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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(1): 12-13, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411700

RESUMO

On May 8, 2020, the Vermont Department of Health (VDH) issued a Health Update* recommending shortening the duration of quarantine for persons exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Exposed persons who were in quarantine could be tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on or after quarantine day 7. Those who had remained asymptomatic throughout quarantine and who received a negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result on or after day 7 could end quarantine. This policy was based on a report suggesting that symptom onset occurs within this time frame in approximately three quarters of COVID-19 cases (1) and on consultation of the Vermont Health Commissioner with the U.S. Surgeon General. VDH implemented this policy to minimize restrictions on state residents, recognizing that some reduction could occur in the prevention benefit of quarantine to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2. State-run SARS-CoV-2 testing sites were made available to increase access to no-cost testing and facilitate implementation of this policy. During August 1-December 1, among persons seeking testing at a VDH SARS-CoV-2 testing site, 36% stated that their reason for seeking testing was to end quarantine early (VDH, unpublished data, December 7, 2020), indicating that persons were aware of and following the policy and using the testing services provided. To assess the effectiveness of this policy, VDH analyzed testing data for contacts of persons with a COVID-19 diagnosis. During May 8-November 16, VDH identified 8,798 exposed contacts of COVID-19 patients; 3,983 (45%) had sought testing within 14 days of their exposure, with day 0 defined as the date of last exposure noted in the case investigation record. Among these persons, 2,200 (55%) who received testing on days 7-10 were included in this analysis; 977 (44.9%) of these contacts had a specimen collected for testing on day 7. Among these, 34 (3%) had test results that were positive, 940 (96%) had results that were negative, and three (<1%) had results that were indeterminate (Table). Among the 34 contacts who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result on day 7 after exposure, 12 (35%) were asymptomatic. The remaining 22 contacts with positive test results were symptomatic at the time of testing; approximately one half had developed symptoms on days 4-7 after exposure. Among the 940 contacts who received negative test results on specimens collected on day 7 after exposure, 154 (16%) had a subsequent test within the next 7 days (i.e., days 8-14); among these, 152 (99%) had tests that remained negative, and two (1%) had results that were indeterminate.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , /prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Atletas , /epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Política Pública , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Vermont/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 512: 49-57, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Majority coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are classified as mild and moderate (non-severe) diseases. We aim to develop a model to predict isolation length for non-severe patients. METHODS: Among 188 non-severe patients, 96 patients were enrolled as training cohort to identify factors associated with isolation length via Cox regression model and develop a nomogram. Other 92 patients formed as validation cohort to validate nomogram. Concordance index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC) and calibration curves were used to evaluated nomogram. RESULTS: Increasing absolute eosinophil count (AEC) after admission was correlated with shorter isolation length (P = 0.02). Baseline activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) > 30 s was correlated with longer isolation length (P = 0.03). A nomogram to predict isolation probability at 11-, 16- and 21-day was developed and validated. The C-indices of training and validation cohort were 0.604 and 0.682 respectively. Both cohorts showed a good discriminative ability (AUC, 11-day: 0.646 vs 0.730; 16-day: 0.663 vs 0.750; 21-day: 0.711 vs 0.783; respectively) and calibration power. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline APTT and dynamic change of AEC were two significant factors associated with isolation length of non-severe patients. Nomogram could predict isolation probability for each patient to estimate appropriate quarantine length.


Assuntos
/etiologia , Nomogramas , Quarentena , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , China , Eosinófilos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Diabet Med ; 38(1): e14374, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740984

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the effect of the stringent lockdown measures, introduced in the UK on 23 March 2020 to curtail the transmission of COVID-19, on glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes using flash glucose monitoring. METHODS: We undertook an observational study of 572 individuals with type 1 diabetes for whom paired flash glucose monitoring data were available between early March and May 2020. The primary outcome was change in flash glucose monitoring variables. We also assessed clinical variables associated with change in glycaemic control. RESULTS: Percentage of time in range increased between March and May 2020 [median (interquartile range) 53 (41-64)% vs 56 (45-68)%; P < 0.001], with associated improvements in standard deviation of glucose (P <0.001) and estimated HbA1c (P <0.001). There was a small reduction in the number of individuals meeting the hypoglycaemia target of <5% per day (64% vs 58%; P = 0.004). Comparing changes in flash glucose monitoring data from March to May in 2019 with the same period in 2020 confirmed that these differences were confined to 2020. Socio-economic deprivation was an independent predictor of a ≥5% reduction in time in range during lockdown (odds ratio 0.45 for people in the two most affluent Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown was not associated with a significant deterioration in glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes using flash glucose monitoring. However, socio-economic deprivation appeared to increase the risk of decline in glycaemic control, which has implications for how support is focused in challenging times.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 269: 113569, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309154

RESUMO

We investigate the links between corruption and compliance with social distancing during COVID-19 pandemic in America. Both theory and empirical evidence point to a corrosive effect of corruption on trust/social capital which in turn determine people's behavior towards compliance with public health policies. Using data from 50 states we find that people who live in more corrupt states are less likely to comply with so called shelter in place/stay at home orders. Our results are robust to different measures of corruption.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , /epidemiologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Capital Social , Confiança/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Maturitas ; 144: 4-10, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of confinement due to the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resilience in peri- and postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used an online questionnaire which was sent between April 30th and May 13th, 2020 to women aged 40-70 years who were peri- or postmenopausal according to STRAW criteria. We used the 16-item Cervantes short-form scale (Cervantes-SF) to measure HRQoL, and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) to measure resilience. High scores on the Cervantes-SF indicate low HRQoL and high scores on the RS-14 indicate high levels of resilience. Covid-19 status, sociodemographic descriptors, and lifestyle variables were also evaluated. RESULTS: We included 2430 peri- and postmenopausal women with valid questionnaires. All items of the Cervantes-SF were completed in 2151 cases, whilst the RS-14 was completed in 2413 cases. There was a negative correlation between scores on the Cervantes-SF and RS-14 scales (Rho -0.350; p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between Cervantes-SF scores and living with others (ß-coefficient -10.2; p < 0.001), use of antidepressants (ß 9.3; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß -8.6; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß -2.7; p < 0.001). Resilience was associated with the use of antidepressants (ß -5.9; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß 3.2; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß 1.7; p = 0.005). According to the multivariate analysis, there were no associations between either Covid-19 or menopausal status and HRQoL or resilience scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the period of mandatory Covid-19 confinement, peri- and postmenopausal women who engaged in physical and sexual activity had higher HRQoL and higher levels of resilience, whilst women who were using antidepressants had lower HRQoL and lower levels of resilience. HRQoL was greater in women who lived with others.


Assuntos
Perimenopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115897, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126032

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global public health threaten. A series of strict prevention and control measures were implemented in China, contributing to the improvement of air quality. In this study, we described the trend of air pollutant concentrations and the incidence of COVID-19 during the epidemic and applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to assess the association between short-term exposure to air pollution and daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 235 Chinese cities. Disease progression based on both onset and report dates as well as control measures as potential confounding were considered in the analyses. We found that stringent prevention and control measures intending to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, contributed to a significant decline in the concentrations of air pollutants except ozone (O3). Significant positive associations of short-term exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter with diameters ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), particulate matter with diameters ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with daily new confirmed cases were observed during the epidemic. Per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 (lag0-15), PM10 (lag0-15), and NO2 (lag0-20) were associated with a 7% [95% confidence interval (CI): (4-9)], 6% [95% CI: (3-8)], and 19% [95% CI: (13-24)] increase in the counts of daily onset cases, respectively. Our results suggest that there is a statistically significant association between ambient air pollution and the spread of COVID-19. Thus, the quarantine measures can not only cut off the transmission of virus, but also retard the spread by improving ambient air quality, which might provide implications for the prevention and control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Coronavirus , Epidemias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Quarentena
10.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 120: 108158, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298298

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will have a lasting impact on public health. In addition to the direct effects of COVID-19 infection, physical distancing and quarantine interventions have indirect effects on health. While necessary, physical distancing interventions to control the spread of COVID-19 could have multiple impacts on people living with opioid use disorder, including impacts on mental health that lead to greater substance use, the availability of drug supply, the ways that people use drugs, treatment-seeking behaviors, and retention in care. The degree to which COVID-19 will impact the opioid epidemic and through which of the possible mechanisms that we discuss is important to monitor. We employed simulation modeling to demonstrate the potential impact of physical distancing on overdose mortality.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Quarentena
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 132: 23-31, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038562

RESUMO

Trauma survivors who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms may be particularly vulnerable when facing the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet trauma exposure may also lead to salutogenic outcomes, known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Nevertheless, the implications of PTG attributed to prior trauma, for trauma survivors' adjustment when facing additional stressors, are unclear. Addressing this gap, 528 Israeli trauma survivors were assessed for PTG and PTSD symptoms attributed to prior trauma, as well as peritraumatic stress symptoms related to the pandemic, as part of an online survey. Analyses revealed that being younger, female, quarantined, negatively self-rating one's health status, and suffering from PTSD symptoms were associated with elevated peritraumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, PTG attributed to prior trauma made a significant contribution in explaining elevated intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms. The present results point to the need for clinicians to take into account reports of PTG attributed to prior trauma when treating trauma survivors during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111438, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039873

RESUMO

Roles of environmental factors in transmission of COVID-19 have been highlighted. In this study, we sampled the high-touch environmental surfaces in the quarantine room, aiming to detect the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the environmental surfaces during the incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Fifteen sites were sampled from the quarantine room, distributing in the functional areas such as bedroom, bathroom and living room. All environmental surface samples were collected with sterile polyester-tipped applicator pre-moistened in viral transport medium and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 34.1% of samples were detected positively for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rates of Patient A, B and C, were 46.2%, 0% and 61.5%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was detected positively in bedroom and bathroom, with the positive rate of 50.0% and 46.7%, respectively. In contrast, living room had no positive sample detected. Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 distributes widely during the incubation period of COVID-19, and the positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces are relatively high in bathroom and bedroom.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário/virologia , Microbiologia Ambiental/normas , Poluição Ambiental , /transmissão , /epidemiologia , Desinfecção , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , /prevenção & controle , Masculino , Quarentena/normas , Propriedades de Superfície , Toaletes/normas
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 285-287, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related lockdown on adherence to lifestyle and drug regimens in stay-at-home chronic coronary syndromes patients living in urban and rural areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was perfomed in patients with chronic coronary syndromes. A sample of 205 patients was randomly drawn from the RICO (Observatoire des infarctus de Côte d'Or) cohort. Eight trained interviewers collected data by phone interview during week 16 (April 13 to April 19), i.e. 4 weeks after implementation of the French lockdown (start March 17, 2020). RESULTS: Among the 195 patients interviewed (of the 205, 3 had died, 1 declined, 6 lost), mean age was 65.5 ± 11.1 years. Only six patients (3%) reported drug discontinuation, mainly driven by media influence or family members. All 166 (85%) patients taking aspirin continued their prescribed daily intake. Lifestyle rules were less respected since almost half (45%) declared >25% reduction in physical activity, 26% of smokers increased their tobacco consumption by >25%, and 24% of patients increased their body weight > 2 kg. The decrease in physical activity and the increase in smoking were significantly greater in urban patients (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-related lockdown had a negative impact on lifestyle in a representative sample of stay-at-home CCS patients.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Fumar/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Ganho de Peso
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141757, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891990

RESUMO

The world today is dealing with a havoc crisis due to the pervasive outbreak of COVID-19. As a preventive measure against the pandemic, government authorities worldwide have implemented and adopted strict policy interventions such as lockdown, social distancing, and quarantine to curtail the disease transmission. Consequently, humans have been experiencing several ill impacts, while the natural environment has been reaping the benefits of the interventions. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the interlinked relationship between human society and the natural environment amid the current crisis. Herein, we performed a meta-analysis of existing literature reporting the various impacts of COVID-19 on human society and the natural environment. A conceptual model was developed to portray and address how the interaction of the existing elements of both sub-components of the coupled human-environment system (CHES) - human society and natural environment - are impacted by the government interventions. Results revealed a suite of positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on both the sub-components. Our model provides an explicit impression of the complex nexus of CHES amid the current crisis. The proposed conceptual model could help in understanding the complex nexus by identifying the route of short-term impacts of COVID-19 measures and thus may aid in identifying priority areas for discussion and planning in similar crises as well.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Meio Ambiente , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Quarentena
16.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 29(1): 27-34, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregivers of people with dementia (pwD) are at risk of depression, anxiety, and burden. COVID-19 pandemic and government-imposed lockdown as a preventive measure might increase psychological symptoms in caregivers. The authors performed a study to measure the change of psychological symptoms during quarantine or self-isolation for COVID-19 in a sample of Italian caregivers of pwD, and to investigate if the resilience is associated with psychological changes in the sample. METHODS: Eighty-four caregivers of pwD completed an online survey including questionnaires assessing depressive symptomatology and anxiety before and during the lockdown, caregiver burden and levels of resilience. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis of variance revealed an effect of time (before and during the lockdown) in the whole group on depression scores; a significant interaction between time and resilience was found on anxiety scores, revealing that caregivers with high resilience showed a more significant increase of anxiety levels during lockdown than caregivers with low resilience. Moreover, the regression analysis revealed that caregiver burden was associated negatively with resilience scores, and positively with higher functional dependence. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown produced psychological consequences in caregivers of pwD, with an increase of levels of depression. Moreover, high resilience had a negative effect on anxiety levels and no effect on depressive symptomatology during the lockdown; moreover, it was associated with lower levels of caregiver burden. All caregivers, even those with high resilience levels, should be addressed to psychological interventions to reduce levels of depression, anxiety and caregiver burden.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/enfermagem , Depressão/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(2): 222-229, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187758

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a worldwide pandemic and poses a serious public health risk. It has been proven that lung ultrasound can be extremely valuable in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, which could also minimize the number of exposed healthcare workers and equipment. Because healthcare workers in ultrasound departments are in close contact with patients who might be infected or virus carriers, it is extremely important that they be provided sufficient protection. Extremely aggressive protection should be avoided because it might lead to a lack of protection equipment for the hospital. Guidance on proper protection management should be provided in detail, for example, how to choose personal protective equipment, how to disinfect the environment. To address these problems, on behalf of the Chinese Ultrasound Doctors Association, Chinese PLA Professional Committee of Ultrasound in Medicine, Beijing Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and Chinese Research Hospital Association Ultrasound Professional Committee, the authors have summarized the recommendations for effective protection according to existing hygienic standards, their experience and available literature. After the recommendations were completed, two online conferences were held on January 31, 2020 and February 7, 2020, at which the recommendations were discussed in detail. A modified version of the work was circulated and finally approved by all authors, and is the present Chinese Expert Consensus on Protection for Ultrasound Healthcare Workers against COVID-19.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ultrassonografia/métodos , China , Consenso , Desinfecção , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Quarentena , Triagem
18.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 3): 713-719, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic. We present the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 28 COVID-19 patients treated in our hospital in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral nucleic acids from oropharyngeal swab specimens between February 4, 2020 and July 6, 2020, were enrolled. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: Seventeen of the 28 patients (60.7%) had pneumonia. The most frequent symptoms were cough (n = 23, 82.1%) and fever (n = 17, 60.7%). The development of pneumonia was associated with age ≥40 years (p < 0.024), body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (p = 0.014), fever (p = 0.007), shortness of breath (p = 0.036), chills ((p = 0.047), and lower platelet counts (<200,000/µL) (p = 0.007). Increased quarantine duration was associated with age ≥40 years (p = 0.026), Charlson index ≥1 (p = 0.037), lower lymphocyte (<1500/uL; p = 0.028) or platelet counts (<200,000/µL) (p = 0.016), lower serum sodium (<140 mEq/L; p = 0.006), and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level (≥1 mg/dl; p = 0.04). Treatment with hydroxychloroquine or in combination with other medicines did not reduce the quarantine duration. All 28 patients recovered with a median quarantine duration of 27.2 days. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with older age, higher BMI, fever, chills or shortness of breath, lower serum sodium level, lower platelet or lymphocyte count, and higher CRP level may be associated with developing pneumonia or longer quarantine duration.


Assuntos
/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , /epidemiologia , /terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Quarentena , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 131-135, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated social distancing and lockdown restrictions are expected to have substantial and enduring mental health effects. In this study, we aimed to assess depression levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. METHODS: We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) brief screening instrument to detect probable depression in two nationally representative surveys of US adults. Pre-pandemic levels of depression were assessed in a sample of 5,075 adults from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Depression was assessed in March (N = 6,819) and April 2020 (N = 5,428) in the Understanding America Study, a representative sample of the US population. RESULTS: The percentage of US adults with depression increased significantly from 8.7% (95% CI[7.6%-9.8%]) in 2017-2018 to 10.6% (95% CI[9.6%-11.6%) in March 2020 and 14.4% (95% CI[13.1%-15.7%]) in April 2020. Statistically significant increases in depression levels were observed for all population subgroups examined with the exception of those aged 65+ years and Black participants. Young adults (aged 18-34) experienced a marked increase in depression of 13.4 percentage points (95% CI [9.5%-17.2%]) that was larger than any other age group. Additional analyses of depression trends in NHANES from 2007/2008-2017/2018 showed that the substantial increase in depression in April 2020 was unlikely to be due to typical year-to-year variation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that depression levels have risen substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce recent findings indicating that young adults may be particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Theor Biol ; 509: 110501, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980371

RESUMO

We model the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemics in China, South Korea, Italy, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. We identify the early phase of the epidemics, when the number of cases grows exponentially, before government implementation of major control measures. We identify the next phase of the epidemics, when these social measures result in a time-dependent exponentially decreasing number of cases. We use reported case data, both asymptomatic and symptomatic, to model the transmission dynamics. We also incorporate into the transmission dynamics unreported cases. We construct our models with comprehensive consideration of the identification of model parameters. A key feature of our model is the evaluation of the timing and magnitude of implementation of major public policies restricting social movement. We project forward in time the development of the epidemics in these countries based on our model analysis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Previsões/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , /transmissão , China/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Política Pública , Quarentena , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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