODOS: Se realiza 133 encuestas en personas de la Comunidad Valenciana con obesidad (27,8%) y sobrepeso (72,2%) sobre la lectura, hábitos de compra, comprensión y uso de la información alimentaria. RESULTADOS: Se observa que a pesar del interés por seguir una dieta saludable (27,8%) y la valoración positiva del etiquetado de los alimentos (91%), se lee poco (35,3%) y resulta difícil de comprender (35,6%). El precio es el condicionante que más influye a la hora de la compra (72,9%). El 72,9% no sigue una dieta especial. El semáforo nutricional es el etiquetado frontal mejor comprendido. CONCLUSIONES: La población con obesidad y sobrepeso tiene dificultad para interpretar y comprender el etiquetado de los alimentos


BACKGROUND: Nutritional food label represents a valuable tool to help consumers to make informed decisions about their diets and lifestyle. There are few studies carried out in Spain about the perception of the consumer and none of them has obese or overweight population as their main target. Consequently the high interest to conduct this research in order to assess the perception of this population to food label, their understanding, utility and use. METHODS: 133 surveys are conducted in Comunidad Valenciana on obese (27.8%) and overweight (72.2%) people regarding their reading, shopping habits, use and understanding of food information. RESULTS: It is observed that despite their interest to follow a healthy diet (27.8%) and the positive assessment of the food label (91.0%) little is read (35.3%) and it is difficult to understand (35.6%). Price is the most determining factor regarding purchase (72.9%). 72.9% of the population don't follow a special diet. Traffic light colours used on the front packaging is the best understood food label. CONCLUSIONS: Obese and overweight population has difficulty in interpreting and understanding food labels


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/tendências , Compreensão/classificação , Tomada de Decisões , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/tendências
10.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 13(2): 115-120, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207375

RESUMO

Large population studies estimated that the frequency of food allergies is increasing worldwide. In the last two decades, a 'second wave' of the allergy epidemic has emerged as a growing public health problem. EU regulation strengthened information to consumers about allergens in pre-packed food, since December 2014 it has been extended to non-prepacked foods by the Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Commission. The present work aims to present a five-year survey on the presence of nine types of allergen in several foods, including food of animal origin and baby food. The concentration found for each irregular allergen is generally low, but some samples with no gluten indication contained a concentration above 10 mg kg-1 with the highest value of 138.5 mg kg-1 in a dietetic food, during the screening in 2017. These data underline the importance and the necessity of a complete food labelling to protect the majority of allergic individuals.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Carne/análise , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Itália
13.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 584-598, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221561

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the holiday food safety campaign, "The Story of Your Dinner," launched in 2016 by the Partnership for Food Safety Education. The campaign was designed to change knowledge, risk perception, and perceived behavioral control ideas among U.S. consumers. Results from the study, conducted from 2016 through 2018, were analyzed overall and among specific demographic groups. For respondents from all 3 years, overall knowledge significantly increased from presurvey to postsurvey. Survey findings indicated that after viewing the educational intervention, adult respondents were significantly more confident in their ability to use a food thermometer while cooking small cuts of meat and poultry and developed a significantly higher perception of the risk of suffering from foodborne illness. The educational intervention was more effective for changing risk perception and perceived behavioral control among some demographic groups. Respondent risk perception and perceived behavioral control significantly increased in more categories for adolescents than for adults. Consumers tended to overestimate their safe food handling practices. Prior to the educational intervention, adult respondents rated themselves highly (5.49 ± 1.64 of 7.00) on their confidence in cooking meat and poultry that is safe to eat. However, these respondents were less comfortable complying with the safe food handling practice of using a thermometer on small (4.47 ± 1.98) and large (4.61 ± 2.02) cuts of meat and poultry. More educational interventions are needed to improve compliance with safe food handling in home kitchens. Future studies will be conducted to identify and address barriers to food safety behavioral change among various population groups.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
14.
Toxicology ; 436: 152421, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119890

RESUMO

Although the need for non-animal alternatives has been well recognised for the human health hazard assessment of chemicals in general, it has become especially pressing for cosmetic ingredients due to the full implementation of testing and marketing bans on animal testing under the European Cosmetics Regulation. This means that for the safety assessment of cosmetics, the necessary safety data for both the ingredients and the finished product can be drawn from validated (or scientifically-valid), so-called "Replacement methods". In view of the challenges for safety assessment without recourse to animal test data, the Methodology Working Group of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety organised a workshop in February 2019 to discuss the key issues in regard to the use of animal-free alternative methods for the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. This perspective article summarises the outcomes of this workshop and reflects on the state-of-the-art and possible way forward for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for which no experimental animal data exist. The use and optimisation of "New Approach Methodology" that could be useful tools in the context of the "Next Generation Risk Assessment" and the strategic framework for safety assessment of cosmetics were discussed in depth.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/tendências , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Testes de Toxicidade/tendências , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/classificação , Cosméticos/farmacocinética , Difusão de Inovações , União Europeia , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213824

RESUMO

We evaluated metal concentrations in e-liquids and e-aerosols from eight studies and estimated the range of corresponding cancer and non-cancer risks. Chromium and nickel were the leading contributors to cancer risk, with minor contributions from cadmium, lead, and arsenic. The increased cancer risks, assuming exposure to 2 mL/day, ranged from 5.7 to 30,000 additional cancers in a million e-cigarette users. The average cancer risk was 3 in 1000. Cancer risks in the mid to upper end of these ranges exceed acceptable levels. The hazard quotient (HQ) approach was used to evaluate non-cancer risks. Hazard quotients exceeding 1.0 indicate the possibility for non-cancer adverse health effects. Estimated exposures at the maximum reported concentrations of nickel, chromium, and manganese resulted in HQ values of 161, 1.1, and 1.0, respectively, with additional contributions from lead. The average concentration of nickel resulted in an HQ value of 14. We conclude from these studies that exposure to metals in e-cigarette liquids and aerosols may pose a significant cancer and non-cancer health risk at the mid and upper end of the reported ranges. The device design and heating elements appear to be the main source of metals in e-aerosols. The large range of metals within and across e-cigarette brands indicate the need for improvements in product design, enforced product safety regulations and manufacturing quality control. Implementation of such measures could reduce metal exposure in e-cigarette users.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Metais Pesados , Aerossóis , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade , Medição de Risco
16.
J Food Prot ; 83(3): 397-404, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050033

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The BAX system for pathogen detection has been highly accurate in a variety of food products. However, false-negative results have been reported for the detection of pathogens in liquid egg products because of failed pathogen resuscitation and the existence of inhibitory components. In this study, a short-time enrichment step was used to simultaneously resuscitate the target cells to the detection level and to dilute the inhibitory components to reduce detection interference. The MP medium (BAX system) enabled faster multiplication of healthy Salmonella cells than did buffered peptone water (BPW) in tested liquid whole egg and egg yolk. However, MP failed to resuscitate heat-injured cells even after 24 h of incubation. Therefore, MP was replaced with BPW as the enrichment broth for the BAX system. However, the use of BPW for a one-step enrichment was not effective for removal of PCR inhibitors in egg yolk, and unstable detection results were obtained. To improve detection accuracy, a second step of enrichment with brain heart infusion was added. This two-step enrichment process shortened the enrichment time to 14 h and greatly increased the number of samples in which the pathogen was detected during the same enrichment time, especially in the liquid egg yolk samples. The validation study revealed 100% diagnostic accuracy of the two-step enrichment process plus the BAX system. These results indicate that a two-step enrichment process added to the BAX system can improve the detection of pathogenic Salmonella in liquid egg products.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Meios de Cultura , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2
17.
J Food Prot ; 83(3): 491-496, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068857

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Salmonella is one of the top causes for bacterial foodborne infections in the United States, emphasizing the importance of controlling this pathogen for protecting public health. Poultry and poultry products are commonly associated with Salmonella, and interventions during production and processing are necessary to manage the risk of infection due to consumption of poultry products. In recent times, the demand for organic and antibiotic-free poultry has increased owing to consumer perceptions and concerns of increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) pathogens. However, the microbiological effect of these management practices is not clear. This study was conducted to determine the difference in the AMR of Salmonella isolated from poultry processed conventionally and organically. Fecal samples, carcass rinses, and environmental samples were collected over 1 year and analyzed for the prevalence of Salmonella and AMR. Results of this experiment showed that organic chickens were associated with statistically higher levels of Salmonella during early processing steps. However, no difference in Salmonella prevalence was observed between organic and conventional carcasses postchill. In addition, for most antimicrobial agents tested, prevalence of AMR Salmonella in conventional processing was lower in this study than was reported by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for chickens at slaughter. These observations indicate that organic methods may introduce greater risk of Salmonella contamination; however, proper interventions during processing can abate this risk. In addition, this study supports the assertion that raising chickens without the use of antibiotics may result in lower prevalence of AMR Salmonella.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Food Prot ; 83(3): 534-541, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078682

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cronobacter is a bacterial genus that includes seven species, and the species Cronobacter sakazakii is most related to meningitis and septicemia in infants associated with powdered infant formula (PIF). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of C. sakazakii and to determine the microbiological quality of PIF for infant consumption. To do this, a total of 128 PIF samples were analyzed in four brands and countries (Chile, Mexico, Holland, and Brazil), considering three types of PIF: premature (PIF1), infant (PIF2), and follow-up (PIF3). Aerobic plate counts (APC) and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT) were assessed in accordance with Chilean official standards. The outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene was amplified to detect Cronobacter spp. and the fusA gene was amplified to identify C. sakazakii by using the PubMLST Web site and BLAST (NCBI). The antibiotic resistance profile was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. The pathogen was quantified by the most probable number (MPN). The results showed that APC median values for PIF1, PIF2, and PIF3 were 3.2, 4.9, and 4.8 log CFU g-1, respectively. The APC were higher in PIF2 (P < 0.01) from Holland (P < 0.01) in the commercial brand 4 (P < 0.01). The ENT median values in PIF1, PIF2, and PIF3 were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.7 log CFU g-1, respectively. Five strains of C. sakazakii and one strain of Cronobacter malonaticus were identified as having values between 0.023 and 2.3 MPN/g. All strains (100%) harbored the ompA, plasminogen activator (cpa), and hemolysin (hly) virulence genes. To conclude, C. sakazakii was found in four PIF samples from four Chilean products and one from Mexico, which is distributed throughout America. C. sakazakii strains exhibit virulence factors and resistance to ampicillin, thus posing a risk when PIFs are consumed by infants.


Assuntos
Cronobacter sakazakii , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fórmulas Infantis , Brasil , Chile , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cronobacter , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , América Latina , México , Países Baixos , Pós
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(3): 448-458, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While excess energy intake and physical inactivity constitute the obvious causes of body fat accumulation, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are novel factors that have been linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Major sources of POPs are animal fats including fatty fish. Given the putative protective effects of fish on cardiovascular disease, we explored whether high consumption of fatty fish increased serum concentrations of POPs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Men and women aged 35-70 years with body mass index between 25 and 38 kg/m2 and at least 1 cardiometabolic component were randomized to high intakes of fatty fish (mostly farmed salmon, ∼630 g/week; n = 45), high intakes of nuts (∼200 g/week; n = 42) or a control group following their usual diet but restricting fatty fish and nuts for 6 months (n = 44). Concentrations of 15 POPs (5 organochlorinated compounds, 2 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and 8 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured at baseline and end of the study. Results showed that changes in concentrations of individual and classes of POPs did not differ between the dietary groups and controls (p > 0.05). Among cardiometabolic risk factors HDL-cholesterol increased in the fatty fish group compared to controls (+0.10 mmol/L, CI (0.05-0.20); p = 0.005) while no changes were observed in the group consuming nuts. CONCLUSION: Fatty fish consumption for 6 months did not increase the serum concentrations of POPs in individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic risk. While this finding appears reassuring regarding short-term intakes of farmed salmon, long term variations in POPs in adipose stores require further study.


Assuntos
Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Contaminação de Alimentos , Nozes , Obesidade/sangue , Compostos Orgânicos/sangue , Salmão , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Compostos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069985

RESUMO

After the 2011 "Oxy accident" involving deaths from humidifier disinfectants, Korean consumers' anxiety about chemical products has risen. To provide timely, appropriate information to consumers, we must understand their risk recognition and explore methods of safety information provision. We investigated Korean consumers' level of risk perception for chemical products depending on the provision of safety information and other factors. We conducted an online survey for 10 days with 600 adult Korean consumer participants and analyzed seven factors: catastrophic potential, controllability, familiarity, fear, scientific knowledge, and risk for future generations. Our results showed that married women over 30 perceived chemical products as higher risk, but when information was provided on how to use products safely, catastrophic potential, controllability, fear, scientific knowledge, as well as risk perception, increased significantly. When only risk diagnosis information was provided, catastrophic potential, fear, and risk for future generations remained static, but familiarity had a negative effect (R^2 = 0.586). Age and scientific knowledge affected the recognition of risk when safe risk management methods were provided (R^2 = 0.587). Risk controllability did not have any effect on risk perception. These results suggest that providing information about avoiding or dealing with risks has a positive effect on consumers' risk perception.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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