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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256854, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469473

RESUMO

Volunteers have played an important role by supporting essential services that have been overwhelmed during the most critical moments of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Hence, nonprofit organizations may be interested in preventing negative consequences of these volunteers' exposure to potentially traumatic events. The aim of this cross-sectional study was twofold. First, to examine to what extent self-compassion and self-determination would contribute to differentiating between volunteers with different levels of compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and post-traumatic growth. Second, to identify the best predictors of the most extreme levels of each outcome. Participants were 211 Spanish Red Cross volunteers (60.7% women), who completed a survey. They were separately classified into three groups (low, medium, and high) according to the 33rd and 66th percentile scores on each outcome (compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and post-traumatic growth). Univariate analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons revealed that self-compassion and self-determination contributed differently to distinguishing between levels of each outcome. Volunteers lowest in compassion fatigue stood out for showing fewer non-compassionate strategies and more mindfulness than the other groups. Moreover, those higher in satisfaction compassion also showed lower use of unhealthy strategies and higher scores in all other predictive variables. Volunteers highest in post-traumatic growth showed higher self-kindness and satisfaction of all psychological needs. Binary logistic regressions allowed for the identification of predictors of belonging to the most extreme groups. The protective factors may be useful to guide volunteers' self-care and help them thrive in the face of critical service demands.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fadiga por Compaixão , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Voluntários/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211029793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424792

RESUMO

Strong lockdowns to control COVID-19 pandemic have been enforced globally and strongly restricted social activities with consequent negative effects on mental health. Japan has effectively implemented a unique voluntary policy to control COVID-19, but the mental health impact of the policy has not been examined on a large scale. In this study, we examined the effect of the first declaration on the mental health of affected residents. We used population-level questionnaire data of 17,400 people living under the state of emergency and 9208 who were not through a social-networking-service app and applied a difference-in-differences regression model to estimate the causal effect of the declaration of the state of emergency on psychological wellbeing, stratified by job category. No statistically significant effect of the declaration was observed among all job categories. This suggests that residents' psychological situation has gradually changed, possibly influenced by other factors such as the surrounding environment, rather than the declaration itself. Given that Japan has a unique policy to control COVID-19 instead of a strict lockdown, our results showed the Japanese-style policy may serve as a form of harm reduction strategy, to control the epidemic with minimal psychological harm, and enable a policy that balances disease control and mental health. Caution is necessary that this study used self-reported data from a limited time period before and after the first declaration in April 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Aplicativos Móveis , Rede Social
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444883

RESUMO

The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. In total, 52% of study participants reported weight gain, with a higher prevalence observed among kindergarten and elementary school teachers when compared to high school teachers (p < 0.05). Deviations in physical activity, emotional eating, and dietary patterns were assessed among 129 teachers (using the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire, and a short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively) to uncover possible associations with the observed weight gain. Increases in sedentariness (p < 0.005), emotional eating (p < 0.001), the consumption of potatoes, fries, breads, cheese, cake (p < 0.05), chips, candy, ice-cream, and soft drinks (p < 0.005) were all positively correlated with weight gain. Decreases in exercise frequency (p < 0.001), and the consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and beans (p < 0.005), were also positively correlated with weight gain. Weight gain, observed among teachers during school closures, was associated with changes in diet, emotional eating and physical activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatr Pol ; 55(3): 497-509, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess anxiety among Poles between the 35th and the 42nd day after the introduction of the state of epidemiological threat, and to compare the obtained results with global reports and the pre-pandemic state. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2,457 respondents from Poland. The research methods comprised an original survey questionnaire, distributed via the Internet from 17 to 24 April 2020, assessing the sociodemographic state, and standardized psychometric tools: the Beck Depression Inventory, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7) and Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. RESULTS: The results of 71% of the respondents indicated the presence of anxiety symptoms with various degrees of severity. In 45% of the respondents, the total score was ≥10 points, indicating signs of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Female respondents scored significantly higher than men. Place of residence, marital status and the type of performed work had no statistically significant impact on the level of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the mental condition of Poles, resulting in increased anxiety, fear and concerns regarding the future. 71% of the respondents showed different degrees of anxiety severity, and 44% of them scored at least 10 points in the GAD-7 scale, which indicates the presence of signs of Generalized Anxiety. There is a great need to provide Poles with mental support during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Quarentena/psicologia
6.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(1): 51-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the effect of quarantine caused by COVID-19 on people's mental health and social trust. METHOD: In this study, the sample size covers 2919 people in the southwest of Iran that was selected cluster sample method and was evaluated online using tools of social trust and a checklist of mental disorder syndrome. RESULTS: Due to the results, COVID-19 affected all people's mental health negatively, but there was a significant difference between the rates of COVID-19 caused anxiety and the dimensions of the psychological problems and social trust different between men and women and married and single people, and also the education level. There was no significant relationship between any of the demographic variables and social trust variables, corona anxiety, and dimensions of psychological problems. And there was a negative and significant relationship between the dimensions of social trust and the dimensions of psychological problems. Moreover, the social trust rate in the subjects was desirable. Based on the results and the cutoff point of 2.5 as a border of healthy and unhealthy psychological dimensions, 4.5% had pathological anxiety, 7.3% had pathological depression, 5% had aggression, and 5.9 % had pathological obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depression had the highest scores, and aggression had the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Due to this study's results, policymakers should consider measures that should be taken in crisis to support all people, especially vulnerable people in psychological, economic, social, spiritual, and psychological fields. On the other hand, the government must train the public through the mass media to cope with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347810

RESUMO

Behavioral epidemiology suggests that there is a tight dynamic coupling between the timeline of an epidemic outbreak, and the social response in the affected population (with a typical course involving physical distancing between individuals, avoidance of large gatherings, wearing masks, etc). We study the bidirectional coupling between the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 and the population social response in the state of New York, between March 1, 2020 (which marks the first confirmed positive diagnosis in the state), until June 20, 2020. This window captures the first state-wide epidemic wave, which peaked to over 11,000 confirmed cases daily in April (making New York one of the US states most severely affected by this first wave), and subsided by the start of June to a count of consistently under 1,500 confirmed cases per day (suggesting temporary state-wide control of the epidemic). In response to the surge in cases, social distancing measures were gradually introduced over two weeks in March, culminating with the PAUSE directive on March 22nd, which mandated statewide shutdown of all nonessential activity. The mandates were then gradually relaxed in stages throughout summer, based on how epidemic benchmarks were met in various New York regions. In our study, we aim to examine on one hand, whether different counties exhibited different responses to the PAUSE centralized measures depending on their epidemic situation immediately preceding PAUSE. On the other hand, we explore whether these different county-wide responses may have contributed in turn to modulating the counties' epidemic timelines. We used the public domain to extract county-wise epidemic measures (such as cumulative and daily incidence of COVID-19), and social mobility measures for different modalities (driving, walking, public transit) and to different destinations. Our correlation analyses between the epidemic and the mobility time series found significant correlations between the size of the epidemic and the degree of mobility drop after PAUSE, as well as between the mobility comeback patterns and the epidemic recovery timeline. In line with existing literature on the role of the population behavioral response during an epidemic outbreak, our results support the potential importance of the PAUSE measures to the control of the first epidemic wave in New York State.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Controle de Infecções , Surtos de Doenças , Epidemias , História do Século XXI , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Programas Obrigatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Máscaras , New York/epidemiologia , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347842

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in quarantine/lockdown measures in most countries. Quarantine may create intense psychological problems including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) especially for the vulnerable critically developing children/adolescents. Few studies evaluated PTSD associated with infectious disasters but no Saudi study investigated PTSD associated with COVID-19 in children/adolescents. This study was undertaken to screen for PTSD in children/adolescent in Saudi Arabia to identify its prevalence/risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic and its quarantine. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted after 2 months form start of quarantine for COVID-19 pandemic utilizing the original English version and an Arabic translated version for the University of California at Los Angeles Brief COVID-19 Screen for Child/Adolescent PTSD that can be parent-reported or self-completed by older children/adolescents. Participants (Saudi citizens/non-Saudi residents) were approached online via social media. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty seven participants were enrolled. The participants were 262 boys and 275 girls with a mean age of 12.25±3.77 years. Symptoms of no, minimal, mild and potential PTSD were identified in 15.5%, 44.1%, 27.4% and 13.0% of children/adolescents, respectively. The age, gender, school grade, and residence were not predictive of PTSD symptoms. Univariate analysis of risk factors for PTSD revealed that work of a close relative around people who might be infected was significantly different between groups of PTSD symptoms, but this difference disappeared during multivariate analysis. Children/adolescents of Saudi citizens had significantly lower median total PTSD score than children/adolescents of expatriate families (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: PTSD associated with the COVID-19 and its resultant quarantine shouldn't be overlooked in different populations as it is expected in a considerable proportion of children/adolescents with variable prevalence, risk factors and severity. Parents/healthcare providers must be aware of PTSD associated with COVID-19 or similar disasters, so, they can provide children/adolescent with effective coping mechanisms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Psicologia da Criança , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253944, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: On February 26th 2020, a high alert was issued in Sweden in response to the diagnosis of the first few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the country. Subsequently, a decreased supply of essential goods, including medical products, was anticipated. We aimed to explore the weekly patterns of prescription dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication sales in Sweden in 2020 compared with previous years, to assess the influence of the government restrictions on medication sales, and to assess whether there is evidence of medication stockpiling in the population. METHODS: Aggregated data on the weekly volume of defined daily doses (DDDs) of prescription medication dispensed and OTC sales from 2015 to 2020 were examined. From 2015-2019 data, the predicted weekly volume of DDDs for 2020 was estimated and compared to the observed volume for each ATC anatomical main group and therapeutic subgroup. RESULTS: From mid-February to mid-March 2020, there were increases in the weekly volumes of dispensed medication, peaking in the second week of March with a 46% increase in the observed versus predicted number of DDDs dispensed (16,440 vs 11,260 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants). A similar pattern was found in all age groups, in both sexes, and across metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. In the same week in March, there was a 96% increase in the volume of OTC sold (2,504 vs 1,277 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants), specifically in ATC therapeutic subgroups including vitamins, antipyretics, painkillers, and nasal, throat, cough and cold preparations. CONCLUSION: Beginning in mid-February 2020, there were significant changes in the volume of prescription medication dispensed and OTC drugs sold. The weekly volume of DDDs quickly decreased following recommendations from public authorities. Overall, our findings suggest stockpiling behavior over a surge in new users of medication.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Quarentena/economia , Quarentena/psicologia , Suécia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Separating ill or possibly infectious people from their healthy community is one of the core principles of non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, there is scarce evidence on how to successfully implement quarantine orders. We investigated a community quarantine for an entire village in Germany (Neustadt am Rennsteig, March 2020) with the aim of better understanding the successful implementation of quarantine measures. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Neustadt am Rennsteig six weeks after the end of a 14-day mandatory community quarantine. The sample size consisted of 562 adults (64% of the community), and the response rate was 295 adults, or 52% (33% of the community). FINDINGS: National television was reported as the most important channel of information. Contact with local authorities was very limited, and partners or spouses played a more important role in sharing information. Generally, the self-reported information level was judged to be good (211/289 [73.0%]). The majority of participants (212/289 [73.4%]) approved of the quarantine, and the reported compliance was 217/289 (75.1%). A self-reported higher level of concern as well as a higher level of information correlated positively with both a greater acceptance of quarantine and self-reported compliant behaviour. INTERPRETATION: The community quarantine presented a rare opportunity to investigate a public health intervention for an entire community. In order to improve the implementation of public health interventions, public health risk communication activities should be intensified to increase both the information level (potentially leading to better compliance with community quarantine) and the communication level (to facilitate rapport and trust between public health authorities and their communities).


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388225

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis with broad social and economic consequences. We conducted four surveys between April and August 2020 using the graph-based open-ended survey (GOS) framework, and investigated the most pressing concerns and issues for the general public in Japan. The GOS framework is a hybrid of the two traditional survey frameworks that allows respondents to post their opinions in a free-format style, which can subsequently serve as one of the choice items for other respondents, just as in a multiple-choice survey. As a result, this framework generates an opinion graph that relates opinions and respondents. We can also construct annotated opinion graphs to achieve a higher resolution. By clustering the annotated opinion graphs, we revealed the characteristic evolution of the response patterns as well as the interconnectedness and multi-faceted nature of opinions. Substantively, our notable finding is that "social pressure," not "infection risk," was one of the major concerns of our respondents. Social pressure refers to criticism and discrimination that they anticipate receiving from others should they contract COVID-19. It is possible that the collectivist nature of Japanese culture coupled with the government's policy of relying on personal responsibility to combat COVID-19 explains some of the above findings, as the latter has led to the emergence of vigilantes. The presence of mutual surveillance can contribute to growing skepticism toward others as well as fear of ostracism, which may have negative consequences at both the societal and individual levels.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Opinião Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Quarentena/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, agosto 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281045

RESUMO

La Subcomisión de Derechos del Niño y el Comité de Pediatría Social, de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, realizaron un trabajo de campo que permitiera dar voz a nuestros niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) durante la cuarentena y el aislamiento social obligatorio impuestos en nuestro país por la pandemia mundial por la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Los objetivos fueron relevar el impacto sobre sus sentimientos, emociones y deseos; evaluar y comparar las repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales antes, durante y después de la cuarentena; e identificar las necesidades de apoyo y contención.Los resultados de la investigación permiten afirmar que los niños han sido los más afectados y los menos escuchados. La cuarentena ha tenido un enorme impacto individual, social y familiar en los NNA, y reclama un abordaje holístico, comprometido y mancomunado de la sociedad civil, las familias, los profesionales de la salud, los docentes y las autoridades políticas.


The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs.The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Percepção , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Emoções , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Saúde do Adolescente , Distanciamento Físico , Direitos Humanos
13.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 89: 128-133, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2020 the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic imposed a total and sudden lockdown. We aimed to investigate the consequences of the first COVID-19 lockdown (mid-March - mid-April 2020) on motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in a cohort of French people with Parkinson's disease (PwP). METHODS: PwP were enrolled either by an on-line survey sent from the national France Parkinson association (FP) to reach the French community of PwP or as part of outpatients' telemedicine visits followed by an hospital-based Parkinson Expert Center (PEC). All patients were evaluated using the same standardized questionnaire assessing motor and NMS (including a list of most disabling, new or worsened symptoms and Patient's Global Impression-Improvement scales [PGI-I]) psycho-social queries and quality of life. RESULTS: 2653 PwP were included: 441 (16.6%) in the PEC group and 2122 (83.4%) in the community-based group. Physiotherapy was interrupted among 88.6% of the patients. 40.9% referred a clinical modification of their symptoms. Based on the questionnaire, pain (9.3%), rigidity (9.1%) and tremor (8.5%) were the three most frequently new or worsened reported symptoms. Based on the PGI-I, the motor symptoms were the most affected domain, followed by pain and psychic state. PwP in community-based group tended to have more frequent worsening for motor symptoms, motor complications, pain and confusion than those of the PEC group. CONCLUSIONS: The first COVID-19 lockdown had a negative impact on motor and NMS of PwP. Efforts should be allocated to avoid interruption of care, including physiotherapy and physical activities and implement telemedicine. .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , França , Humanos , Rigidez Muscular/epidemiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena/psicologia , Consulta Remota , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina , Tremor/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMO

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Quarentena/psicologia , Espanha
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255783

RESUMO

Reopening amid the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a battle on social media. The supporters perceived that the lockdown policy could damage the economy and exacerbate social inequality. By contrast, the opponents believed it was necessary to contain the spread and ensure a safe environment for recovery. Anatomy into the battle is of importance to address public concerns, beliefs, and values, thereby enabling policymakers to determine the appropriate solutions to implement reopening policy. To this end, we investigated over 1.5 million related Twitter postings from April 17 to May 30, 2020. With the aid of natural language processing (NLP) techniques and machine learning classifiers, we classified each tweet into either a "supporting" or "opposing" class and then investigated the public perception from temporal and spatial perspectives. From the temporal dimension, we found that both political and scientific news that were extensively discussed on Twitter led to the perception of opposing reopening. Further, being the first mover with full reopen adversely affected the public reaction to reopening policy, while being the follower or late mover resulted in positive responses. From the spatial dimension, the correlation and regression analyses suggest that the state-level perception was very likely to be associated with political affiliation and health value.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Política , Análise Espaço-Temporal
16.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255804

RESUMO

The Chilean health authorities have implemented a sanitary strategy known as dynamic quarantine or strategic quarantine to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Under this system, lockdowns were established, lifted, or prolonged according to the weekly health authorities' assessment of municipalities' epidemiological situation. The public announcements about the confinement situation of municipalities country-wide are made typically on Tuesdays or Wednesdays before noon, have received extensive media coverage, and generated sharp stock market fluctuations. Municipalities are the smallest administrative division in Chile, with each city broken down typically into several municipalities. We analyze social media behavior in response to the confinement situation of the population at the municipal level. The dynamic quarantine scheme offers a unique opportunity for our analysis, given that municipalities display a high degree of heterogeneity, both in size and in the socioeconomic status of their population. We exploit the variability over time in municipalities' confinement situations, resulting from the dynamic quarantine strategy, and the cross-sectional variability in their socioeconomic characteristics to evaluate the impact of these characteristics on social sentiment. Using event study and panel data methods, we find that proxies for social sentiment based on Twitter queries are negatively related (more pessimistic) to increases in the number of confined people, but with a statistically significant effect concentrated on people from the wealthiest cohorts of the population. For indicators of social sentiment based on Google Trends, we found that search intensity during the periods surrounding government announcements is positively related to increases in the total number of confined people. Still, this effect does not seem to be dependent on the segments of the population affected by the quarantine. Furthermore, we show that the observed heterogeneity in sentiment mirrors heterogeneity in stock market reactions to government announcements. We provide evidence that the observed stock market behavior around quarantine announcements can be explained by the number of people from the wealthiest segments of the population entering or exiting lockdown.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Relações Públicas , Quarentena/organização & administração , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(8): 896-897, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196670

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging vision scientists who have yet to be awarded their first independent funding may have their research careers disproportionately affected by early COVID-19-related disruptions. In September 2020, the Alliance for Eye and Vision Research convened a panel of 22 such scientists (nominated by their academic institutions) to communicate to the US Congress about the importance of vision research. As part of the effort, interviews were conducted with scientists about the effect of the pandemic on their research. Observations: Qualitative areas of adverse consequences from the early months of COVID-19 disruptions included striking interruptions of patient-based research, limits on other types of clinical research, loss of research time for scientists with young children (especially women), challenges with animal colonies and cell cultures, impediments to research collaborations, and loss of training time. Conclusions and Relevance: The early months during the COVID-19 pandemic increased career stress on many early-stage investigators in the vision field and delayed (and may potentially derail) their ability to attract their first independent research funding grant. As a result, federal and private granting agencies may need to take these factors into account to retain talented, early-stage vision researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/complicações , Escolha da Profissão , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmologia/educação , Quarentena/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, 2021 08.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309324

RESUMO

The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs. The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Emoções , Percepção , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Argentina , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Distanciamento Físico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320025

RESUMO

The entire world has suffered a lot since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2019, so simulation models of COVID-19 dynamics are urgently needed to understand and control the pandemic better. Meanwhile, emotional contagion, the spread of vigilance or panic, serves as a negative feedback to the epidemic, but few existing models take it into consideration. In this study, we proposed an innovative multi-layer hybrid modelling and simulation approach to simulate disease transmission and emotional contagion together. In each layer, we used a hybrid simulation method combining agent-based modelling (ABM) with system dynamics modelling (SDM), keeping spatial heterogeneity while reducing computation costs. We designed a new emotion dynamics model IWAN (indifferent, worried, afraid and numb) to simulate emotional contagion inside a community during an epidemic. Our model was well fit to the data of China, the UK and the US during the COVID-19 pandemic. If there weren't emotional contagion, our experiments showed that the confirmed cases would increase rapidly, for instance, the total confirmed cases during simulation in Guangzhou, China would grow from 334 to 2096, which increased by 528%. We compared the calibrated emotional contagion parameters of different countries and found that the suppression effect of emotional contagion in China is relatively more visible than that in the US and the UK. Due to the experiment results, the proposed multi-layer network model with hybrid simulation is valid and can be applied to the quantitative analysis of the epidemic trends and the suppression effect of emotional contagion in different countries. Our model can be modified for further research to study other social factors and intervention policies in the COVID-19 pandemic or future epidemics.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças , Regulação Emocional , Emoções , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Pânico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sistemas
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242318

RESUMO

A broad body of scientific literature exists on the effects that COVID-19 related confinement has had on the population: mental health problems, isolation, and problems concerning cohesion and employment, among others. However, there is a gap in the literature on the actions that reverse some of the effects generated during lockdown. This article collects the results of a study conducted with 53 people participating in a dialogic gathering of films (DGF) that was held online during two months of confinement. The data from the survey show that the development of this DGF generated improvements in 1) personal welfare and attitudes concerning the management of confinement, 2) living together and online relationships, 3) motivation and creativity in the professional domain, and 4) openness to a diversity of perspectives and realities, which improves the understanding, argumentation and positioning in social, scientific and ethical debates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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