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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
2.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 68(3): 283-296, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221792

RESUMO

Objectives: During their domestic quarantine, Covid-19 patients face major physical, psychological and social challenges. The description of support needs and specific topics brought to supportive conversations will be used to add to the body of knowledge about stressors and resources. Methods: A total of 109 telephone conversations with 69 quarantined Corona patients were documented by psychotherapists and physicians at Heidelberg University Hospital from November 2020 to April 2021. Subsequently, clinical documentations were analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis. Results: Most physical complaints related to cardio-respiratory symptoms (29 %), previous illnesses (24 %), and exhaustion or fatigue (16 %). On the psychological level, patients reported mainly anxiety (31 %) and depressive symptoms (16 %). On a social level, patients described stress related to family (56 %), work (20 %), and time in quarantine (16 %). Social support, individual coping strategies, a positive prognosis on the course of the corona disease, psychotherapy, and satisfactory medical care were mentioned as relieving factors. Therapeutic interventions aimed at stabilization and consisted of psychoeducation, relaxation techniques, and general counseling. Conclusions: The study shows that physical complaints, psychological symptoms, and social factors are brought into telephone support conversations. The support offer met a high demand and was well accepted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos , Quarentena/psicologia , Telefone
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231637

RESUMO

Due to the evolution of COVID-19,restrictive measures were implemented. The quarantine resulted in significant changes in the social, economic, and psychological status of the population; however, its long-term effects have not yet been elucidated, especially in young adults. In the present study, people aged 18-25 years were studied, in relation to their sleeping, smoking, eating, and drinking habits and their physical activity before, during, and after the implementation of quarantine. We included 540 respondents (21.2 ± 2.3 years, 62.8% female). During quarantine, from 23 March to 4 May 2020, we observed an increase in sleep hours by 1.17 ± 1.98 h (p < 0.001), time of sleep arrival by 11.90 ± 30.41 min (p < 0.001), and number of daily meals by 0.66 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). The subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages never or almost never had an upward change of 27.04%, and the time of daily exercise was reduced by 10.16 ± 48.68 min (p < 0.001). After quarantine, cigarettes per day increased by 1.14 ± 3.62 (p < 0.001) and the awakenings during night time increased by 0.37 ± 1.93 (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the quarantine brought about significant changes in smoking, sleeping habits, physical activity, dietary habits, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, some of which continue after its termination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Sono , Qualidade do Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16484, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182966

RESUMO

The Austrian government imposed multiple major lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the relevant measures and their perceptions varied over time. The aim of this study was to compare the over-time impacts of the three COVID-19 lockdowns between March 2020 and December 2021 for (capability) wellbeing and mental health in Austria. Adult Austrian residents (n = 87) completed an online survey about their experiences during three COVID-19 lockdowns, including capabilities (OxCAP-MH), depression and anxiety (HADS), and general wellbeing (WHO-5). Differences across the baseline and follow-up scores of these instruments were summarised by demographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Longitudinal comparisons of the impacts of the lockdowns were conducted using random effect models on panel data for overall instrument scores and individual capability items. The levels of (capability) wellbeing and mental health decreased for most respondents across the three lockdowns: average 2.4% reduction in OxCAP-MH scores, 18.8% and 9% increases in HADS depression and anxiety subscale scores respectively, and 19.7% reduction in WHO-5 score between the first and third lockdowns. Mental health treatment prior to the pandemic, social support and satisfaction with government measures were the most influential characteristics that determine the association with impacts of the chain of lockdowns. Our study is the first to assess the differential capability limiting aspects of lockdowns over time alongside their impacts on mental health and general wellbeing and calls for special attention for mental health patients, isolation and satisfaction with government measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 301-306, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anxiety can be related to reduced diet quality during pandemics such as COVID-19. However, it is not clear whether these relationships would be similar in inactive and physically active participants. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between anxiety and eating habits in physically active and inactive individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1826 adults (58.5% women) who were invited through social media to answer an online questionnaire. The instrument included questions related to physical activity, eating habits, health behavior, mental health (anxiety, depression, self-esteem, sadness and stress) and overall health. Anxiety, food habits (high food habits consumption ≥5 times per week) and physical activity (≥150 min per week) were assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between anxiety and eating habits according to levels of physical activity (inactive vs. active) was assessed using binary logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, education level, social isolation, and body mass index. RESULTS: Among the inactive participants, anxiety was related with high consumption of sweets (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.11-1.83) and fast foods (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.05-4.74) while quarantining during the COVID-19 pandemic. No relationship was observed between anxiety and food consumption among physically active participants in the final model. CONCLUSION: Anxiety was associated with less desirable eating habits among physically inactive adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 966522, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091061

RESUMO

Prenatal stress can affect pregnant women in an epigenetic way during the critical period of conception of their offspring. The study aims to investigate the relationship between peritraumatic distress, prenatal perceived stress, depression, and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) DNA methylation among pregnant women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown in China. Study data were collected from 30 pregnant women in Wuhan and Huanggang, China. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory was used to measure peritraumatic distress, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure perceived stress. DNA methylation in the exon 1F promoter region of NR3C1 gene from the venous blood mononuclear cell genome was characterized by bisulfite sequencing. Correlation and linear regression were used for data analysis. The mean level of peritraumatic distress, perceived stress, and depression was 6.30 (SD = 5.09), 6.50 (SD = 5.41), and 6.60 (SD = 4.85), respectively, with 23.33% of pregnant women being depressed. The mean NR3C1 methylation was 0.65 (SD = 0.22). Prenatal depression was positively correlated with the degree of methylation in venous blood from the mother (r = 0.59, p = 0.001), and depression predicted methylation of NR3C1 gene at the CpG 8 site (ß = 0.05, p = 0.03). No association was found between peritraumatic distress as well as perceived stress and methylation of NR3C1. NR3C1 gene was susceptible to epigenetic modification of DNA methylation in the context of prenatal stress, and maternal depression was associated with increased NR3C1 methylation among women who experienced COVID-19 lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Complicações na Gravidez , Quarentena , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275248, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia enforced extremely rigorous contact tracing and mandatory quarantine for all suspected contact and travelers entering the country for a period of 14-days duration during the early phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. Several studies investigated the experience of quarantined people because of COVID-19 or previous outbreaks. However, quarantine is often perceived differently in different cultures because of its historical association with class, gender, ethnicity, politics, and prejudices. To our knowledge, there is limited literature on quarantine experience in Ethiopia related to either COVID-19 or other infectious diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore quarantine experience of people in Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia during early phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study implemented an exploratory qualitative research design using a phenomenological approach. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively recruited 29 respondents. Digitally recorded audio files have been listened to several times and verbatim transcriptions were done. The transcribed narratives were examined independently and content analysis was carried out through reading and re-reading the verbatim several times, open coding, grouping, categorizing, and abstracting the final themes. RESULTS: Three broad themes were identified and characterized the experiences of quarantined people due to COVID-19. These themes were a) handling of the suspected person, b) adverse effects of quarantine and c) coping strategies. In addition, quarantine refusals; injustice in quarantine; quarantine errors; psychological distress; physiological changes; social effects; financial losses; personal and social coping strategies were the emerged sub-themes. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored a range of complex experiences of quarantined people because of the COVID-19 outbreak in SNNPR. The quarantined people included in this study were adversely affected psychologically, physiologically, socially, and economically. They also experienced quarantine errors and injustice. There is a need to gather clear justification for close contact before forcing the suspect for mandatory quarantine. In addition, there is a need to develop risk communication strategy to approach suspected contacts for quarantine. Moreover, assessing psychological, physiological, social, and economic impacts of quarantine on the individuals while they are in quarantine and after release could be important. The use of personal and social coping strategies including psychosocial support may lessen the adverse impacts of the quarantine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quarentena/psicologia
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 386, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114180

RESUMO

Stress exposure during pregnancy is critically linked with maternal mental health and child development. The effects might involve altered patterns of DNA methylation in specific stress-related genes (i.e., glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, and serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4) and might be moderated by the gestational timing of stress exposure. In this study, we report on NR3C1 and SLC6A4 methylation status in Italian mothers and infants who were exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown during different trimesters of pregnancy. From May 2020 to February 2021, 283 mother-infant dyads were enrolled at delivery. Within 24 h from delivery, buccal cells were collected to assess NR3C1 (44 CpG sites) and SLC6A4 (13 CpG sites) methylation status. Principal component (PC) analyses were used to reduce methylation data dimension to one PC per maternal and infant gene methylation. Mother-infant dyads were split into three groups based on the pregnancy trimester (first, second, third), during which they were exposed to the COVID-19 lockdown. Mothers and infants who were exposed to the lockdown during the first trimester of pregnancy had lower NR3C1 and SLC6A4 methylation when compared to counterparts exposed during the second or third trimesters. The effect remained significant after controlling for confounders. Women who were pregnant during the pandemic and their infants might present altered epigenetic biomarkers of stress-related genes. As these epigenetic marks have been previously linked with a heightened risk of maternal psychiatric problems and less-than-optimal child development, mothers and infants should be adequately monitored for psychological health during and after the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epigênese Genética , Quarentena , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Quarentena/psicologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1806, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key feature of the global public health response to contain and slow the spread of COVID-19 has been community-based quarantine and self-isolation. As part of The Optimise Study, this research sought to understand the factors that influence people's ability to undertake home-based quarantine and isolation to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative phone interviews (n = 25) were conducted by telephone with people who participated in community-based quarantine in Australia before 31 March 2020. The Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour model was used to conduct a thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants required clear, accessible and trusted information to guide them in home-based quarantine and isolation. A sense of social responsibility and belief in the efficacy of the restrictions to reduce viral transmission aided their motivation. Access to essential needs, supportive living environments, and emotional support were required to adhere to restrictions, but few were prepared. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that in addition to having the capability and motivation to adhere to restrictions, it is vital that people are also encouraged to prepare for the challenge to ensure access to physical, social and emotional support. Findings also illustrate the importance of engaging communities in planning and preparedness for quarantine and self-isolation public health responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Austrália , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Motivação , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/psicologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13175, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915133

RESUMO

Forced quarantine and nationwide lockdowns have been a primary response by many jurisdictions in their attempt at COVID-19 elimination or containment, yet the associated mental health burden is not fully understood. Using an eight country cross-sectional design, this study investigates the association between COVID-19 induced quarantine and/or isolation on probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive episode (MDE) psychological outcomes approximately eight months after the pandemic was declared. Overall, 9027 adults participated, and 2937 (32.5%) were indicated with GAD and/or MDE. Reported quarantine and/or isolation was common, with 1199 (13.8%) confined for travel or health requirements, 566 (6.5%) for being close contact, 720 (8.3%) for having COVID-19 symptoms, and 457 (5.3%) for being COVID-19 positive. Compared to those not quarantining or isolating, the adjusted estimated relative risks of GAD and/or MDE associated with quarantine and/or isolation was significant (p < 0.001), ranging from 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 1.43) for travel/health to 1.37 (95% CI 1.19, 1.59) for COVID-19 symptom isolation reasons. While almost universally employed, quarantine and/or isolation is associated with a heavy mental health toll. Preventive strategies are needed, such as minimizing time-limits imposed and providing clear rationale and information, together with additional treatment and rehabilitation resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011800

RESUMO

This study explores how windows with a green view might affect the mental health (i.e., depressive/anxiety symptoms) of home-isolated populations. An online survey was conducted among 508 adults isolated under government quarantine policies for COVID-19 emergency pandemic control between 10 and 20 January 2022 in Xi'an, China. Structural equation modeling was employed to identify the pathways from green view through windows to isolated people's depressive/anxiety symptoms. The relative frequency of plant/water exposure through windows was associated with fewer depressive/anxiety symptoms. Home-isolated people during COVID-19 reported better mental health when they were exposed to more natural settings. These findings could inspire public health authorities to adopt nature-based solutions to mitigate the adverse mental health consequences of isolated populations during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14514, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008441

RESUMO

We study how the Chilean population's well-being responded to the strategy implemented by their health authorities, known as Dynamic Quarantine, to contain the spread of coronavirus in which municipalities periodically entered and exited lockdowns. This unique scheme, together with the population's socioeconomic heterogeneity, facilitates the estimation of changes in this well-being as differentiated by socioeconomic status. Using Google Trends to compute measures of well-being, we find strong evidence that socioeconomic status induces heterogeneity in these changes; thus, neglecting this heterogeneity may lead to misleading prescriptions for the public policy that addresses the psychological effects of lockdowns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Chile/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Quarentena/psicologia , Ferramenta de Busca
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897455

RESUMO

Quarantine imposed due to COVID-19 infection can exacerbate psychological distress, and it is important for a public mental health agency to identify factors that are predictive of high psychological distress in such situation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender, age, and the presence or absence of infectious disease symptoms affected psychological distress among asymptomatic or mildly ill COVID-19 patients who were quarantined. Participants were 436 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19-infected patients who were quarantined in a treatment facility between 1 May 2020 and 30 September 2021. We used Quantification Theory I analysis to investigate the effects of gender, age, and the nature of infectious disease symptoms on psychological distress. The results of the analysis showed that the contribution rate was 0.06. Among gender, age, presence of symptoms, and the nature of symptoms, age had the greatest effect on psychological distress, and being in one's teens to thirties was considered to exacerbate psychological distress the most. According to the results, the psychological distress of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients isolated was affected by gender, age, and symptomology, especially due to age differences. However, the impact of these items on psychological distress was not considered significant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Quarentena/psicologia
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 126, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quarantine and isolation measures during COVID-19 pandemic may have caused additional stress and challenged the mental health of the youth. Aim of the study is to investigate the COVID-19 pandemic impact on neuropsychological disorders (NPD) of Italian children and adolescents to provide general pediatric recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective multicenter observational study was planned by the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP) to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the access of children to pediatric Emergency Departments (pED) for the evaluation of neuropsychological symptoms, collecting the classification codes of diagnoses between March 1, 2019 and March 2, 2021. The period study was split into two sub-periods: a pre COVID-19 period (from March 1 2019 to March 1, 2020) and a COVID-19 period (from March 2, 2020 to March 2, 2021). As additional information, data on NPD hospitalizations in any pediatric department of the involved centers were recorded. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 533,318 children were admitted to the pED involved in the study. Despite a 48.2% decline of pED admissions, there was a significant increase (83.1%) in patient admissions for NPD. The most frequent NPD conditions which increased during the COVID-19 pandemic were suicidal ideation (+ 147%), depression (+ 115%), eating disorder (+ 78.4%), and psychosis (+ 17.2%). During the pandemic period, a 39.5% increase in NPD hospitalizations was observed as well. The NPD disorders that mostly required hospitalizations were suicidal ideation (+ 134%), depression (+ 41.4%), eating disorder (+ 31.4%), and drug abuse (+ 26.7%). COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on children's health, mainly on their NPD development. Neuropsychological assessment should be required at the primary level, in the pediatrician's office, to facilitate early capture of the sign of impairment and provide an adequate treatment. CONCLUSION: SIP underlines the psychological consequences of COVID 19 pandemic on the youngest and recommends an early identification of NPD in the pediatric population to avoid other serious consequences for children's physical and mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia
15.
Nature ; 607(7919): 512-520, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794485

RESUMO

Social-evaluative stressors-experiences in which people feel they could be judged negatively-pose a major threat to adolescent mental health1-3 and can cause young people to disengage from stressful pursuits, resulting in missed opportunities to acquire valuable skills. Here we show that replicable benefits for the stress responses of adolescents can be achieved with a short (around 30-min), scalable 'synergistic mindsets' intervention. This intervention, which is a self-administered online training module, synergistically targets both growth mindsets4 (the idea that intelligence can be developed) and stress-can-be-enhancing mindsets5 (the idea that one's physiological stress response can fuel optimal performance). In six double-blind, randomized, controlled experiments that were conducted with secondary and post-secondary students in the United States, the synergistic mindsets intervention improved stress-related cognitions (study 1, n = 2,717; study 2, n = 755), cardiovascular reactivity (study 3, n = 160; study 4, n = 200), daily cortisol levels (study 5, n = 118 students, n = 1,213 observations), psychological well-being (studies 4 and 5), academic success (study 5) and anxiety symptoms during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns (study 6, n = 341). Heterogeneity analyses (studies 3, 5 and 6) and a four-cell experiment (study 4) showed that the benefits of the intervention depended on addressing both mindsets-growth and stress-synergistically. Confidence in these conclusions comes from a conservative, Bayesian machine-learning statistical method for detecting heterogeneous effects6. Thus, our research has identified a treatment for adolescent stress that could, in principle, be scaled nationally at low cost.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19 , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Cognição , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , Autoadministração , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
16.
Public Health ; 209: 52-60, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The non-pharmacological measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to considerable psychological distress. The aim of the CoCo-Fakt study was to investigate possible coping strategies and their effects on psychological distress during legally enforced quarantine of infected persons (IPs) and their close contacts (CPs). STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional cohort study. METHODS: From 12 December 2020 to 6 January 2021, all IPs and their CPs (n = 8232) registered by the public health department (Cologne, Germany) were surveyed online. Psychosocial distress and coping were measured using sum scores; free-text answers related to specific strategies were subsequently categorised. RESULTS: Psychosocial distress was higher in IPs than in CPs (P < .001). Although the mean coping score did not differ between both groups, it was influenced by the reason for quarantine (IP vs CP) besides gender, age, socio-economic status, living situation, psychological distress, resilience, physical activity and eating behaviour. This final regression model explained 25.9% of the variance. Most participants used active coping strategies, such as contact with the social environment, a positive attitude and hobbies. CONCLUSIONS: Although psychological distress was higher in IPs than in CPs during the quarantine period, the mean coping score did not differ. The strategies most frequently used by IPs and CPs were activating social networks, a healthy lifestyle and professional support systems, such as the health department helpline. Appropriate advice should be implemented to prevent long-term psychological consequences when supporting affected people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
17.
Appetite ; 176: 106104, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 Pandemic resulted in high levels of fear, anxiety, and stress. People with pre-existing physical and mental health conditions may have been more affected by the sudden changes in daily habits during the initial months of global quarantine imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We designed the Quarantine, Anxiety, and Diet (QUAD) Survey to investigate the effect of pre-existing health conditions on the relationship of COVID-19 stress and food behavior. The anonymous survey was distributed online and only adults were eligible to participate. RESULTS: The results showed that responders with pre-existing health conditions differed from healthy participants in eating behavior during this time of stress. Compared to those classified as healthy, fewer people with pre-existing physical illness showed an increase in appetite with stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Responders with pre-existing psychiatric illness were more likely to show increases or decreases in appetite with stress compared to healthy responders. Furthermore, higher BMI was associated with higher rate of increased appetite, whereas low BMI showed a higher rate of decreased appetite, both compared to normal BMI. CONCLUSION: The QUAD Survey demonstrated that individuals with pre-COVID-19 psychiatric conditions are at a higher risk of maladaptive food behavior under stress. Since pre-existing psychiatric illnesses and acute stressors are known risk factors for eating disorders, special attention should be placed on those at risk to mediate the psychological and physical effects of stress and anxiety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Apetite , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 877424, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692309

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have investigated how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted children's lifestyle. To our knowledge, this is the first study that assesses the impact of quarantine on physical activity, screen time, sleep, and diet in children aged 5 to 12 in Qatar. Methods: Cross-sectional data from an online survey distributed in Qatar was analyzed. The survey measured the parents' or caregivers' assessment on the change in the child's physical activity, sleep, screen time, and diet between the two periods (before quarantine and during quarantine). The data was analyzed using frequency distributions, paired t-test and McNemar's test. Results: Data from 144 respondents were analyzed. Due to the quarantine, the total weekly average hours of physical activity significantly decreased with a greatest reduction for the school and after school durations. Only 4.5% of the children were engaging in at least 60 minutes of physical activity per day (in contrast to 25.6% prior to quarantine). The reported barriers for physical activity were screen time for school (52.8%) and leisure (51.4%). There was a significant increase in the total number of main meals per day, with a higher consumption of unhealthy food. The majority of the children had their bedtime and waketime shifted to later because of the quarantine. The parents' or caregivers' satisfaction with the child's lifestyle during quarantine showed that 49.1% were disappointed or very disappointed. Also, 53.8% described their child's mental health as "better before quarantine." Conclusions: Quarantine had a negative impact on the lifestyle of children in Qatar. When implementing restrictions, authorities should consider some interventions to counterpart such impact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Catar/epidemiologia , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 235, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668067

RESUMO

Mandatory quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic had substantial negative consequences on psychological health in the general population. Depression, anxiety, and insomnia were reported to increase the morbidity and mortality risk in cardiac patients after cardiac interventions. Nonetheless, a gap in the evidence appeared regarding the effects of COVID-19-related quarantine on psychological outcomes in patients after cardiac interventions. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the effects of quarantine on depressive, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms in a group of patients who underwent cardiac intervention. Seventy-three patients admitted for cardiac rehabilitation completed a psychological assessment before and a reassessment after the quarantine and were included in the quarantine group. The control group included 76 patients who completed both evaluations before the quarantine. Depressive (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI-II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory-II; BAI), and insomnia (Sleep Condition Indicator; SCI) symptoms were evaluated in both groups at one (assessment) and eight (reassessment) months after cardiac intervention. The statistical analyses revealed that at reassessment, the quarantine group showed higher global depressive, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms than the control group and increased cognitive symptoms of depression. A higher presence of clinically relevant depressed patients was seen in the quarantine group. The present results showed that the COVID-19-related mandatory quarantine negatively affected psychological outcomes in patients after cardiac intervention, increasing the probability for these patients to be depressed. This, in turn, could influence patients' health in a critical period for morbidity and mortality risk. This underlines the priority of integrating and improving targeted mental health support as the pandemic continues, especially for cardiac patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
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