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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia has maintained low rates of SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, due to geographic location and strict public health restrictions. However, the financial and social impacts of these restrictions can negatively affect parents' and children's mental health. In an existing cohort of mothers recruited for their experience of adversity, this study examined: 1) families' experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and public health restrictions in terms of clinical exposure, financial hardship family stress, and family resilience (termed 'COVID-19 impacts'); and 2) associations between COVID-19 impacts and maternal and child mental health. METHODS: Participants were mothers recruited during pregnancy (2013-14) across two Australian states (Victoria and Tasmania) for the 'right@home' trial. A COVID-19 survey was conducted from May-December 2020, when children were 5.9-7.2 years old. Mothers reported COVID-19 impacts, their own mental health (Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales short-form) and their child's mental health (CoRonavIruS Health and Impact Survey subscale). Associations between COVID-19 impacts and mental health were examined using regression models controlling for pre-COVID-19 characteristics. RESULTS: 319/406 (79%) mothers completed the COVID-19 survey. Only one reported having had COVID-19. Rates of self-quarantine (20%), job or income loss (27%) and family stress (e.g., difficulty managing children's at-home learning (40%)) were high. Many mothers also reported family resilience (e.g., family found good ways of coping (49%)). COVID-19 impacts associated with poorer mental health (standardised coefficients) included self-quarantine (mother: ß = 0.46, child: ß = 0.46), financial hardship (mother: ß = 0.27, child: ß = 0.37) and family stress (mother: ß = 0.49, child: ß = 0.74). Family resilience was associated with better mental health (mother: ß = -0.40, child: ß = -0.46). CONCLUSIONS: The financial and social impacts of Australia's public health restrictions have substantially affected families experiencing adversity, and their mental health. These impacts are likely to exacerbate inequities arising from adversity. To recover from COVID-19, policy investment should include income support and universal access to family health services.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Mães/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Quarentena/economia , Resiliência Psicológica
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466195

RESUMO

Widespread vaccination provides a means for countries to lift strict COVID-19 restrictions previously imposed to contain the spread of the disease. However, to date, Africa has secured enough COVID-19 vaccine doses for less than 5% of its population. With widespread vaccination not on the horizon for Africa, there is a strong emphasis on non-pharmaceutical interventions which include movement restrictions (lockdowns). This general COVID-19 pandemic response of imposing lockdowns, however, neglects to factor in non-fatal consequences leading to disruption socio-economic wellbeing of the society at large. The economy in most African countries can no longer sustain lockdown restrictions. Some studies have indicated that a hard lockdown statistical value of the extra lives saved would be dwarfed by its long-term cost. At the same time not responding to the threat of the pandemic will cost lives and disrupts the social fabric. This paper proffers ways to mitigate the both and advocate for better policymaking that addresses specific challenges in defined communities thus yield higher population welfare.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia Digital , Política de Saúde , África , COVID-19/economia , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Quarentena/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253944, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: On February 26th 2020, a high alert was issued in Sweden in response to the diagnosis of the first few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the country. Subsequently, a decreased supply of essential goods, including medical products, was anticipated. We aimed to explore the weekly patterns of prescription dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication sales in Sweden in 2020 compared with previous years, to assess the influence of the government restrictions on medication sales, and to assess whether there is evidence of medication stockpiling in the population. METHODS: Aggregated data on the weekly volume of defined daily doses (DDDs) of prescription medication dispensed and OTC sales from 2015 to 2020 were examined. From 2015-2019 data, the predicted weekly volume of DDDs for 2020 was estimated and compared to the observed volume for each ATC anatomical main group and therapeutic subgroup. RESULTS: From mid-February to mid-March 2020, there were increases in the weekly volumes of dispensed medication, peaking in the second week of March with a 46% increase in the observed versus predicted number of DDDs dispensed (16,440 vs 11,260 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants). A similar pattern was found in all age groups, in both sexes, and across metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. In the same week in March, there was a 96% increase in the volume of OTC sold (2,504 vs 1,277 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants), specifically in ATC therapeutic subgroups including vitamins, antipyretics, painkillers, and nasal, throat, cough and cold preparations. CONCLUSION: Beginning in mid-February 2020, there were significant changes in the volume of prescription medication dispensed and OTC drugs sold. The weekly volume of DDDs quickly decreased following recommendations from public authorities. Overall, our findings suggest stockpiling behavior over a surge in new users of medication.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/psicologia , Suécia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329336

RESUMO

To prevent the spread of COVID-19, many cities, states, and countries have 'locked down', restricting economic activities in non-essential sectors. Such lockdowns have substantially shrunk production in most countries. This study examines how the economic effects of lockdowns in different regions interact through supply chains, which are a network of firms for production, by simulating an agent-based model of production using supply-chain data for 1.6 million firms in Japan. We further investigate how the complex network structure affects the interactions between lockdown regions, emphasising the role of upstreamness and loops by decomposing supply-chain flows into potential and circular flow components. We find that a region's upstreamness, intensity of loops, and supplier substitutability in supply chains with other regions largely determine the economic effect of the lockdown in the region. In particular, when a region lifts its lockdown, its economic recovery substantially varies depending on whether it lifts the lockdown alone or together with another region closely linked through supply chains. These results indicate that the economic effect produced by exogenous shocks in a region can affect other regions and therefore this study proposes the need for inter-region policy coordination to reduce economic loss due to lockdowns.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Indústrias/economia , Quarentena/economia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081757

RESUMO

This paper estimates the benefits and costs of state suppression policies to "bend the curve" during the initial outbreak of COVID-19 in the United States. We employ an approach that values benefits and costs in terms of additions or subtractions to total production. Relative to a baseline in which only the infected and at-risk populations mitigate the spread of coronavirus, we estimate that total benefits of suppression policies to economic output are between $632.5 billion and $765.0 billion from early March 2020 to August 1, 2020. Relative to private mitigation, output lost due to suppression policies is estimated to be between $214.2 billion and $331.5 billion. The cost estimate is based on the duration of nonessential business closures and stay-at-home orders, which were enforced between 42 and 65 days. Our results indicate that the net benefits of suppression policies to slow the spread of COVID-19 are positive and may be substantial. We discuss uncertainty surrounding several parameters and employ alternative methods for valuing mortality benefits, which also suggest that suppression measures had positive net benefits.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Quarentena/economia , Comércio/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129597

RESUMO

Dynamic capabilities, resulting from activities that allow conscious and skillful modification of a firm's strategic potential, are seen as one of the key drivers of a firm's value creation, competitive advantage and above-average performance in changing environments. However, little is known about how dynamic capabilities can shape business survival and performance during crises. The research objective of this paper is twofold. First, through a literature review, we seek to identify which first-order dynamic capabilities-managerial decisions under uncertainty-are vital for rapid response to a crisis. Second, we present the results of research carried out among 151 small and medium-sized companies in Poland immediately after the beginning of the economic lockdown (April 2020). The survey that we developed identifies which dynamic capabilities were essential for businesses to survive during this unexpected black swan event. We also present dependence and regression analyses showing the links between the identified dynamic capabilities and value creation, understood as retaining employees and production levels, as well as value capture, understood as maintaining cash flow and current revenues.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Empreendedorismo/organização & administração , Pandemias/economia , Quarentena/economia , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/organização & administração , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Empreendedorismo/economia , Empreendedorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Empreendedorismo/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Quarentena/normas , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/economia , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/estatística & dados numéricos , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Incerteza
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019544

RESUMO

This paper explores to what extent product and marketing channel diversification contributed to the economic success of small-scale agricultural producers involved in short food supply chains after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was conducted between April and July 2020 in four countries of the European Union-Estonia, Hungary, Portugal and Romania,-resulting in a relatively large sample of farmers (N = 421). The analysis was built on a semi-nonparametric approach. Approximately 19 percent of small-scale producers were able to increase sales during the first wave of the pandemic, although country-level variation was significant. Fruits and vegetables were by far the most popular products. The importance of specific channels varied across countries, but farm gate sales were among the most important marketing channels both before and during the first wave. The importance of channels that were based on digital resources and home delivery increased. Our evidence indicates that diversification was a strategy that paid off, both in terms of marketing channels and different product categories. However, the impact appears to be nonlinear; the initial advantage generated by diversification rapidly tapered off, either temporarily (in the case of products), or permanently (in the case of marketing channels). Later research may clarify whether these findings are generalizable in other socio-economic contexts, as well as in a non-COVID situation.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Econômicos , Quarentena/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/economia , Europa (Continente) , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Humanos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(7): 801-804, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961294

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, many governments have implemented national or regional lockdowns to slow the spread of infection. The widely anticipated negative impact these interventions would have on families, including on their mental health, were not included in decision models. The purpose of this editorial is, therefore, to stimulate debate by considering some of the barriers that have stopped governments setting the benefits of lockdown against, in particular, mental health costs during this process and so to make possible a more balanced approach going forward. First, evidence that lockdown causes mental health problems needs to be stronger. Natural experimental studies will play an essential role in providing such evidence. Second, innovative health economic approaches that allow the costs and benefits of lockdown to be compared directly are required. Third, we need to develop public health information strategies that allow more nuanced and complex messages that balance lockdown's costs and benefits to be communicated. These steps should be accompanied by a major public consultation/engagement campaign aimed at strengthening the publics' understanding of science and exploring beliefs about how to strike the appropriate balance between costs and benefits in public health intervention decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/economia , Quarentena/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Milbank Q ; 99(2): 369-392, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822424

RESUMO

Policy Points Preventive measures such as the national lockdown in Italy have been effective in slowing the spread of COVID-19. However, they also had psychological and economic impacts on people's lives, which should not be neglected as they may reduce citizens' trust and compliance with future health mandates. Engaging citizens in their own health management and in the collaboration with health care professionals and authorities via the adoption of a collaborative approach to health policy development is fundamental to fostering such measures' effectiveness. Psychosocial analysis of citizens' concerns and emotional reactions to preventive policies is important in order to plan personalized health communication campaigns. CONTEXT: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, between February 23 and March 8, 2020, some areas of Italy were declared "red zones," with citizens asked to stay home and avoid unnecessary interpersonal contacts. Such measures were then extended, between March 10 and May 4, 2020, to the whole country. However, compliance with such behaviors had an important impact on citizens' personal, psychological, and economic well-being. This could result in reduced trust in authorities and lowered compliance. Keeping citizens engaged in their own health and in preventive behaviors is thus a key strategy for the success of such measures. This paper presents the results from a study conducted in Italy to monitor levels of people's health engagement, sentiment, trust in authorities, and perception of risk at two different time points. METHODS: Two independent samples (n = 968 and n = 1,004), weighted to be representative of the adult Italian population, were recruited in two waves corresponding to crucial moments of the Italian COVID-19 epidemic: between February 28 and March 4 (beginning of "phase 1," after the first regional lockdowns), and between May 12 and May 18 (beginning of "phase 2," after the national lockdown was partially dismissed). Respondents were asked to complete an online survey with a series of both validated measures and ad hoc items. A series of t-tests, general linear models, and contingency tables were carried out to assess if and how our measures changed over time in different social groups. FINDINGS: Although sense of self and social responsibility increased between the two waves, and trust toward authorities remained substantially the same, trust in science, consumer sentiment, and health engagement decreased. Our results showed that while both the level of general concern for the emergency and the perceived risk of infection increased between the two waves, in the second wave our participants reported being more concerned for the economic consequences of the pandemic than the health risk. CONCLUSIONS: The potentially disruptive psychological impact of lockdown may hamper citizens' compliance with, and hence the effectiveness of, behavioral preventive measures. This suggests that preventive measures should be accompanied by collaborative educational plans aimed at promoting people's health engagement by making citizens feel they are partners in the health preventive endeavor and involved in the development of health policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/economia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852593

RESUMO

The implementation of large-scale containment measures by governments to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus has resulted in large impacts to the global economy. Here, we derive a new high-frequency indicator of economic activity using empirical vessel tracking data, and use it to estimate the global maritime trade losses during the first eight months of the pandemic. We go on to use this high-frequency dataset to infer the effect of individual non-pharmaceutical interventions on maritime exports, which we use as a proxy of economic activity. Our results show widespread port-level trade losses, with the largest absolute losses found for ports in China, the Middle-East and Western Europe, associated with the collapse of specific supply-chains (e.g. oil, vehicle manufacturing). In total, we estimate that global maritime trade reduced by -7.0% to -9.6% during the first eight months of 2020, which is equal to around 206-286 million tonnes in volume losses and up to 225-412 billion USD in value losses. We find large sectoral and geographical disparities in impacts. Manufacturing sectors are hit hardest, with losses up to 11.8%, whilst some small islands developing states and low-income economies suffered the largest relative trade losses. Moreover, we find a clear negative impact of COVID-19 related school and public transport closures on country-wide exports. Overall, we show how real-time indicators of economic activity can inform policy-makers about the impacts of individual policies on the economy, and can support economic recovery efforts by allocating funds to the hardest hit economies and sectors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Comércio/economia , Quarentena/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Economia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Navios/economia
11.
Pediatrics ; 147(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Between December 31, 2018, and April 26, 2019, 72 confirmed cases of measles were identified in Clark County. Our objective was to estimate the economic burden of the measles outbreak from a societal perspective, including public health response costs as well as direct medical costs and productivity losses of affected individuals. METHODS: To estimate costs related to this outbreak from the societal perspective, 3 types of costs were collected or estimated: public health response (labor, material, and contractor costs used to contain the outbreak), direct medical (third party or patient out-of-pocket treatment costs of infected individuals), and productivity losses (costs of lost productivity due to illness, home isolation, quarantine, or informal caregiving). RESULTS: The overall societal cost of the 2019 Clark County measles outbreak was ∼$3.4 million ($47 479 per case or $814 per contact). The majority of the costs (∼$2.3 million) were incurred by the public health response to the outbreak, followed by productivity losses (∼$1.0 million) and direct medical costs (∼$76 000). CONCLUSIONS: Recent increases in incident measles cases in the United States and across the globe underscore the need to more fully understand the societal cost of measles cases and outbreaks and economic consequences of undervaccination. Our estimates can provide valuable inputs for policy makers and public health stakeholders as they consider budget determinations and the substantial value associated with increasing vaccine coverage and outbreak preparedness as well as the protection of society against vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, which are readily preventable with high vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/economia , Sarampo/economia , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo , Saúde Pública/economia , Quarentena/economia , Washington/epidemiologia
12.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05002, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643635

RESUMO

Background: Governments worldwide have implemented large-scale non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social distancing or school closures, to prevent and control the growth of the COVID-19 pandemic. These strategies, implemented with varying stringency, have imposed substantial social and economic costs to society. As some countries begin to reopen and ease mobility restrictions, lockdowns in smaller geographic areas are increasingly considered an attractive policy intervention to mitigate societal costs while controlling epidemic growth. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support these decisions. Methods: Drawing from a rich data set of localized lockdowns in Chile, we used econometric methods to measure the reduction in local economic activity from lockdowns when applied to smaller or larger geographical areas. We measured economic activity by tax collection at the municipality-level. Results: Our results show that lockdowns were associated with a 10%-15% drop in local economic activity, which is twice the reduction in local economic activity suffered by municipalities that were not under lockdown. A three-to-four-month lockdown had a similar effect on economic activity than a year of the 2009 great recession. We found costs are proportional to the population under lockdown, without differences when lockdowns were measured at the municipality or city-wide levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that localized lockdowns have a large effect on local economic activity, but these effects are proportional to the population under lockdown. Our results suggest that epidemiological criteria should guide decisions about the optimal size of lockdown areas since the proportional impact of lockdowns on the economy seems to be unchanged by scale.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Quarentena/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Política Pública
13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596219

RESUMO

We analyze the trade-offs between health and the economy during the period of social distancing in São Paulo, the state hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. We use longitudinal data with municipal-level information and check the robustness of our estimates to several sources of bias, including spatial dependence, reverse causality, and time-variant omitted variables. We use exogenous climate shocks as instruments for social distancing since people are more likely to stay home in wetter and colder periods. Our findings suggest that the health benefits of social distancing differ by levels of municipal development and may have vanished if the COVID-19 spread was not controlled in neighboring municipalities. In turn, we did not find evidence that municipalities with tougher social distancing performed worse economically. Our results also highlight that estimates that do not account for endogeneity may largely underestimate the benefits of social distancing on reducing the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/economia , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cidades/economia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596247

RESUMO

Since its discovery in the Hubei province of China, the global spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in millions of COVID-19 cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. The spread throughout Asia, Europe, and the Americas has presented one of the greatest infectious disease threats in recent history and has tested the capacity of global health infrastructures. Since no effective vaccine is available, isolation techniques to prevent infection such as home quarantine and social distancing while in public have remained the cornerstone of public health interventions. While government and health officials were charged with implementing stay-at-home strategies, many of which had little guidance as to the consequences of how quickly to begin them. Moreover, as the local epidemic curves have been flattened, the same officials must wrestle with when to ease or cease such restrictions as to not impose economic turmoil. To evaluate the effects of quarantine strategies during the initial epidemic, an agent based modeling framework was created to take into account local spread based on geographic and population data with a corresponding interactive desktop and web-based application. Using the state of Massachusetts in the United States of America, we have illustrated the consequences of implementing quarantines at different time points after the initial seeding of the state with COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, we suggest that this application can be adapted to other states, small countries, or regions within a country to provide decision makers with critical information necessary to best protect human health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Processos Estocásticos
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2425, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510274

RESUMO

Countries worldwide have adopted various strategies to minimize the socio-economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Stringency of imposed measures universally reflects the standpoint from which protecting public health and avoiding damage to economy are seen as contradictory objectives. Based on epidemic trajectories of 25 highly developed countries and 10 US states in the (mobility reduction)-(reproduction number) plane we showed that delay in imposition of nation-wide quarantine elevates the number of infections and deaths, surge of which inevitably has to be suppressed by stringent and sustained lockdown. As a consequence, cumulative mobility reduction and population-normalized cumulative number of COVID-19-associated deaths are significantly correlated and this correlation increases with time. Overall, we demonstrated that, as long as epidemic suppression is the aim, the trade-off between the death toll and economic loss is illusory: high death toll correlates with deep and long-lasting lockdown causing a severe economic downturn.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quarentena/economia , COVID-19/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 168-170, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405207

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) may be at higher risk for adverse outcomes indirectly associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). When comparing responses to questionnaires administered when social distancing and quarantine guidelines were first implemented, we found that PLWH were more likely to have restricted access to medical care, increased financial stress, increased symptoms of anxiety and depression, and increased substance use compared to demographically-similar people without HIV.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/economia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/virologia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/economia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri/epidemiologia , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estresse Psicológico/economia , Estresse Psicológico/virologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470405

RESUMO

Since the beginning of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease outbreak, there has been a heated debate about public health measures, as they can presumably reduce human costs in the short term but can negatively impact economies and well-being over a longer period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study the relationship between health and economic impact of COVID-19, we conducted a secondary research on Italian regions, combining official data (mortality due to COVID-19 and contractions in value added of production for a month of lockdown). Then, we added the tertiles of the number of people tested for COVID-19 and those of health aids to evaluate the correspondence with the outcome measures. RESULTS: Five regions out of 20, the most industrialized northern regions, which were affected both earlier and more severely by the outbreak, registered both mortality and economic value loss above the overall medians. The southern regions, which were affected later and less severely, had low mortality and less economic impact. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that considering health and economic outcomes in the assessment of response to pandemics offers a bigger picture perspective of the outbreak and could allow policymakers and health managers to choose systemic, 'personalized' strategies, in case of a feared second epidemic wave.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias/economia , Saúde Pública , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Atividades Humanas/economia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Quarentena/economia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1835, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469083

RESUMO

India's lockdown and subsequent restrictions against SARS-CoV-2, if lifted without any other mitigations in place, could risk a second wave of infection. A test-and-isolate strategy, using PCR diagnostic tests, could help to minimise the impact of this second wave. Meanwhile, population-level serological surveillance can provide valuable insights into the level of immunity in the population. Using a mathematical model, consistent with an Indian megacity, we examined how seroprevalence data could guide a test-and-isolate strategy, for fully lifting restrictions. For example, if seroprevalence is 20% of the population, we show that a testing strategy needs to identify symptomatic cases within 5-8 days of symptom onset, in order to prevent a resurgent wave from overwhelming hospital capacity in the city. This estimate is robust to uncertainty in the effectiveness of the lockdown, as well as in immune protection against reinfection. To set these results in their economic context, we estimate that the weekly cost of such a PCR-based testing programme would be less than 2.1% of the weekly economic loss due to the lockdown. Our results illustrate how PCR-based testing and serological surveillance can be combined to design evidence-based policies, for lifting lockdowns in Indian cities and elsewhere.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Quarentena/economia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(1): 42-46, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to challenge governments and policymakers worldwide. They have rightfully prioritised reducing the spread of the virus through social distancing interventions. However, shuttered business and widespread restrictions on travel and mobility have led to an economic collapse with increasing uncertainty of how quickly recovery will be achieved. METHODS: The authors carried out a review of publicly available information on the economic intervention's countries have put in place to ameliorate the impact of COVID-19. RESULTS: The strategies and scale of economic interventions have been broad, ranging from 2.5% to a reported 50% of Gross Domestic Product. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous countries are beginning to ease lockdown restrictions and restart economies in different ways. There is therefore evolving, real-world data that should be used dynamically by governments and policymakers. The strategies on restarting the economy must be balanced against the uncertainty of a possible second wave of COVID-19. A nuanced approach to easing restrictions needs to take into account not only immediate risk to life but longer-term risks of widening inequalities and falling life expectancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comércio/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Saúde Global , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Quarentena/economia
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