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1.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020407, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe lifestyle changes with regard to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, food intake and physical activity, in the period of social restriction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil with data from the ConVid online health behavior survey. The data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by the survey participants. Post-stratification procedures were used to calculate prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 45,161 individuals aged 18 years or more participated. During the period of social restriction participants reported a decrease in practicing physical activity and an increase in time spent using computers or tablets or watching TV, intake of ultra-processed foods, number of cigarettes smoked and alcoholic beverage consumption. Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a worsening of lifestyles and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911506

RESUMO

Infection of wheat by Fusarium species can lead to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination, thereby reducing food quality and food safety, and leading to economic losses. Agronomic management through the implementation of various pre-harvest measures can reduce the probability of Fusarium spp. infection in the wheat field. To design interventions that could stimulate wheat farmers to (further) improve their agronomic management to reduce FHB, it is key to understand farmers' behaviour towards adapting their management. The aim of this paper was to understand the intention, underlying behavioural constructs, and beliefs of Dutch wheat farmers to adapt their agronomic management to reduce FHB and mycotoxin contamination in wheat, applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data were collected from 100 Dutch wheat farmers via a questionnaire. The standard TPB analysis was extended with an assessment of the robustness of the belief results to account for the statistical validity of the analysis on TPB beliefs (i.e. to address the so-called expectancy-value muddle). Forty-six percent of the farmers had a positive intention to change their management in the next 5 years. The two behavioural constructs significantly related to this intention were attitude and social norm, whereas association with the perceived behavioural control construct was insignificant indicating that farmers did not perceive any barriers to change their behaviour. Relevant attitudinal beliefs indicated specific attributes of wheat, namely yield, quality and safety (lower mycotoxin contamination). This indicates that strengthening these beliefs-by demonstrating that a change in management will result in a higher yield and quality and lower mycotoxin levels-will result in a stronger attitude and, subsequently, a higher intention to change management. Interventions to strengthen these beliefs should preferably go by the most important referents for social norms, which were the buyers and the farmer cooperatives in this study.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/microbiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Controle Comportamental , Fazendeiros , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13354, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789990

RESUMO

The study was aimed to investigate the influence of animal age, post-slaughter chilling rate, and aging time on meat quality of M. longissimus dorsi (LD) of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and humped cattle (Bos taurus indicus) bulls. After slaughtering, one side of carcasses was subjected to rapid chilling (RC) (0 ± 2°C) and other side was hanged in controlled room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for 3 hr, then allowed to the chiller (0 ± 2°C). The meat quality traits were analyzed at 1, 7, and 14 days of storage. It was noted that rapidly chilled carcasses from the younger animals of both species missed the ideal pH/temperature window, which affects the toughness of the meat. Buffalo meat presented higher shear force, color L* values, and lower b* value as compared to the cattle meat. Moreover, meat shear force values decreased while all color coordinates and cooking loss values increased with lengthening the storage time in both age groups of cattle and buffalo. In conclusion, the tenderness of cattle meat was superior to that of buffalo and RC adversely affect the shear force values of young cattle and both age groups of buffalo bulls.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha , Envelhecimento , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 973-984, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788511

RESUMO

China has taken olive cultivation as a significant part of its agricultural development. Longnan city of Gansu province was marked into the world olive distribution map by International Olive Oil Council in 1998. However, so far, little research has been done on the growth and development stages of Chinese olives. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics changes of several quality characteristics of olive oil at different sampling times. Olive fruit of 'Chenggu-32' grown in Longnan were harvested at twenty-four time periods and used for determination of phenotypic traits and oil quality characteristics: total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as fatty acid composition by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and analysed by using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Towards maturation, fruit moisture content decreased while oil content increased. Levels of both total flavonoids and total polyphenols contents slightly decreased first then increased. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was close to three. The ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)/ polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was from 2.28 to 4.05. The oleic acid (C18:1)/linoleic acid (C18:2) ratio was varied between 5.23 and 10.67 according to different sampling dates. The olive oil had lower oleic acid (C18:1) levels, higher linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) levels compared to Codex values (2017) in some periods, which is the characteristics fatty acid composition of 'Chenggu-32' variety in Longnan, China.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Olea/genética , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenótipo , China , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Olea/classificação , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Polifenóis/análise
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1031-1041, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788512

RESUMO

To accelerate the fermentation rate and reduce the adverse effects of undesirable microorganism contamination on rice noodle quality, the pure inoculum fermentation method was used to produce fermented rice noodles. The results indicated that the pure inoculum fermented rice slurry required 10 h to reach a stable pH value. While, the pH value of the natural, pure and natural inoculum fermented rice slurries required 54, 18 and 20 h to stabilize, respectively. Free amino acids and lactic acid concentrations of the pure inoculum fermented rice slurry were higher than those of the natural and natural inoculum fermented rice slurries. The pure inoculum fermentation modified the proximate composition and lowered the pasting viscosities of the rice flour. The texture, cooking and eating qualities of the pure inoculum fermented rice noodles were similar to those of the natural fermented ones. In addition, the pure inoculum fermented rice noodles had higher relative contents of aldehydes than other fermented rice noodles and thus had a better flavor. Therefore, pure inoculum fermentation accelerated the fermentation rate and improved the rice noodle flavor while maintaining the texture, cooking and eating qualities of the rice noodles.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Aldeídos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1011-1020, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788516

RESUMO

In this study, subcritical n-butane was adopted to extract oil from flaxseed. The extraction conditions i.e. extraction temperature, extraction time, and liquid-solid ratio were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The flaxseed oil obtained by subcritical n-butane were characterized and compared with those prepared by n-hexane and cold pressing. Results indicated that the optimal combination of parameters was 53.93℃, 56.82 min, and 19.98:1 mL/g. Subcritical n-butane had higher yield (28.75%) than n-hexane and cold pressing. GC analysis indicated that subcritical n-butane extraction had no obvious influence on the fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, the oil obtained by subcritical n-butane with higher contents of phytosterols (2.93 mg/g) and carotenoids (46.56 mg/kg), and presented a higher oxidation stability (9.27 h). Thus, it was suggested that subcritical n-butane extraction is a promising alternative to extract high quality flaxseed oil.


Assuntos
Butanos , Linho/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Carotenoides/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hexanos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Oxirredução , Fitosteróis/análise , Temperatura
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 985-992, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788517

RESUMO

The oxidative stability of sunflower oil containing rosemary essential oil and extracts in the oil during frying were followed by measuring peroxide value. Variation in the values of L* of the frying oil containing extract was less than that of frying oil containing essential oil. a*-Value of the fried oil containing extract highly significant decreased. Increase in the value of b* of 1. and 2. frying oil with 0.5 % rosemary essential oil was less. b* Value of the frying oils containing rosemary extract increased compared to b* values of frying oils containing essential oil. b* Value of the frying oil that the essential oil of rosemary added showed less increase than b* value of the frying oil that extract of rosemary. The viscosity values of frying oils containing rosemary extract changed between 30.3 mPas (1. frying oil containing 0.5% extract) and 35.5 mPas (2. frying oil containing 0.5% extract). In addition, free fatty acidity values of frying oils containing essential oil at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels ranged from 0.160% (1. frying oil containing 0.5% essential oil) to 0.320% (1. frying oil containing 0.3% essential oil). Peroxide values of frying oils containing rosemary extracts were determined between 12.84 meq O2/kg (1. frying oil containing 0.1% extract) and 28.98 meq O2/kg (2. frying oil containing 0.1% extract). Peroxide value of frying made with 0.3 % the rosemary essential oil increased less than that of made with the raw sunflower oil (control) (p < 0.05). Whenever rosemary essential oil and rosemary extract compare, the essential oil seems to be more effective on the peroxide value of the frying oil. The essential oil of rosemary have been effected more from the extracts of rosemary on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.


Assuntos
Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1001-1009, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788519

RESUMO

To determine the food potential of Paeonia ludlowii D.Y.Hong (P. ludlowii) kernel oil, in this study, we analysed the fatty acid composition and volatile components of this oil, compared the antioxidant effects of two natural antioxidants on it, and then predicted its shelf life at room temperature (25°C). The results showed that P. ludlowii kernel oil mainly contained 20 fatty acids, of which linoleic acid, oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acid contents together made up 86.99%. The aromatic composition of the crude P. ludlowii kernel oil was analysed, and 34 aromatic compounds were obtained, including 5 lipids (2.30%), 9 alcohols (12.64%), 6 aldehydes (14.67%), 2 alkanes (1.30%), 5 acids (2.70%), 1 ketone (0.41), 2 alkenes (39.12%) and 4 other substances (26.85%). The effects of the antioxidants were ranked as follows: 0.04% tea polyphenols + crude oil > 0.04% bamboo flavonoids + crude oil > crude oil. In addition, the shelf lives at room temperature (25℃) of each kernel oil-antioxidant mixture were 200.73 d, 134.90 d and 131.61 d, respectively. Overall, these results reveal that P. ludlowii kernel oil is a potential candidate for a new high-grade edible oil, and its development has broad application prospects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Paeonia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810182

RESUMO

Alleles at the Glu-1 loci play important roles in the functional properties of wheat flour. The effects of various high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) compositions on quality traits and bread-making properties were evaluated using 235 doubled haploid lines (DHs). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with two water regimes as the main plot treatment, and DH lines as the subplot treatments. Results showed that the presence of subunit pair 5+10 at the Glu-D1 locus, either alone or in combination with others, appears to provide an improvement in quality and bread-making properties. At the Glu-A1 locus, subunit 1 produced a higher Zeleny sedimentation value (Zel) and stretch area (SA) than subunit 2* when subunits 14+15 and 5+10 were expressed at the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, and 2* had a positive effect on the maximum dough resistance (Rmax) when subunits 14+15 and 5'+12 were expressed at the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Given subunit 1 at the Glu-A1 locus and 5'+12 at the Glu-D1 locus, the effects of Glu-B1 subunits 14+15 on the tractility (Tra), dough stability time (ST), and dough development time (DT) under the well-watered regime were significantly higher than those of Glu-B1 subunits 13+16. However, 13+16 had a positive effect on SA under the rain-fed regime when subunits 2* and 5+10 were expressed at the Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Multiple comparisons analysis revealed that the Zel and Rmax of the six subunits and eight HMW-GS compositions were stable under different water regimes. Overall, subunit compositions 1, 13+16 and 5+10 and 1, 14+15 and 5+10 had higher values for quality traits and bread-baking properties under the two water regimes. These results could play a positive guiding role in selecting and popularizing varieties suitable for production and cultivation in local areas.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Triticum/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Pão/normas , China , Farinha/normas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Glutens/metabolismo , Haploidia , Peso Molecular , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003219, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of genetic risk for obesity on food choice behaviors is unknown and may be in the causal pathway between genetic risk and weight gain. The aim of this study was to examine associations between genetic risk for obesity and food choice behaviors using objectively assessed workplace food purchases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected prior to the start of the "ChooseWell 365" health-promotion intervention randomized control trial. Participants were employees of a large hospital in Boston, MA, who enrolled in the study between September 2016 and February 2018. Cafeteria sales data, collected retrospectively for 3 months prior to enrollment, were used to track the quantity (number of items per 3 months) and timing (median time of day) of purchases, and participant surveys provided self-reported behaviors, including skipping meals and preparing meals at home. A previously validated Healthy Purchasing Score was calculated using the cafeteria traffic-light labeling system (i.e., green = healthy, yellow = less healthy, red = unhealthy) to estimate the healthfulness (quality) of employees' purchases (range, 0%-100% healthy). DNA was extracted and genotyped from blood samples. A body mass index (BMI) genome-wide polygenic score (BMIGPS) was generated by summing BMI-increasing risk alleles across the genome. Additionally, 3 polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were generated with 97 BMI variants previously identified at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8): (1) BMI97 (97 loci), (2) BMICNS (54 loci near genes related to central nervous system [CNS]), and (3) BMInon-CNS (43 loci not related to CNS). Multivariable linear and logistic regression tested associations of genetic risk score quartiles with workplace purchases, adjusted for age, sex, seasonality, and population structure. Associations were considered significant at P < 0.05. In 397 participants, mean age was 44.9 years, and 80.9% were female. Higher genetic risk scores were associated with higher BMI. The highest quartile of BMIGPS was associated with lower Healthy Purchasing Score (-4.8 percentage points [95% CI -8.6 to -1.0]; P = 0.02), higher quantity of food purchases (14.4 more items [95% CI -0.1 to 29.0]; P = 0.03), later time of breakfast purchases (15.0 minutes later [95% CI 1.5-28.5]; P = 0.03), and lower likelihood of preparing dinner at home (Q4 odds ratio [OR] = 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.9]; P = 0.03) relative to the lowest BMIGPS quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest BMICNS quartile was associated with fewer items purchased (P = 0.04), and the highest BMInon-CNS quartile was associated with purchasing breakfast at a later time (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P = 0.03), and not preparing breakfast (P = 0.04) or lunch (P = 0.01) at home. A limitation of this study is our data come from a relatively small sample of healthy working adults of European ancestry who volunteered to enroll in a health-promotion study, which may limit generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, genetic risk for obesity was associated with the quality, quantity, and timing of objectively measured workplace food purchases. These findings suggest that genetic risk for obesity may influence eating behaviors that contribute to weight and could be targeted in personalized workplace wellness programs in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02660086.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Boston , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235597, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639991

RESUMO

Facing a growing and more affluent world population, changing climate and finite natural resources, world food systems will have to change in the future. The aim of the Agrimonde-Terra foresight study was to build global scenarios linking land use and food security, with special attention paid to overlooked aspects such as nutrition and health, in order to help explore the possible future of the global food system. In this article, we seek to highlight how the resulting set of scenarios contributes to the debate on land use and food security and enlarges the range of possible futures for the global food system. We highlight four main contributions. Combining a scenario building method based on morphological analysis and quantitative simulations with a tractable and simple biomass balance model, the proposed approach improves transparency and coherence between scenario narratives and quantitative assessment. Agrimonde-Terra's scenarios comprise a wide range of alternative diets, with contrasting underlying nutritional and health issues, which accompany contrasting urbanization and rural transformation processes, both dimensions that are lacking in other sets of global scenarios. Agrimonde-Terra's scenarios share some similarities with existing sets of global scenarios, notably the SSPs, but are usually less optimistic regarding agricultural land expansion up to 2050. Results suggest that changing global diets toward healthier patterns could also help to limit the expansion in agricultural land area. Agrimonde-Terra's scenarios enlarge the scope of possible futures by proposing two pathways that are uncommon in other sets of global scenarios. The first proposes to explore possible reconnection of the food industry and regional production within supranational regional blocs. The second means that we should consider that a 'perfect storm', induced by climate change and an ecological crisis combined with social and economic crises, is still possible. Both scenarios should be part of the debate as the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic shows.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Agricultura , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Urbanização
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127294, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615378

RESUMO

The pH-shift process for isolation of gel-forming proteins from fish processing by-products was extended to allow parallel isolation of fish oil. Subjecting the floating emulsion layer formed during pH-shift processing of salmon by-products to pH-adjustment or freeze/thawing efficiently released the emulsified oil at 4 °C. However, for herring by-products higher temperature (10 °C) and a combination of the emulsion-breaking techniques was required for efficient oil release. Oil recovery yield using the adjusted pH-shift process was lower than with classic heat-induced oil isolation (90 °C/20 min), but pH-shift-produced oils had higher amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). Also, alkaline pH-shift processing produced oils with remarkably less oxidation products and free fatty acids compared with acid pH-shift process or heat-induced isolation. Extending the pH-shift process with emulsion breaking techniques can thus be a promising biorefinery approach for parallel cold production of high-quality fish oil and gel-forming proteins from fish by-products.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Óleos de Peixe/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Géis , Temperatura Alta , Oxirredução
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127375, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622189

RESUMO

Biopolymer films based on chitosan/potato protein/linseed oil/ZnO NPs were developed to maintain the storage quality of raw meat. Results indicated that the incorporation of ZnO NPs could effectively improve the transparency and tensile strength of the films, while addition of linseed oil could make the composite film maintain good elastic property. Films blended with chitosan/potato protein/linseed oil/ZnO NPs (Fcpzl) exhibited an excellent moisture barrier capability. SEM showed that ZnO NPs could harmoniously exist in various polymers matrix. FTIR analysis demonstrated that different components were bound together by intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, among which hydrogen bonds were the main force. Raw meat samples were wrapped with different films to evaluate the preservative effect during 4 °C storage. Results indicated that Fcpzl possessed best protective effect of raw meat with excellent acceptable sensory properties during 7 days storage, which could reduce the speed of increasing pH and total bacterial counts.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Carne , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Resistência à Tração
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127339, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659697

RESUMO

Non-targeted NMR-based approach has received great attention as a rapid method for food product authenticity assessment. The availability of a database containing many comparable NMR spectra produced by different spectrometers is crucial to develop functional classifiers able to discriminate rapidly the commodity class of a given food product. Nevertheless, variability in spectrometer features may hamper the production of comparable spectra due to inherent variations in signal resolution. In this paper, we report on the development of a class-discrimination model for grape juice authentication by application of non-targeted NMR spectroscopy. Different approaches for the pre-treatment of data will be described along with details about the model validation. The developed model performed excellently (95.4-100% correct predictions) even when it was tested against 650 spectra produced by 65 spectrometers with different configurations (magnetic field strength, manufacturer, age). This study may boost the use of non-targeted NMR methods for food control.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Campos Magnéticos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Vitis/química
15.
Food Chem ; 333: 127481, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663753

RESUMO

In this study, we tested the exogenous application of phytosulfokine α (PSKα) for delaying the yellowing of broccoli florets during cold storage. Our results showed that the lower yellowing in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα was probably due to the higher endogenous accumulation of PSKα, leading to the endogenous accumulation of guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Besides, broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα exhibited a higher accumulation of phenols and flavonoids by triggering gene expression and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). Moreover, the higher expression of L-galactotno-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) gene and the lower expression of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) gene in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα may be the reasons for the higher accumulation of ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the exogenous application of PSKα is a promising strategy in delaying the yellowing and preserving the nutritional quality of broccoli florets during cold storage.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Food Chem ; 333: 127531, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679420

RESUMO

The effect of roasting of chia seed at different temperatures (90, 120, 150 and 180 °C) on bioactive constituents in extracts and on the quality of oil was evaluated. At higher temperatures, crude protein and ash contents increased, whereas total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, and antioxidant activities decreased. The predominant phenolic constituents were myrcetin, and rosmarinic, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and gallic acids, which all decreased with increasing temperatures. Notably, myrcetin content ranged from 75.59 mg/100 g (at 100 °C) to 85.49 mg/100 g (for control). Tocopherols (É£ and α type) were predominant nutrients and their levels ranged from 654.86 mg/100 g (at 180 °C) to 698.32 mg/100 g (for control). Concentrations of linolenic (59.84%), linoleic (20.57%), and oleic (10.09%) acids from unroasted chia seeds were higher than those from roasted ones. This study revealed that chia seeds should be heated at temperatures below or equal to 90 °C in order to preserve their nutrient profile.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais/química , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos
17.
Food Chem ; 333: 127425, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683254

RESUMO

Zero-salted yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were immersed in solutions of resistant starch HYLON™ VII (HC) or fruit coating Semperfresh™ (SC) containing a range of salt (NaCl) between 10 and 30% (w/v). The objective was to evaluate the effect of salt-coatings on the textural, handling, cooking, and sensory properties of YAN. Increasing salt in the coatings caused a reduction in optimum cooking time, cooking loss and increase in cooking yield. The mechanical and textural parameters, sensory hardness, springiness and overall sensory acceptability of the salt-coated noodles however decreased with increasing salt application. HC-Na10 and SC-Na10 showed the highest textural and mechanical parameters, sensory hardness and springiness. The differences in the parameters were attributed mainly to the water absorption properties of starch that was affected by salt application. Thus, the quality of salt-coated noodles was dependent mainly on the amounts of salt applied in the coatings rather than on the types of coatings used.


Assuntos
Ar , Culinária , Dessecação/métodos , Farinha/análise , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Paladar , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dureza , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Amido/química
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127319, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569936

RESUMO

The influence of fresh egg white (EW) addition on the quality characteristics and protein aggregation in oat noodles containing wheat flour and gluten was studied. EW addition decreased cooking loss and increased cooking time of 70% oat noodles. The hardness, chewiness, tensile force and tensile distance improved significantly. A smooth surface and continuous protein network were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after adding EW. After cooking, the peak area in SE-HPLC profile of 70% oat noodles with EW decreased obviously. The extractabilities of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium (SDSEP) of cooked wheat and oat noodles under non-reducing condition were lower than those of samples under reducing condition. The protein bands changes in SDS-PAGE profiles showed that EW could induce disulfide cross-linking of proteins in noodles. EW addition promoted proteins interaction and improved the cooking and texture properties of oat noodles.


Assuntos
Avena , Clara de Ovo/química , Farinha , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Dissulfetos/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Farinha/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Glutens , Dureza , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum
19.
Food Chem ; 330: 127330, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569941

RESUMO

Conventional analysis, electronic senses and HS-SPME-GC-MS were applied to evaluate the effects of pretreatment methods and leaching methods on jujube wine quality. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of alcohol content, color, taste and aroma were observed among all the jujube wine samples, in which the pulp and pectase fermented jujube wine was the best among all. Moreover, rather than taste, aroma is the most significantly (p < 0.05) affected. In regard to aroma, a total of 182 volatile compounds were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS. It was found that the blended-into-pulp treatment and the leached-by-pectase treatment had notable positive effects on jujube wine. The pulp and pectase fermented jujube wines exhibited the highest concentration of total volatile compounds as well as alcohols, esters, acids and aldehydes. Thus, the optimal pretreatment method and leaching method for jujube wine fermentation are blended-into-pulp and leached-by-pectase respectively.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Vinho/análise , Ziziphus , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Cor , Nariz Eletrônico , Ésteres/análise , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ziziphus/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579617

RESUMO

FABP4 is a candidate gene for carcass and meat quality traits in livestock and poultry. However, the effects of FABP4 have not been examined in the Yanbian yellow cattle, an economically important local cattle breed in China. In this study, we characterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FABP4 in this cattle breed and their associations with meat quality traits. Six SNPs (referred to as SNP1-6) were identified in FABP4 by direct sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The six SNPs were significantly correlated with meat quality traits. In particular, the GG and GA genotypes of SNP1 were significantly associated with water and fat contents and GG and AA genotypes of SNP1 were significantly associated with protein contents (P < 0.05). The fat content and marbling in heterozygous individuals at SNP2-6 were significantly higher than those in wild-type or mutant individuals (P < 0.05), while protein content was significantly higher in wild-type and mutant individuals than in heterozygous individuals (P < 0.05). A gene expression analysis indicated that the lipid metabolism-related genes FABP4, PPARγ, ANGPTL4, and LPL show similar expression patterns with respect to FABP4 genotypes, with the highest levels in wild-type individuals and the lowest levels in mutants. In conclusion, FABP4 SNPs can be used for marker-assisted selection in Yanbian yellow cattle breeding.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Animais , China , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
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