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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244537, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented worldwide social distancing response to COVID-19 resulted in a quick reversal of escalating case numbers. Recently, local governments globally have begun to relax social distancing regulations. Using the situation in Manitoba, Canada as an example, we estimated the impact that social distancing relaxation may have on the pandemic. METHODS: We fit a mathematical model to empirically estimated numbers of people infected, recovered, and died from COVID-19 in Manitoba. We then explored the impact of social distancing relaxation on: (a) time until near elimination of COVID-19 (< one case per million), (b) time until peak prevalence, (c) proportion of the population infected within one year, (d) peak prevalence, and (e) deaths within one year. RESULTS: Assuming a closed population, near elimination of COVID-19 in Manitoba could have been achieved in 4-6 months (by July or August) if there were no relaxation of social distancing. Relaxing to 15% of pre-COVID effective contacts may extend the local epidemic for more than two years (median 2.1). Relaxation to 50% of pre-COVID effective contacts may result in a peak prevalence of 31-38% of the population, within 3-4 months of initial relaxation. CONCLUSION: Slight relaxation of social distancing may immensely impact the pandemic duration and expected peak prevalence. Only holding the course with respect to social distancing may have resulted in near elimination before Fall of 2020; relaxing social distancing to 15% of pre-COVID-19 contacts will flatten the epidemic curve but greatly extend the duration of the pandemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/métodos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/tendências , Humanos , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , /patogenicidade
2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408099

RESUMO

Patients admitted to the isolation ward during the COVID-19 outbreak face multiple psychosocial stressors including the disruptive experience of being in quarantine, anxiety over contracting a newly emerging infectious disease and limited access to their healthcare team. This quality improvement project aims to leverage on technology to improve patients' access to, and experience of, care while in isolation.Patients admitted to two isolation wards in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) between 28 February and 19 March 2020 were each provided an iPad loaded with the MyCare application (app), curated materials and mobile games. During this period, 83 of them accessed the device and the app. MyCare app is an app developed by the nursing team in SGH as part of an existing interprofessional collaboration to help patients navigate their care during their inpatient stay. In response to COVID-19, MyCare app was supplemented with materials to address affected patients' informational and psychosocial needs. These materials included an information sheet on COVID-19, interviews with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome survivors, psychosocial support materials, and uplifting literature, illustrated storybooks and artwork.This paper describes the process of planning for, and executing, the intervention and reports the initial results of its effect. Initial feedback indicated a positive response to the intervention. 9 out of 10 respondents (90%) rated their hospital experience with a maximum of five stars and all 10 respondents (100%) rated the psychosocial support materials with five stars. Doctors managing the patients also observed a reduction in the number of commonly asked questions following the deployment of the iPad.This quality improvement project is ongoing with plans for further research to determine how to better support the psychosocial needs of patients in isolation during a novel disease outbreak. This report is written based on the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Comportamento do Consumidor , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Aplicativos Móveis , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Empoderamento , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429989

RESUMO

Background and objectives: It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic impaired people's moods and general levels of physical activity, but the way in which each country is coping with the situation may result in different outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental health and physical activity levels between residents of Brazil and Switzerland during the social distancing period associated with COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire aiming to assess personal, quarantine, physical activity, and mood state disorders data was answered by 114 participants (57 from each country) of both sexes. Results: Swiss participants presented a higher frequency of people (47.4%) not abiding by social distancing measures compared to Brazilian participants (1.8%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.56). There were no significant differences between the participants from the two countries regarding physical activity levels (p = 0.09). The Swiss presented a higher frequency (78.9%) of people without symptoms of depression compared to Brazilians (31.6%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.48). The Swiss also presented a higher frequency (77.2%) of people without symptoms of anxiety compared to Brazilians (35.1%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.43). There was a significant association between the restriction level and depression symptoms (p = 0.01, effect size = 0.25) but not with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.21, effect size = 0.16). Conclusions: According to the preliminary results, Brazilians presented a much higher frequency of depression and anxiety symptoms, which can be explained by characteristics other than the restriction level.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Omega (Westport) ; 82(3): 500-522, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086903

RESUMO

A review of the literature on adaptation to bereavement during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted to assess the current state of knowledge. Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. 44 articles were included in the review. Narrative synthesis showed that knowledge was largely based on expert assessments of prior bereavement research and professional experience; there is so far absence of empirical evidence linking features of COVID-19 bereavement situations to health outcomes. Severe negative consequences have been consistently predicted by authors. There is still relatively little consideration of positive or compensatory processes or the possibility that these could alleviate the effect of the shocking, traumatic circumstances. With two notable exceptions, there has been lack of attention to the role of theoretical models for guiding research and practice. A theoretical perspective (the Dual Process Model, DPM) was applied to the information derived from the available articles. Two features of the DPM framework illustrated its relevance: 1. It enables systematic assessment of the range of loss- and restoration-related challenges for the bereaved; 2. It speaks for extension of psychotherapeutic intervention to manage secondary, restoration- as well as primary, loss-oriented stressors; studies have demonstrated that this may increase the effectiveness of intervention. Directions for future research and DPM application are suggested.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Luto , Quarentena/psicologia , Humanos
7.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(1): 1-4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368223

RESUMO

Since the COVID-19 pandemic took hold in the first quarter of 2020, children and their families across the world have experienced extraordinary changes to the way they live their lives - creating enormous practical and psychological challenges for them at many levels. While some of these effects are directly linked to COVID-related morbidity and mortality, many are indirect - due rather to governmental public health responses designed to slow the spread of infection and minimise the numbers of deaths. These have often involved aggressive programmes of social distancing and quarantine, including extended periods of national social and economic lockdown, unprecedented in the modern age. Debates about the appropriateness of these measures have often referenced their potentially negative impact on people's mental health and well-being - impacts which both opponents and advocates appear to accept as being inevitable.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Saúde Mental/normas
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 132: 23-31, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038562

RESUMO

Trauma survivors who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms may be particularly vulnerable when facing the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet trauma exposure may also lead to salutogenic outcomes, known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Nevertheless, the implications of PTG attributed to prior trauma, for trauma survivors' adjustment when facing additional stressors, are unclear. Addressing this gap, 528 Israeli trauma survivors were assessed for PTG and PTSD symptoms attributed to prior trauma, as well as peritraumatic stress symptoms related to the pandemic, as part of an online survey. Analyses revealed that being younger, female, quarantined, negatively self-rating one's health status, and suffering from PTSD symptoms were associated with elevated peritraumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, PTG attributed to prior trauma made a significant contribution in explaining elevated intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms. The present results point to the need for clinicians to take into account reports of PTG attributed to prior trauma when treating trauma survivors during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 29(1): 27-34, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregivers of people with dementia (pwD) are at risk of depression, anxiety, and burden. COVID-19 pandemic and government-imposed lockdown as a preventive measure might increase psychological symptoms in caregivers. The authors performed a study to measure the change of psychological symptoms during quarantine or self-isolation for COVID-19 in a sample of Italian caregivers of pwD, and to investigate if the resilience is associated with psychological changes in the sample. METHODS: Eighty-four caregivers of pwD completed an online survey including questionnaires assessing depressive symptomatology and anxiety before and during the lockdown, caregiver burden and levels of resilience. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis of variance revealed an effect of time (before and during the lockdown) in the whole group on depression scores; a significant interaction between time and resilience was found on anxiety scores, revealing that caregivers with high resilience showed a more significant increase of anxiety levels during lockdown than caregivers with low resilience. Moreover, the regression analysis revealed that caregiver burden was associated negatively with resilience scores, and positively with higher functional dependence. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown produced psychological consequences in caregivers of pwD, with an increase of levels of depression. Moreover, high resilience had a negative effect on anxiety levels and no effect on depressive symptomatology during the lockdown; moreover, it was associated with lower levels of caregiver burden. All caregivers, even those with high resilience levels, should be addressed to psychological interventions to reduce levels of depression, anxiety and caregiver burden.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/enfermagem , Depressão/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Urology ; 147: 37-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate how individual and couple's sexuality had changed during the COVID-19 pandemic-related quarantine. METHODS: A quantitative correlational research study was conducted, using a web-based survey. RESULTS: About 1576 participants were involved: 1018 women (64.6%) and 558 men (35.4%). A significant decline in the mean well-being scores during the quarantine, compared to before, was reported. A positive correlation between the well-being scores and the number of sexual intercourse (SI) before and during the quarantine was found. The mean number of SI decreased significantly during the quarantine. The main reasons were: poor privacy (43.2%) and lack of psychological stimuli (40.9%). About 1124 respondents (71.3%) did not report sexual desire (SD) reduction. A positive association between SD and SI during the quarantine was found. About 61.2% did not report autoerotism reduction. In those who reported decreased masturbation activity, the main causes were poor privacy (46.4%) and lack of desire (34.7%). We found that men presented lower SD during the quarantine, than women (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Potentially, the more time available might lead couples to reconnect at an intimate level and to improve their sexuality. However, the majority of quarantined participants experienced reduced number of SI per week, with poor household privacy and lack of psychological stimuli as cited causes, even as a majority did not report reduced autoeroticism.


Assuntos
Coito/psicologia , Libido , Masturbação/psicologia , Privacidade/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 353-360, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School closures due to the COVID-19 outbreak have affected 87% of the world's students physically, socially, and psychologically, yet rigorous investigation into their mental health during this period is still lacking. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 4-342 primary and secondary school students from Shanghai, China was conducted during March 13-23, 2020. Besides demographic information, psychological distress (including depression, anxiety, and stress), life satisfaction, perceived impact of home quarantine, and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: The three most prevalent symptoms were: anxiety (24.9%), depression (19.7%), and stress (15.2%). Participants were generally satisfied with life and 21.4% became more satisfied with life during school closures. Senior grades were positively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and negatively associated with life satisfaction, whereas the perceived benefit from home quarantine and parent-child discussions on COVID-19 were negatively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and positively correlated with life satisfaction. Among participants who perceived no benefit from home quarantine, those who had discussions with their parents about COVID-19 experienced less depression, anxiety, and stress. LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the inability to infer the casual relationship, no parental report for mental health of children aged 6 to 9, and the inadequate measurement of parent-child discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems and resilience co-existed in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak. Given the important role of parent-child discussions, open communication between parents and children about the pandemic should be encouraged to help children and adolescents cope with mental health problems in public health crisis.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , /virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 412-416, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent spreading of the COVID-19 infection, many countries have implemented a nationwide school closure. We aimed to assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in school-aged children during home confinement. METHODS: We conducted an internet-based survey involving 1264 children (grades 2-6) and their parents from two primary schools between February 25 and March 8, 2020, in Hubei province, China. Behavioral problems were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: The prevalence of prosocial behaviors among children was 10.3%, followed by total difficulty (8.2%), conduct problems (7.0%), peer problems (6.6%), hyperactivity-inattention (6.3%) and emotional problems (4.7%). Compared with children who did not exercise, children with psychical activity had a lower hyperactivity-inattention risk (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.44 for 1-2 days/week; OR: 0.56 for more than 2 days/week) and less prosocial behaviors problems (OR: 0.65 for 1-2 days/week; OR: 0.55 for more than 2 days/week). Children of parents with anxious symptoms were associated with increased risks of emotional symptoms and total difficulty (OR: 5.64 and 3.78, respectively). LIMITATIONS: We adopted self-report questionnaires and did not collect baseline information before COVID-19 outbreak. The potential self-selection bias inherent in the study should be noted. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of behavioral problems among school-aged children varied from 4.7% to 10.3% in home quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak. Taking physical exercise may be an efficient measure to reduce behavioral problems for school-aged children in home confinement.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , /virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pandemias , Pais , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Clin Obes ; 11(1): e12425, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of stay-at-home orders and social distancing during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak on mental health and to compare these outcomes between individuals with normal weight and overweight. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1857 Brazilian adults, who were invited through social media to answer an online questionnaire from 5 May 2020 to 17 May 2020. The instrument included questions related to health behaviour, mental health (anxiety, depression, self-esteem, sadness and stress) and overall health. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 . Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify whether overweight is associated with mental health variables. RESULTS: Women reported increased anxiety (36.5% vs 22.2%, P < .01), depression (16.2% vs 8.8%, P < .01), low self-esteem (19.8% vs 10.6%, P < .01), sadness (17.7% vs 10.2%, P < .01), and stress (29.5% vs 19.3%, P < .01) relative to men. Women with overweight are more likely to report higher feeling of anxiety (OR 1.62, CI 95% 1.22-2.14), depression (OR 1.79, CI 95% 1.25-2.55), low self-esteem (OR 1.82, CI95% 1.28-2.58) and sadness (OR 1.51, CI 95% 1.08-2.10), adjusted for age, social isolation days, educational level, chronic diseases, smoke, alcohol intake and physical activity. CONCLUSION: Women, specially those with overweight are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of stay-at-home orders on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(1): 35-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 quarantine periods and may be at risk for developing psychological distress symptoms that extend beyond a crisis, including depression. This study examined adolescents' postquarantine depressive symptoms associated with pandemic stressors. The primary aim was to identify potential protective factors that may buffer the association between the presence of COVID-19 cases in adolescents' communities and their postquarantine depressive symptoms. METHODS: Adolescents from public schools were recruited from Zhengzhou city, Henan, China (N = 1,487, Mage=13.14 years, 50% girls). Adolescents reported the presence of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases in their communities, their daily activities and routines during the 2-month quarantine period, and depressive symptoms after the quarantine period. RESULTS: The presence of cases in adolescents' communities during the quarantine contributed to more depressive symptoms in adolescents after the quarantine. This association was buffered by adolescents' spending more time on physical activities and better maintenance of daily living routines during the quarantine period. The presence of community infection was also more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of COVID-19 cases in communities contributed to adolescents' poorer mental health, and the association was stronger for older adolescents. Spending time on physical activities and maintaining daily living routines during the quarantine appear to be practical strategies that can be used by adolescents to mitigate the association between pandemic stressors and their diminishing mental health.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Maturitas ; 144: 4-10, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of confinement due to the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resilience in peri- and postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used an online questionnaire which was sent between April 30th and May 13th, 2020 to women aged 40-70 years who were peri- or postmenopausal according to STRAW criteria. We used the 16-item Cervantes short-form scale (Cervantes-SF) to measure HRQoL, and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) to measure resilience. High scores on the Cervantes-SF indicate low HRQoL and high scores on the RS-14 indicate high levels of resilience. Covid-19 status, sociodemographic descriptors, and lifestyle variables were also evaluated. RESULTS: We included 2430 peri- and postmenopausal women with valid questionnaires. All items of the Cervantes-SF were completed in 2151 cases, whilst the RS-14 was completed in 2413 cases. There was a negative correlation between scores on the Cervantes-SF and RS-14 scales (Rho -0.350; p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between Cervantes-SF scores and living with others (ß-coefficient -10.2; p < 0.001), use of antidepressants (ß 9.3; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß -8.6; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß -2.7; p < 0.001). Resilience was associated with the use of antidepressants (ß -5.9; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß 3.2; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß 1.7; p = 0.005). According to the multivariate analysis, there were no associations between either Covid-19 or menopausal status and HRQoL or resilience scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the period of mandatory Covid-19 confinement, peri- and postmenopausal women who engaged in physical and sexual activity had higher HRQoL and higher levels of resilience, whilst women who were using antidepressants had lower HRQoL and lower levels of resilience. HRQoL was greater in women who lived with others.


Assuntos
Perimenopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1950-1953, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405277

RESUMO

As the world edges towards relaxing the lockdown measures taken to control the spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), governments have started putting in place a variety of measures to avoid a second peak in the number of infections. The implementation of and adherence to such measures will be key components of any successful lockdown exit strategy. Ranging from expanded testing and widespread use of technology to building the public's trust in the post COVID-19 world, there is a role for pharmacists to play. In this commentary, these measures and the potential contribution of pharmacists to their successful implementation are outlined and discussed.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional , Quarentena/normas , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia
17.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(2): 189-192, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the burgeoning literature on COVID-19, there has been little cross-national work on the correlates of mental health or its association with pandemic behaviours. We considered psychological distress, quarantine status, social distancing and self-medication in China and the UK. METHODS: We conducted online surveys in China (N=1135) and the UK (N=1293), beginning in March 2020. Participants indicated demographics, whether they were in quarantine, relationship status, social distancing, use of vitamins/traditional medicines and completed the K6 scale of psychological distress. RESULTS: 19.1% of the respondents in China were at risk of severe mental illness (SMI: 95% CI 16.9% to 21.6%) and 16.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 18.8%) in the UK. Risk of SMI was among those in quarantine (OR 11.18 (95% CI 4.08 to 30.62); p=0.001) and in younger respondents (OR 2.61 (95% CI 1.01 to 6.79); p=0.048) although the latter effect was significant only in the UK. Risk of SMI was positively associated with self-medication (ßs=0.17, p=0.001) and negatively with social distancing in China (country×SMI ß=0.51, p=0.001), with further interactions for age and sex (social distancing), age, marital status and quarantine (self-medication). DISCUSSION: Across the countries, quarantine was associated with poorer mental health, while greater psychological distress was associated with greater self-medication rate. Future work should explore further cross-national variations in psychological health and behaviours during pandemics.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Automedicação , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 131-135, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated social distancing and lockdown restrictions are expected to have substantial and enduring mental health effects. In this study, we aimed to assess depression levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. METHODS: We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) brief screening instrument to detect probable depression in two nationally representative surveys of US adults. Pre-pandemic levels of depression were assessed in a sample of 5,075 adults from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Depression was assessed in March (N = 6,819) and April 2020 (N = 5,428) in the Understanding America Study, a representative sample of the US population. RESULTS: The percentage of US adults with depression increased significantly from 8.7% (95% CI[7.6%-9.8%]) in 2017-2018 to 10.6% (95% CI[9.6%-11.6%) in March 2020 and 14.4% (95% CI[13.1%-15.7%]) in April 2020. Statistically significant increases in depression levels were observed for all population subgroups examined with the exception of those aged 65+ years and Black participants. Young adults (aged 18-34) experienced a marked increase in depression of 13.4 percentage points (95% CI [9.5%-17.2%]) that was larger than any other age group. Additional analyses of depression trends in NHANES from 2007/2008-2017/2018 showed that the substantial increase in depression in April 2020 was unlikely to be due to typical year-to-year variation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that depression levels have risen substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce recent findings indicating that young adults may be particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Addict Behav ; 114: 106754, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310690

RESUMO

Research shows that there has been a substantial increase in substance use and abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that substance use/abuse is a commonly reported way of coping with anxiety concerning COVID-19. Anxiety about COVID-19 is more than simply worry about infection. Research provides evidence of a COVID Stress Syndrome characterized by (1) worry about the dangers of COVID-19 and worry about coming into contact with coronavirus contaminated objects or surfaces, (2) worry about the personal socioeconomic impact of COVID-19, (3) xenophobic worries that foreigners are spreading COVID-19, (4) COVID-19-related traumatic stress symptoms (e.g., nightmares), and (5) COVID-19-related compulsive checking and reassurance-seeking. These form a network of interrelated nodes. Research also provides evidence of another constellation or "syndrome", characterized by (1) belief that one has robust physical health against COVID-19, (2) belief that the threat of COVID-19 has been exaggerated, and (3) disregard for social distancing. These also form a network of nodes known as a COVID-19 Disregard Syndrome. The present study, based on a population-representative sample of 3075 American and Canadian adults, sought to investigate how these syndromes are related to substance use and abuse. We found substantial COVID-19-related increases in alcohol and drug use. Network analyses indicated that although the two syndromes are negatively correlated with one another, they both have positive links to alcohol and drug abuse. More specifically, COVID-19-related traumatic stress symptoms and the tendency to disregard social distancing were both linked to substance abuse. Clinical and public health implications are discussed.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the U.S. public's attitudes toward surveillance measures aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19, particularly smartphone applications (apps) that supplement traditional contact tracing. METHOD: We deployed a survey of approximately 2,000 American adults to measure support for nine COVID-19 surveillance measures. We assessed attitudes toward contact tracing apps by manipulating six different attributes of a hypothetical app through a conjoint analysis experiment. RESULTS: A smaller percentage of respondents support the government encouraging everyone to download and use contact tracing apps (42%) compared with other surveillance measures such as enforcing temperature checks (62%), expanding traditional contact tracing (57%), carrying out centralized quarantine (49%), deploying electronic device monitoring (44%), or implementing immunity passes (44%). Despite partisan differences on a range of surveillance measures, support for the government encouraging digital contact tracing is indistinguishable between Democrats (47%) and Republicans (46%), although more Republicans oppose the policy (39%) compared to Democrats (27%). Of the app features we tested in our conjoint analysis experiment, only one had statistically significant effects on the self-reported likelihood of downloading the app: decentralized data architecture increased the likelihood by 5.4 percentage points. CONCLUSION: Support for public health surveillance policies to curb the spread of COVID-19 is relatively low in the U.S. Contact tracing apps that use decentralized data storage, compared with those that use centralized data storage, are more accepted by the public. While respondents' support for expanding traditional contact tracing is greater than their support for the government encouraging the public to download and use contact tracing apps, there are smaller partisan differences in support for the latter policy.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/ética , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , /virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Percepção , Privacidade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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