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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47637

RESUMO

Durante a pandemia das síndromes da angústia respiratória aguda grave e a Doença por COVID-19, o isolamento social é a medida mais eficaz no enfrentamento do agravo (NUSSBAUMER-STREIT et al., 2020). Desde que a World Health Organization (WHO) declarou estado de pandemia (WHO, 2020), esforços mundiais vêm sendo envidados em busca de vacina e de tratamento eficaz para a doença (YI et al., 2020; WHO, 2020). É crescente a necessidade de realizar pesquisas com seres humanos para se obter respostas clínicas, epidemiológicas, farmacológicas e sociais. Estratégias de obtenção de assinaturas em documentos obrigatórios, que compõe o protocolo de pesquisa a ser submetido ao Sistema CEP (Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa) /CONEP (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa), representam um desafio, devido a vulnerabilidade do participante de pesquisa.(AU)


Assuntos
Ética em Pesquisa , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Quarentena , Documentação
2.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(5): 57-59, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481784

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has escalated the risks and dangers for victims of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). This article aims to describe the current state of IPV in Rhode Island as well as best practices for IPV screening and intervention using telehealth. We highlight the particular plight of undocumented immigrant victims of IPV and how healthcare providers can be responsive to their unique vulnerabilities and needs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Imigrantes Indocumentados
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the rapid increase in COVID-19 cases overburdened the Italian health system, with the country becoming the pandemic's epicenter. METHODS: We present a narrative review based on manuscripts, official documents, and newspaper articles regarding COVID-19 in Italy. RESULTS: Characteristics of the epidemic, possible causes for its worsening, and the measures adopted across Italian regions are presented. CONCLUSIONS: In the early stages of an epidemic, effective decision-making is essential to contain the number of cases. Medical support for patients and social isolation measures are the most appropriate strategies currently available to reduce the spread and lethality of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
4.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. METHODS: Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18-30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Líquidos , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sono , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 66, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 51-year-old Chinese woman who was evacuated from Wuhan, China and diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 infection at a Southern California quarantine facility. Her clinical course was notable for high fevers, night sweats, productive cough, transient leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis. Evolving hypoxia and infiltrates on chest imaging warranted the trial of an investigational antiviral drug - remdesivir. Our patient recovered and was discharged after 2 weeks of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights our patient's clinical course, including diagnostic work-up, medical management, and challenges in defining non-infectivity in a relatively unknown disease.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , California/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quarentena/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 24(2): 23-25, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540825

RESUMO

If they work as expected, the strict containment measures enforced to stop the French Covid-19 epidemic will leave a large proportion of the population "naive" about the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In these conditions, how can we prevent the epidemic from rebounding, at a time when this restrictive policy will soon become untenable economically and socially? Based on the figures, now well known, of the lethality of covid-19 according to age classes, I suggest that a gradual release of the containment be instituted, which will keep retirees in isolation (the 65+ age class), whose risk is maximal and the impact on economic production the lowest. This scenario might be applicable to most European countries that enforce mandatory retirement ages for most of workers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública/economia , Quarentena , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Quarentena/economia
7.
Soins ; 65(843-844): 59-62, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563514

RESUMO

The confinement of the population for an indefinite period within the framework of the national French prevention strategy of Covid-19 has a negative psychosocial impact already documented in other countries. In the past, several epidemics have built different strategies of prevention. It is urgent to consider how strategies used in other epidemics might be useful and helpful to manage the quarantine used to prevent the epidemics of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic disease forced different countries to adopt quarantine measures. These actions could have an impact on mental health in the general population. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in psychopathological symptoms shown by Spanish general population during the COVID-19 quarantine based on sociodemographic, occupational and environmental-contextual variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study was performed in a sample of 151 participants aged between 18-76 years old. The Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire via online was used to measure the severity of psychopathology symptoms. Socio-demographic, environmental and occupational variables were collected with an ad hoc questionnaire. The data were gathered from the 3rd to the 6th of April, 2020. A descriptive and comparative analysis was carried out using parametric contrasts (t test and ANOVA). RESULTS: The younger participants (18-35 years) showed higher levels of hostility (t=2.24; p=0.02), depression (t=2.56; p=0.01), anxiety (t=2.78; p=0.006) and interpersonal sensitivity (t=2.08; p=0.04) than older participants (36-76 years). The active or employed people presented lower values of depressive symptoms (t=2.10; p=0.04) than unemployed people. The participants who dedicate less than 30 minutes on getting informed about COVID-19 showed higher scores for hostility (t=2.36; p=0.02) and interpersonal sensitivity (t=1.98; p=0.04) than participants who indicated dedicating at least 30 minutes. People who played sport daily reported a lower level of somatization symptoms (t=-2.11; p=0.03) than persons that did not play sport. Those who had relatives, acquaintances, etc. with COVID-19 reported higher levels of anxiety (t=2.09; p=0.04) than those who did not have close people infected. Lastly, participants who lived alone showed a higher level of psychoticism (F=3.93; p=0.02) compared to those who lived with more than two people. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show that during quarantine can be identified groups with higher psychological vulnerability based on sociodemographic and occupational-contextual factors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Transtornos Mentais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e19457, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499212

RESUMO

The current pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of rapid control of the transmission of infectious diseases. This is particularly important for COVID-19, where many individuals are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms but can still spread the disease. Current systems for controlling transmission rely on patients to report their symptoms to medical professionals and be able to recall and trace all their contacts from the previous few days. This is unrealistic in the modern world. However, existing smartphone-based GPS and social media technology may provide a suitable alternative. We, therefore, developed a mini-program within the app WeChat. This analyzes data from all users and traces close contacts of all patients. This permits early tracing and quarantine of potential sources of infection. Data from the mini-program can also be merged with other data to predict epidemic trends, calculate individual and population risks, and provide recommendations for individual and population protection action. It may also improve our understanding of how the disease spreads. However, there are a number of unresolved questions about the use of smartphone data for health surveillance, including how to protect individual privacy and provide safeguards against data breaches.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Privacidade , Quarentena , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531892

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary behaviours of the Spanish adult population were changed during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement. For that purpose, an online questionnaire, based on 44 items including socio-demographic data, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) Adherence Screener (MEDAS) as a reference of a healthy diet, processed foods intake, changes in their usual food choices and weight gain was distributed using social media and snowball sampling. A total of 7514 participants (37% aged below 35 years, 70.6% female, 77.9% university-level education or higher) from all the Spanish territory completed the questionnaire. Results outlined healthier dietary behaviours during the confinement when compared to previous habits. Overall, the MEDAS score (ranging from 0 to 14, whereby higher a scoring reflects greater adherence to the MedDiet) increased significantly from 6.53 ± 2 to 7.34 ± 1.93 during the confinement. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, region and other variables, showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of changing the adherence to the MedDiet (towards an increase in adherence) in those persons who decreased the intake of fried foods, snacks, fast foods, red meat, pastries or sweet beverages, but increased MedDiet-related foods such as olive oil, vegetables, fruits or legumes during the confinement. COVID-19 confinement in Spain has led to the adoption of healthier dietary habits/behaviours in the studied population, as reflected by a higher adherence to the MedDiet. This improvement, if sustained in the long-term, could have a positive impact on the prevention of chronic diseases and COVID-19-related complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560550

RESUMO

Confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic can influence dietary profiles, especially those of adolescents, who are highly susceptible to acquiring bad eating habits. Adolescents' poor dietary habits increase their subsequent risk of degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular pathologies, etc. Our aim was to study nutritional modifications during COVID-19 confinement in adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, compare them with their usual diet and dietary guidelines, and identify variables that may have influenced changes. Data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire on food intake among 820 adolescents from Spain, Italy, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile. The results show that COVID-19 confinement did influence their dietary habits. In particular, we recorded modified consumption of fried food, sweet food, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Moreover, gender, family members at home, watching TV during mealtime, country of residence, and maternal education were diversely correlated with adequate nutrition during COVID-19 confinement. Understanding the adolescents' nutrition behavior during COVID-19 lockdown will help public health authorities reshape future policies on their nutritional recommendations, in preparation for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2012934, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568401

RESUMO

Importance: A new outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Wuhan, China, is spreading rapidly around the globe. Limited information on control in community settings is available. Objective: To detail measures enacted within a community to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate the spread of COVID-19 associated with implementation of the program. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series study details the implementation of prevention measures in a specific community setting among community-dwelling individuals exposed to or at risk of COVID-19 in Haiyu, Shenzhen, China, from January 23 to April 10, 2020. Exposures: Community containment strategies for tracking, quarantine, and management were strictly, cooperatively, and effectively implemented by a team that included a general practitioner, a community manager, and public safety bureau officials. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number of locally acquired cases with indirect links to confirmed COVID-19 cases. Diagnosis with COVID-19 was confirmed when throat swab samples tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Approximately 34 686 individuals live in Haiyu, including 2382 residents aged 65 years or older. Seven individuals with COVID-19 acquired outside the community (age, 20-70 years; 3 [42%] women) were moved from quarantine to a hospital for standard isolation treatment. A total of 20 people who were asymptomatic and who had had direct contact with these individuals were closely observed by health care workers at a nearby hotel. Additionally, 800 individuals considered to be at higher risk were moved from quarantine to home isolation for 14 days. There were no locally acquired cases of COVID-19 with indirect links reported in the Haiyu community from the time that the study began on January 23, 2020, to April 10, 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that cooperation among the authorities of multiple sectors allowed for the implementation of preventive measures that were associated with limited community transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585830

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in physical isolation measures in many parts of the world. In Australia, nationwide restrictions included staying at home, unless seeking medical care, providing care, purchasing food, undertaking exercise, or attending work in an essential service. All undergraduate university classes transitioned to online, mostly home-based learning. We, therefore, examined the effect of isolation measures during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia (March/April) on diet (24-h recall) and physical activity (Active Australia Survey) patterns in third-year biomedical students. Findings were compared with students enrolled in the same course in the previous two years. In females, but not males, energy intake was ~20% greater during the pandemic, and snacking frequency and energy density of consumed snacks also increased compared with 2018 and 2019. Physical activity was impacted for both sexes during the pandemic with ~30% fewer students achieving "sufficient" levels of activity, defined by at least 150 min over at least five sessions, compared with the previous two years. In a follow-up study six to eight weeks later (14-18% response rate), during gradual easing of nationwide restrictions albeit continued gym closures and online learning, higher energy intake in females and reduced physical activity levels in both sexes persisted. These data demonstrate the health impacts of isolation measures, with the potential to affect long-term diet and activity behaviours.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Prim Health Care ; 12(2): 115-117, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594977

RESUMO

The psychological effects of mass quarantine following the COVID-19 lockdown are likely to be significant. Emotional and behavioural responses to quarantine are related to a psychological state of anxiety. These and other emotions are normal and may even be adaptive. The exceptional circumstances of a national lockdown provide an opportunity to develop mental health literacy in the form of psychological first aid, to enable wider awareness of how individuals can contribute to listening and supporting others psychologically. This has potential implications for skilling clinicians and the public about responding to mental distress. As frontline health-care workers, general practitioners may themselves need to be recipients of psychological first aid and support as they deal with adverse consequences of the quarantine period.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(10): 5830-5841, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a current, ongoing life-threatening crisis, and international public health emergency. The early diagnosis and management of the disease remains a major challenge. In this review, we aim to summarize the updated epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad search of the literature was performed in "PubMed" "Medline" "Web of Science", "Google Scholar" and "World Health Organization-WHO" using the keywords "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus", "2019-nCoV", "COVID-19, "SARS", "SARS-CoV-2" "Epidemiology" "Transmission" "Pathogenesis" "Clinical Characteristics". We reviewed and documented the information obtained from literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical appearances of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The global cases of COVID-19 as of April 2, 2020, have risen to more than 900,000 and morbidity has reached more than 47,000. The incidence rate for COVID-19 has been predicted to be higher than the previous outbreaks of other coronavirus family members, including those of SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The main clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic stages to severe lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia. Most of the patients also presented with fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, myalgia and breathlessness. Individuals at higher risk for severe illness include elderly people and patients with a weakened immune system or that are suffering from an underlying chronic medical condition like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, respiratory illness or cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, currently affecting 170 countries and territories across the globe. There is still much to be understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 about its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies; this knowledge will be essential to both manage the current pandemic and to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Escarro/virologia
16.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503173

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late December 2019 in China, which later developed into a pandemic, has forced different countries to implement strict sanitary regimes and social distancing measures. Globally, at least four billion people were under lockdown, working remotely, homeschooling children, and facing challenges coping with quarantine and the stressful events. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1097), conducted during a nationwide quarantine, aimed to assess whether nutritional and consumer habits have been affected under these conditions. Over 43.0% and nearly 52% reported eating and snacking more, respectively, and these tendencies were more frequent in overweight and obese individuals. Almost 30% and over 18% experienced weight gain (mean ± SD 3.0 ± 1.6 kg) and loss (-2.9 ± 1.5 kg), respectively. Overweight, obese, and older subjects (aged 36-45 and >45) tended to gain weight more frequently, whereas those with underweight tended to lose it further. Increased BMI was associated with less frequent consumption of vegetables, fruit, and legumes during quarantine, and higher adherence to meat, dairy, and fast-foods. An increase in alcohol consumption was seen in 14.6%, with a higher tendency to drink more found among alcohol addicts. Over 45% of smokers experienced a rise in smoking frequency during the quarantine. The study highlights that lockdown imposed to contain an infectious agent may affect eating behaviors and dietary habits, and advocates for organized nutritional support during future epidemic-related quarantines, particularly for the most vulnerable groups, including overweight and obese subjects.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Fumar/epidemiologia , Lanches , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
17.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S94-S95, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496233

RESUMO

The Indian Armed Forces have always responded to the Nation's call and the COVID-19 pandemic response has been no different. On instructions from the Government of India, the Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS) pitched in right from the initial stages of the epidemic in India as part of a coordinated national response. Be it the execution of medical quarantine for Indian citizens evacuated from China and other COVID affected countries or establishing dedicated and mixed COVID hospitals for its own clientele as well as civilian patients, the AFMS worked in tandem with the national policies. The Armed Forces ensured force preservation and protection of its own troops and families by timely implementation of public health measures, even as it played its designated role in the national strategy. With vision, understanding and clarity, the AFMS continue to lend shoulder to India's response to this global public health challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Militar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Quarentena
18.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S156-S167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496248

RESUMO

Background: In the absence of any approved treatment or vaccine against novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) are the cornerstone to prevent the disease, especially in a populous country like India. Objectives: To understand the effectiveness of NPIs reported in the contemporary literatures describing prediction models for prevention of the ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 specifically in Indian population. Methods: Original research articles in English obtained through keyword search in PubMed, WHO Global Database for COVID19, and pre-print servers were included in the review. Thematic synthesis of extracted data from articles were done. Results: Twenty-four articles were found eligible for the review - four published articles and twenty pre-print articles. Compartmental model was found to be the most commonly used mathematical model; along with exponential, time varying, neural network and cluster kinetic models. Social distancing, specifically lockdown, was the most commonly modelled intervention strategy. Additionally, contact tracing using smartphone application, international travel restriction, increasing hospital/ICU beds, changes in testing strategy were also dealt with. Social distancing along with increasing testing seemed to be effective in delaying the peak of the epidemic and reducing the peak prevalence. Conclusion: Although there is mathematical rationality behind implementation of social distancing measures including lockdown, this study also emphasised the importance of other associated measures like increasing tests and increasing the number of hospital and ICU beds. The later components are particularly important during the social mixing period to be observed after lifting of lockdown.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Quarentena/métodos , Viagem
19.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S168-S171, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496249

RESUMO

Background: Mumbai is facing the full brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic epidemiologically and economically. Objectives: The objective was to understand the spatial distribution and trends of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Mumbai during the lockdown period and draw insights for effective actions. Methods: Spatial and trend analysis was conducted to trace the spread of the virus during the lockdown period in April 2020. The administrative divisions of Mumbai, in the form of wards and zones, have been used as units of analysis. Results: Greater Mumbai area occupies only 0.015% of the landmass of India, but is contributing to over 20% of the SARS-CoV-2 cases in India. Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections have increased over 375 times within 50 days of the lockdown. An analysis of trends across the wards during the 3-week period (April 4 to April 25) shows a skewed pattern, with three zones out of six contributing to the vast majority of cases in Mumbai. The wards with higher formal economic activity are relatively less affected than the other wards. The test positivity rate in Mumbai is much higher than the rest of India. Conclusion: The study suggests that the virus had already spread to the community in Mumbai before the lockdown started.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S177-S182, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496251

RESUMO

Background: In March 2020, a healthcare professional from a renowned private hospital, in the textile city of Bhilwara, Rajasthan, reported clustering of cases of pneumonia amongst doctors and paramedical staff suspected to be due to COVID-19. The basis of suspicion was clinico-eco-epidemiologic-radiological findings as, by that time, about 20 COVID19 cases were reported from the state of Rajasthan including a big Italian group of tourists who travelled extensively in Rajasthan, including Udaipur city. Objectives: The current study presents the field experience of the Central and the State Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) in the cluster containment at Bhilwara. Methods: The information regarding the sociodemographic profile of the cases was provided by the Senior Medical Officer In-charge. The containment strategy was modeled under 6 pillars. Google Maps was used for preparing spot map. Results: Immediate public health actions of cluster containment including contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation were initiated using epidemiological approach of mapping the cluster and taking care of reservoir of infection by the District Public Health Team supported by Multidisciplinary Rapid Response Team. This was supplemented by strict enforcement of lock down in the District taking care of daily need of the community by the leadership of administration with very strong intersectoral co-ordination (locally called "ruthless containment"). Conclusion: The forthcoming challenge resides in re-establishment of inter-district and inter-state travel, which can become a risk of re-entry of the new cases, which needs to be taken care of, with the help of stringent administrative measures and screening at all points of entry. The team in Bhilwara needs to remain vigilant to pick up any imported cases early before local transmission establishes.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
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