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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244537, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented worldwide social distancing response to COVID-19 resulted in a quick reversal of escalating case numbers. Recently, local governments globally have begun to relax social distancing regulations. Using the situation in Manitoba, Canada as an example, we estimated the impact that social distancing relaxation may have on the pandemic. METHODS: We fit a mathematical model to empirically estimated numbers of people infected, recovered, and died from COVID-19 in Manitoba. We then explored the impact of social distancing relaxation on: (a) time until near elimination of COVID-19 (< one case per million), (b) time until peak prevalence, (c) proportion of the population infected within one year, (d) peak prevalence, and (e) deaths within one year. RESULTS: Assuming a closed population, near elimination of COVID-19 in Manitoba could have been achieved in 4-6 months (by July or August) if there were no relaxation of social distancing. Relaxing to 15% of pre-COVID effective contacts may extend the local epidemic for more than two years (median 2.1). Relaxation to 50% of pre-COVID effective contacts may result in a peak prevalence of 31-38% of the population, within 3-4 months of initial relaxation. CONCLUSION: Slight relaxation of social distancing may immensely impact the pandemic duration and expected peak prevalence. Only holding the course with respect to social distancing may have resulted in near elimination before Fall of 2020; relaxing social distancing to 15% of pre-COVID-19 contacts will flatten the epidemic curve but greatly extend the duration of the pandemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/métodos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/tendências , Humanos , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , /patogenicidade
2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406106

RESUMO

Without vaccines and treatments, societies must rely on non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies to control the spread of emerging diseases such as COVID-19. Though complete lockdown is epidemiologically effective, because it eliminates infectious contacts, it comes with significant costs. Several recent studies have suggested that a plausible compromise strategy for minimizing epidemic risk is periodic closure, in which populations oscillate between wide-spread social restrictions and relaxation. However, no underlying theory has been proposed to predict and explain optimal closure periods as a function of epidemiological and social parameters. In this work we develop such an analytical theory for SEIR-like model diseases, showing how characteristic closure periods emerge that minimize the total outbreak, and increase predictably with the reproductive number and incubation periods of a disease- as long as both are within predictable limits. Using our approach we demonstrate a sweet-spot effect in which optimal periodic closure is maximally effective for diseases with similar incubation and recovery periods. Our results compare well to numerical simulations, including in COVID-19 models where infectivity and recovery show significant variation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , /patogenicidade
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414277

RESUMO

After the national lockdown imposed on March 11, 2020, the Italian government has gradually resumed the suspended economic and social activities since May 4, while maintaining the closure of schools until September 14. We use a model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission to estimate the health impact of different exit strategies. The strategy adopted in Italy kept the reproduction number Rt at values close to one until the end of September, with marginal regional differences. Based on the estimated postlockdown transmissibility, reopening of workplaces in selected industrial activities might have had a minor impact on the transmissibility. Reopening educational levels in May up to secondary schools might have influenced SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility only marginally; however, including high schools might have resulted in a marked increase of the disease burden. Earlier reopening would have resulted in disproportionately higher hospitalization incidence. Given community contacts in September, we project a large second wave associated with school reopening in the fall.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Quarentena/métodos , /epidemiologia , /virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1950-1953, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405277

RESUMO

As the world edges towards relaxing the lockdown measures taken to control the spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), governments have started putting in place a variety of measures to avoid a second peak in the number of infections. The implementation of and adherence to such measures will be key components of any successful lockdown exit strategy. Ranging from expanded testing and widespread use of technology to building the public's trust in the post COVID-19 world, there is a role for pharmacists to play. In this commentary, these measures and the potential contribution of pharmacists to their successful implementation are outlined and discussed.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional , Quarentena/normas , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia
5.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305553

RESUMO

A worldwide outbreak of a respiratory illness, first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China is ongoing. The disease is caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 and on February 11, 2020, was officially named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization. Within few weeks, it has spread globally to the extent that World Health Organization declared it as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. India's first positive case was reported on January 30th in Kerala. Before March 3rd, India had 3 cases of coronavirus in Kerala all of which were treated and discharged. On March 3rd, India's 4th case was diagnosed in the state of Rajasthan. Indian government had announced a number of preventive measures to minimize the entry and spread of coronavirus. On March 3rd, India announced the suspension of all visas issued to Italy, Iran, South Korea and Japan. India banned international flights from March 22nd. A 21-day lockdown across the country was imposed from March 26th, which later got further extended. Rigorous contact tracing and tracking of COVID patients and monitoring home quarantine helped in preventing community transmission. The aim of this work is to describe the experience with clinical and epidemiologic features, as well as with the management of COVID-19 patients in north India. This is a descriptive study of the 17 COVID-19 infected patients confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and admitted to a tertiary care centre in India from March 11th 2020 to April 16th 2020. The present work also provides insight in to treatment provided and final outcome of the patients infected with COVID-19 in India. Laboratory investigations in COVID-19 patients in the Indian subcontinent reveal lymphopenia as predominant finding in hemogram. Patients with older age and associated comorbidities (COPD, hypertension and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury, thereby requiring oxygen support during the course of disease.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /genética , Adulto , /virologia , Comorbidade , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305558

RESUMO

The index case of COVID-19 in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province in northeastern Iran, was an 80-year-old man with a history of psycho-neurological illness and acute respiratory clinical symptoms, and a history of travel to areas with confirmed COVID-19 cases in Gorgan City. He was identified on February 16, 2020, and his laboratory diagnosis was made on February 26, 2020. The patient was hospitalized and discharged after complete recovery. The contacts of the patient were traced, revealing the infection of his 30-year-old son with milder symptoms of COVID-19, which was confirmed through a laboratory test on April 4, 2020 and was recommended for home quarantine. Other family members had no signs of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /genética , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Quarentena/métodos , /virologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
8.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 40(4): 217-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the authors rapidly transitioned an in-person, learner-led medical education journal club (MEJC) to the virtual environment. The "interactive, no-prep" approach, using breakout rooms within a videoconferencing system, required no prior learner preparation. METHODS: From March to May 2020, learners were invited to participate in a monthly 60-minute virtual MEJC. A needs assessment survey informed article selection. Facilitators developed a presentation to provide background and describe the article's research question(s). In breakout groups, learners generated study designs to answer the research question(s). After the actual study methodology and results were revealed, learners engaged in facilitated open discussion. After the session, learners completed an electronic survey to rate perceived usefulness and suggest improvement areas. RESULTS: A total of 15 learners participated; most completed the survey (13/15; 87%). The MEJC was rated as very or extremely useful. Qualitative feedback indicated that it was convenient, allowed creativity, and enabled rich discussion without prior preparation. When possible, improvement suggestions were implemented. DISCUSSION: The authors offer an evidence-based MEJC approach that is free, interactive with virtual breakout rooms and requires no prior learner preparation. Early indicators suggest that others navigating the COVID-19 crisis may want to implement this approach.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , /prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/tendências , Ensino
9.
Chaos ; 30(11): 113143, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261327

RESUMO

In the absence of effective vaccine/antiviral strategies for reducing the burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India, the main focus has been on basic non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), such as nationwide lockdown (travel restrictions and the closure of schools, shopping malls, and worshipping and other gathering places), quarantining of exposed individuals, and isolation of infected individuals. In the present study, we propose a compartmental epidemic model incorporating quarantine and isolation compartments to (i) describe the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in India, (ii) assess the impact of currently implemented NPIs, and (iii) predict the future course of the pandemic with various scenarios of NPIs in India. For R0<1, the system has a globally asymptotically stable disease free equilibrium, while for R0>1, the system has one unstable disease free equilibrium and a unique locally stable endemic equilibrium. By using the method of least squares and the best fit curve, we estimate the model parameters to calibrate the model with daily new confirmed cases and cumulative confirmed cases in India for the period from May 1, 2020 to June 25, 2020. Our result shows that the implementation of an almost perfect isolation in India and 33.33% increment in contact-tracing on June 26, 2020 may reduce the number of cumulative confirmed cases of COVID-19 in India by around 53.8% at the end of July 2020. Nationwide lockdown with high efficiency can diminish COVID-19 cases drastically, but combined NPIs may accomplish the strongest and most rapid impact on the spreading of COVID-19 in India.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Quarentena/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Chaos ; 30(11): 113119, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261356

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, due to SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), originated in Wuhan, China and is now a global pandemic. The unavailability of vaccines, delays in diagnosis of the disease, and lack of proper treatment resources are the leading causes of the rapid spread of COVID-19. The world is now facing a rapid loss of human lives and socioeconomic status. As a mathematical model can provide some real pictures of the disease spread, enabling better prevention measures. In this study, we propose and analyze a mathematical model to describe the COVID-19 pandemic. We have derived the threshold parameter basic reproduction number, and a detailed sensitivity analysis of this most crucial threshold parameter has been performed to determine the most sensitive indices. Finally, the model is applied to describe COVID-19 scenarios in India, the second-largest populated country in the world, and some of its vulnerable states. We also have short-term forecasting of COVID-19, and we have observed that controlling only one model parameter can significantly reduce the disease's vulnerability.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , /epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264368

RESUMO

Nations struggled to decide when and how to end COVID-19 inspired lockdowns, with sharply divergent views between those arguing for a resumption of economic activity and those arguing for continuing the lockdown in some form. We examine the choice between continuing or ending a full lockdown within a simple optimal control model that encompasses both health and economic outcomes, and pays particular attention to when need for care exceeds hospital capacity. The model shows that very different strategies can perform similarly well and even both be optimal for the same relative valuation on work and life because of the presence of a so-called Skiba threshold. Qualitatively the alternate strategies correspond to trying essentially to eradicate the virus or merely to flatten the curve so fewer people urgently need healthcare when hospitals are already filled to capacity.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Quarentena/métodos , /mortalidade , /transmissão , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 914, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Describing transmission dynamics of the outbreak and impact of intervention measures are critical to planning responses to future outbreaks and providing timely information to guide policy makers decision. We estimate serial interval (SI) and temporal reproduction number (Rt) of SARS-CoV-2 in Tunisia. METHODS: We collected data of investigations and contact tracing between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020 as well as illness onset data during the period February 29-May 5, 2020 from National Observatory of New and Emerging Diseases of Tunisia. Maximum likelihood (ML) approach is used to estimate dynamics of Rt. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-one of infector-infectee pairs were involved, with 14.46% reported pre-symptomatic transmission. SI follows Gamma distribution with mean 5.30 days [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.66-5.95] and standard deviation 0.26 [95% CI 0.23-0.30]. Also, we estimated large changes in Rt in response to the combined lockdown interventions. The Rt moves from 3.18 [95% Credible Interval (CrI) 2.73-3.69] to 1.77 [95% CrI 1.49-2.08] with curfew prevention measure, and under the epidemic threshold (0.89 [95% CrI 0.84-0.94]) by national lockdown measure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings highlight contribution of interventions to interrupt transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Tunisia.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Quarentena/métodos , /prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Incidência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tunísia/epidemiologia
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e22703, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telehealth is a recommended method for monitoring the progression of nonsevere infections in patients with COVID-19. However, telehealth has not been widely implemented to monitor SARS-CoV-2 infection in quarantined individuals. Moreover, studies on the cost-effectiveness of quarantine measures during the COVID-19 pandemic are scarce. OBJECTIVE: In this cohort study, we aimed to use telehealth to monitor COVID-19 infections in 217 quarantined Taiwanese travelers and to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the quarantine program. METHODS: Travelers were quarantined for 14 days at the Taiwan Yangmingshan quarantine center and monitored until they were discharged. The travelers' clinical symptoms were evaluated twice daily. A multidisciplinary medical team used the telehealth system to provide timely assistance for ill travelers. The cost of the mandatory quarantine was calculated according to data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Taiwan. RESULTS: All 217 quarantined travelers tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 upon admission to the quarantine center. During the quarantine, 28/217 travelers (12.9%) became ill and were evaluated via telehealth. Three travelers with fever were hospitalized after telehealth assessment, and subsequent tests for COVID-19 were negative for all three patients. The total cost incurred during the quarantine was US $193,938, which equated to US $894 per individual. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth is an effective instrument for monitoring COVID-19 infection in quarantined travelers and could help provide timely disease management for people who are ill. It is imperative to screen and quarantine international travelers for SARS-CoV-2 infection to reduce the nationwide spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/economia , Quarentena/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , /epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/economia
14.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 12 03.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332041

RESUMO

The plague epidemics wiped out large parts of the city population from the 15th to the 17th century in the Netherlands. The plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) is transmitted to humans through infected rats and fleas and has been transferred from China to Europe via the trade routes over land and sea. Meetings were banned, plague victims were isolated at home or in pest houses, and ships quarantined. In the densely populated, poor neighborhoods of the cities, however, isolation and keeping distance were not feasible, which allowed the plague to rapidly spread. The lessons we have learned from the plague epidemics are timeless. Isolation, keeping your distance and quarantine were key principles and now apply again in the approach to the current Covid-19 pandemic. How effective these measures are depends on the social context in which they are applied.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Peste , Quarentena , Animais , /prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Peste/microbiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/história , Quarentena/métodos , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidade
15.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2995, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147394

RESUMO

This essay intends to carry out an ethical and philosophical reflection on the effects of the emergency contingencies of the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on Brazil, it seeks to understand, critique, and attribute meaning to references to the pandemic, in particularly dramatic moments brought about by the synergy produced between the serious disease affecting the country and the world and a government that stands out for its remarkable unwillingness and inability to deal with this calamity. This text was written during the Brazilian "quarantine," which lasted from mid-March to late April, 2020. During this period, we were bombarded by facts that never ceased to haunt us, and lived each day under the terrible dominion of the pandemic. Therefore, this text was written in the midst of a social context marked by control efforts, with great attention directed at the health of those affected, despite the complex political framework and serious economic difficulties facing the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia , Risco
16.
Acta Med Port ; 33(11): 733-741, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Portugal took early action to control the COVID-19 epidemic, initiating lockdown measures on March 16th when it recorded only 62 cases of COVID-19 per million inhabitants and reported no deaths. The Portuguese public complied quickly, reducing their overall mobility by 80%. The aim of this study was to estimate the initial impact of the lockdown in Portugal in terms of the reduction of the burden on the healthcare system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We forecasted epidemic curves for: Cases, hospital inpatients (overall and in intensive care), and deaths without lockdown, assuming that the impact of containment measures would start 14 days after initial lockdown was implemented. We used exponential smoothing models for deaths, intensive care and hospitalizations and an ARIMA model for number of cases. Models were selected considering fitness to the observed data up to the 31st March 2020. We then compared observed (with intervention) and forecasted curves (without intervention). RESULTS: Between April 1st and April 15th, there were 146 fewer deaths (-25%), 5568 fewer cases (-23%) and, as of April 15th, there were 519 fewer intensive care inpatients (-69%) than forecasted without the lockdown. On April 15th, the number of intensive care inpatients could have reached 748, three times higher than the observed value (229) if the intervention had been delayed. DISCUSSION: If the lockdown had not been implemented in mid-March, Portugal intensive care capacity (528 beds) would have likely been breached during the first half of April. The lockdown seems to have been effective in reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, serious COVID-19 disease, and associated mortality, thus decreasing demand on health services. CONCLUSION: An early lockdown allowed time for the National Health Service to mobilize resources and acquire personal protective equipment, increase testing, contact tracing and hospital and intensive care capacity and to promote broad prevention and control measures. When lifting more stringent measures, strong surveillance and communication strategies that mobilize individual prevention efforts are necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emergências/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/métodos , Ocupação de Leitos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Portugal/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 470, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has substantially impacted the provision of medical services. During the pandemic, many medical services, including facilities providing care to patients with end stage renal disease faced challenges in safeguarding patients and staff while providing clinical care. This study aims to identify the extent, range, and nature of articles related to COVID-19 and maintenance hemodialysis to understand the research gaps and propose recommendations for future research. METHODS: Using the terms: "Dialysis" OR "RRT" OR "Renal replacement therapy" AND "SARS-COV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR "novel coronavirus" OR "2019-nCov", we performed a multi-step systematic search of the literature in the English language in Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science published from December 1, 2019, to May 13, 2020. Two authors separately screened the title and abstracts of the documents and ruled out irrelevant articles. We obtained a full report of the papers that met our inclusion criteria and screened the full texts. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the included articles and performed a narrative synthesis of the results. We conducted this scoping review in accordance with the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. RESULTS: We included 22 articles in this scoping review. Perspectives (n = 9), editorials (n = 4), and case series (n = 5) were the most common types of articles. Most articles were from Italy and the United States. Seventeen (77.3%) of the articles focused on the topic of recommendation for outpatient hemodialysis units. While many of the recommendations overlapped in several articles, there were also many unique recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: most of the articles are based on single-center experience, which spontaneously developed best practices. Many of these practices have formed the basis for policies and guidelines that will guide future prevention of infection and management of patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Diálise Renal/normas , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Amigos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Hemodiálise no Domicílio , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Avaliação de Sintomas
18.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1211-1216, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of curfews during the COVID-19 pandemic, on the physical activity in patients of heart failure implanted withcardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center study of heart failure patients inserted with remote monitoring (RM)-capable CIED. We analyzed the transmitted data of physical activity and fluid volume status of all patients, before, and during the lockdown periods between February and April 2020. The clinical status of the patients was also evaluated.  Results: Device data from 429 patients implanted with CIED capable of RM were initially evaluated. Patients with an implantable loop recorder, Brugada or Long QT syndromes, and patients with incomplete transmissions were excluded. Eighty-two patients with heart failure were included. The median age was 65 years (58-72), and 53 (64.6%) subjects were men. There was a 27.1% decline in physical activity, and the median physical activity of patients significantly declined from 2.4 to 1.8 hours/day (p=0.000010).  Conclusion: Data obtained by remotely monitored CIED in heart failure patients suggests a significant decline in physical activity during the country lockdown due to the pandemic. Awareness of the future potential hazards in this group of patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemetria/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Quarentena/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Comportamento Sedentário , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(12): 778-783, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the stark reality of city lockdowns, mass quarantines and social isolation worldwide. The importance of social isolation and quarantine measures to reduce community transmission of COVID-19 must be balanced against the potential impact on the psychological health of the population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the psychological and social impacts of human isolation, how these may present and approaches to identifying and mitigating these effects. DISCUSSION: Quarantine has been associated with increased rates of suicide, anger, acute stress disorder, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, with symptoms continuing even years after quarantine ends. There are several predisposing risk factors including the inhabited environment, unique aspects of assessment as well as phenomena seen specifically among groups facing isolation together. The article provides management strategies for the general practitioner as well as indicators for referral to further psychological supports.


Assuntos
/complicações , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , /psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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